Duke Homestead and Tobacco Factory
Duke Homestead State Historic Site is a state historic site and National Historic Landmark in Durham, North Carolina. The site belongs to the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural resources and commemorates the place where Washington Duke founded the nation's largest early-20th-century tobacco firm, the American Tobacco Company; the Duke Homestead was built about 1852 by Washington Duke, on a farm, about 300 acres in size when the American Civil War broke out. During the war, the property was, like many others, looted by Union Army. With little left beyond a small supply of tobacco, the family shifted from tobacco farming to tobacco processing, introducing cigarettes in 1881 to compete with loose-leaf tobacco; this property is where the Dukes did their early tobacco processing moving into downtown Durham in 1874. The Duke business was incorporated as the American Tobacco Company in 1890, was the largest tobacco company in the world until an antitrust suit broke it up in 1911. In 1931, the farm was purchased by Duke University, in 1966, the Duke Homestead was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.
It became a North Carolina State Historic Site in 1974, administered by the North Carolina State Division of Archives and History. The property now consists of more than 40 acres of the original Duke lands, on which stand the original Duke Homestead and several barn-like "factory" structures in which the Dukes cured and packed their tobacco; the first building in which they worked, a log barn, was destroyed by fire, was reconstructed in 1931. Today, the site is a museum where tourists can view the restored 1852 Duke Homestead with four furnished rooms, tobacco barns and various artifacts; the visitor center features the Tobacco Museum, with exhibits about tobacco farming and the history of tobacco. Various readings and presentations are available in the Visitor Center. List of National Historic Landmarks in North Carolina National Register of Historic Places listings in Durham County, North Carolina Duke Homestead and Tobacco Museum Duke Homestead - North Carolina State Historic Sites
New Bern, North Carolina
New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 29,524, which had risen to an estimated 30,242 as of 2013, it is the county seat of Craven County and the principal city of the New Bern Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located at the confluence near the North Carolina coast, it lies 112 miles east of Raleigh, 87 miles northeast of Wilmington, 162 miles south of Norfolk. New Bern is the birthplace of Pepsi. New Bern was settled in 1710 by Bernese and Palatine immigrants under the auspices of Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg; the new colonists named their settlement after Bern, home state of their patron. The English connection with Switzerland had been established by some Marian exiles who sought refuge in Protestant parts of Switzerland. There were marriages between the Royal House of Stuart and notable people in the history of Calvinism; the colonists discovered they had started their settlement on the site of a former Tuscarora village named Chattoka.
This caused conflicts with the Tuscaroras. New Bern is the second-oldest European settled colonial town in North Carolina, after Bath, it served as the capital of the North Carolina colonial government briefly as the state capital. After the American Revolution, New Bern became wealthy and developed a rich cultural life. At one time New Bern was called "the Athens of the South," renowned for its Masonic Temple and Athens Theater; these are both still active today. New Bern has four historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Within easy walking distance of the waterfront are more than 164 homes and buildings listed on the National Register. Nearby are several bed and breakfasts, restaurants, antiques stores and specialty shops; the historic districts contain many of the city's 2,000 crape myrtles—its official flower—and developed gardens. New Bern has two "Local Historic Districts", a municipal zoning overlay that affords legal protection to the exteriors of New Bern's irreplaceable historic structures.
These areas provide much of New Bern's unique charm, appeal to retirees and heritage tourism, contribute to the city's economic success. The Local Historic Districts, while vitally important to New Bern, comprise only 2.43% of New Bern's 27-square-mile area. There is considerable area available for new development. Varying complex cultures of indigenous peoples had lived along the waterways of North Carolina for thousands of years before Europeans arrived in the area; the Tuscarora, an Iroquoian-speaking people, had migrated south from the Great Lakes area at some ancient time and occupied the area for several hundred of years before the first Europeans arrived. They had a village called Chattoka at the confluence of the rivers, they resisted encroachment by the Europeans, resorting to war in 1712. New Bern was settled in 1710 by Bernese and Palatine immigrants under the auspices of Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg; the new colonists named their settlement after the Canton of Bern, home state of their patron.
Graffenried had the original plat of the town laid out in the shape of a cross, though development and additional streets have obscured this pattern within the regular street grid. This became the first permanent seat of the colonial government of North Carolina; the Governor's Palace, New Bern, served as the capitol of North Carolina from 1770 until the state government relocated to Raleigh in 1792, after a fire had destroyed much of the capitol. During the 19th-century Federal period, New Bern became the largest city in North Carolina, developed on the trade of goods and slaves associated with plantation agriculture. After Raleigh was named the state capital, New Bern rebuilt its economy by expanding on trade via shipping routes to the Caribbean and New England, it was part of the Triangle Trade in sugar and desired goods. It reached a population of 3,600 in 1815. In 1862 during the early stages of the American Civil War, the area was the site of the Battle of New Bern. Federal forces captured and occupied the town until the end of the war in 1865.
Nearly 10,000 enslaved blacks escaped during this period in the region and went to the Union camps for protection and freedom. The Union Army set up the Trent River contraband camp at New Bern to house the refugees, it organized the adults for work. Missionaries came to teach literacy to both children. After the January 1863 Emancipation Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln, slaves in Union-occupied territories were declared free; the Army appointed Horace James, a Congregational chaplain from Massachusetts, as the "Superintendent of Negro Affairs for the North Carolina District" on behalf of the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. In addition to the Trent River camp, James supervised development of the offshore Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, intended to be self-supporting. Beginning in 1863, a total of nearly 4,000 freedmen from North Carolina enlisted in the United States Colored Troops to fight with the Union for their permanent freedom, including 150 men from the colony on Roanoke Island.
Due to the continuous occupation by the Union troops, New Bern avoided some of the destruction of the war years. There was much social disruption because of the occupation and the thousands of freedmen camped near the city. Still, it recovered more than many cities after the war. By the 1870s the lumber industry was developing as the chief
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Halifax Historic District
Halifax Historic District is a national historic district located at Halifax, Halifax County, North Carolina, US, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 with an increase in 2011. It includes several buildings. Halifax was the site of the signing of the Halifax Resolves on April 12, 1776, a set of resolutions of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which led to the United States Declaration of Independence gaining the support of North Carolina's delegates to the Second Continental Congress in that year. Much of the district is contained within a historic site operated by the North Carolina Division of State Historic Sites and Properties, an agency of the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources; the original Halifax Historic District encompassed four contributing buildings: the Constitution House, Owens House, Clerk's Office, Jail. The 2010 boundary increase expanded the district to encompass 108 contributing buildings, 3 contributing sites, 3 contributing structures.
Located in the district are the separately listed Church of the Immaculate Conception and the Michael Ferrall Family Cemetery, the William R. Davie House, the Halifax County Courthouse, St. Mark's Episcopal Church. Other notable buildings include the Royal White Hart Masonic Lodge #2, Halifax Baptist Church, W. D. Faucett house, Walter Clark Law Office, Roanoke Hotel, Halifax Hardware Company, Vinson's Drug Store
Fort Dobbs (North Carolina)
Fort Dobbs was an 18th-century fort in the Yadkin–Pee Dee River Basin region of the Province of North Carolina, near what is now Statesville in Iredell County. Used for frontier defense during and after the French and Indian War, the fort was built to protect the British settlers of the western portion of what was Rowan County, served as a vital outpost for soldiers and colonial officials. Fort Dobbs' primary structure was a blockhouse with log walls, surrounded by a palisade and moat, it was intended to provide protection against Cherokee, Shawnee and French raids into North Carolina. The fort's name honored Arthur Dobbs, the colonial Governor of North Carolina from 1754 to 1765, who played a role in designing the fort and authorized its construction; when in use, it was the only fort on the frontier between South Virginia. Between 1756 and 1760, the blockhouse was garrisoned by a variable number of soldiers, many of whom were sent to fight in Pennsylvania and the Ohio River Valley during the French and Indian War.
On February 27, 1760, the fort was the site of an engagement between Cherokee warriors and provincial soldiers that ended in a victory for the provincials. After this battle and other attacks by Cherokee warriors on British forts and settlements in the Anglo-Cherokee War, the southern British colonies launched a devastating counterattack against the Cherokee in 1760. Fort Dobbs was abandoned after 1766, disappeared from the landscape. Archaeological work in the 20th century and historical research in 2005 and 2006 led to the discovery of the fort's exact location and probable appearance; the site on which the fort sat is now operated by North Carolina's Division of State Historic Sites and Properties as Fort Dobbs State Historic Site, supporters of the site have developed plans for the fort's reconstruction. In 1747 100 men of suitable age to serve in the colonial militia lived in North Carolina west of present-day Hillsborough. Within three years, most of North Carolina's population increase, driven by the immigration of Scots-Irish and German settlers traveling from Pennsylvania on the Great Wagon Road, was occurring in seven western counties created after 1740.
By 1754, six western counties—Orange, Johnston, Cumberland and Rowan—held around 22,000 residents out of the colony's total population of 65,000. In 1755, Governor Arthur Dobbs ordered the construction of a fortified log structure for the protection of settlers in Rowan County from various Native American threats, including assaults from Cherokee, Catawba and Delaware raiding parties. Dobbs stated in a letter on August 24, 1755, to the Board of Trade that the fort was needed "to assist the back settlers and be a retreat to them as it was beyond the well settled Country, only straggling settlements behind them, if I had placed beyond the Settlements without a fortification they might be exposed, be no retreat for the Settlers, the Indians might pass them and murder the Inhabitants, retire before they durst go to give them notice"; the new frontier settlements required regular protection, as the settlers in the area attributed many crimes and forms of harassment to denizens of nearby Catawba and Cherokee towns.
Furthermore, Governor Dobbs was concerned for his own investments, as he owned more than 200,000 acres of land on the Rocky River 15 miles south of the Fourth Creek Meeting House. The North Carolina Legislature set aside a sum of £10,000 for the construction of the fort in 1755, as well as for the raising of several companies of provincial soldiers to defend the frontier. Provincial soldiers, known by the shortened name "provincials", were soldiers raised and paid by the individual British colonies, although they were at various times armed and supplied by the regular British Army; the total cost of the fort was only £1,000. By comparison, Fort Stanwix in New York, begun in 1758 in a then-modern star fort style, cost £60,000 to erect, while the construction of Fort Prince George in South Carolina cost that province's House of Commons £3,000. Dobbs had a role in designing the fort, as he had designed at least one other fort in North Carolina, as well as a number of structures in Ireland. Hugh Waddell, a Scotch-Irish soldier who had close ties to Governor Dobbs and, the commander of a company of provincial soldiers in 1755, built the fort's blockhouse and palisade using labor provided by his soldiers, named it after the governor.
The land on which the fort was to be located was a part of a 560-acre tract owned first by one James Oliphant by a Fergus Sloan. Part of the same tract was used for the Fourth Creek Congregation Meeting House in 1755, the principal structure around which the modern city of Statesville was founded. After construction was completed, Fort Dobbs was the only military installation on the colonial frontier between Virginia and South Carolina. By June 1756, Waddell had completed construction on the fort. Francis Brown and future governor Richard Caswell, commissioners appointed by Dobbs to inspect frontier defenses, wrote the following report to the North Carolina General Assembly on December 21, 1756: had viewed the State of Fort Dobbs and found it to be a good and Substantial Building of the Dimentions following The Oblong Square fifty three feet by forty, the opposite Angles Twenty four feet and Twenty-Two In height Twenty four and a half feet as by the Plan annexed Appears, The Thickness of the Walls which are made of Oak Logs regul
Fort Fisher was a Confederate fort during the American Civil War. It protected the vital trading routes of the port at Wilmington, North Carolina, from 1861 until its capture by the Union in 1865; the fort was located on one of Cape Fear River's two outlets to the Atlantic Ocean on what was known as Federal Point or Confederate Point and today is known as Pleasure Island. The strength of Fort Fisher led to its being called the Southern Gibraltar and the "Malakoff Tower of the South.". The battle of Fort Fisher was the most decisive battle of the Civil War fought in North Carolina; the city of Wilmington is located 21 miles upstream from the mouth of the Cape Fear River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean. During the war, Wilmington was one of the most important points of entry for supplies for the Confederacy, its port traded cotton and tobacco in exchange for foreign goods, like munitions and foodstuffs. This nourished both the southern states in General Robert E. Lee's forces in Virginia. Trade was based on the going of steamer ships of British smugglers.
These vessels were called "blockade runners" because they had to avoid the Union's imposed maritime barricade. The blockade runners came indirectly from British colonies, such as Bermuda, Bahamas or Nova Scotia, they were forced to fly the Confederate insignia since the Union had imposed the death penalty on British "pirates" captured in the region. After the fall of Norfolk, Virginia in May 1862, the importance of Wilmington was further increased, it became the main Confederate port on the Atlantic Ocean. Because of Fort Fisher, Wilmington's defenses were the sturdiest in the Confederacy, Wilmington was able to be defended for a considerable duration of the war. South of Wilmington, along the Cape Fear River's last 20 miles, a handful of Confederate forts and batteries protected the daily flow of ships; the channel had been purposely jammed with loads of wreckage and aquatic mines, which were called "torpedoes." The Confederate officers conducted each ship cautiously through this barrier. At Cape Fear's outlet to the Atlantic, the area was enclosed by a half dozen Confederate positions.
The river flowed to the sea through two shallow inlets, which were partitioned by Smith Island now Bald Head Island. The existence of two inlets resulted in a crucial advantage: guided by the Confederates, the blockade runners were capable of avoiding the Union ships, they had to change course unexpectedly, alternatively between the two inlets. Near the beginning of the war, the Confederacy occupied the Federal Point peninsula, located at an advantaged location upon Cape Fear's New Inlet; the first artillery batteries were placed in the spring of one mile from the New Inlet. Maj. Charles Pattison Bolles supervised the works; the regional command was conformed by Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes and Maj. William H. C. Whiting, as chief inspector of North Carolina's defenses; when Bolles was transferred to Oak Island, Capt. William Lord deRosset took his place. DeRosset brought Wilmington's Light Infantry to the primitive artillery position, he named the place "Bolles Battery." Bolles Battery had a succession of interim commanders.
Additionally, a training site, Camp Wyatt, was built north of the battery. In the summer of 1861, the commander was Colonel Seawell L. Fremont, he was from the 1st NC Volunteer Artillery and Engineers. He added the following batteries along the isthmus: Meade Battery Zeke's Island Battery Anderson Battery Gatlin BatteryAround September, the placement was formally christened "Fort Fisher", after Col. Charles F. Fisher, from the 6th NC Infantry and fell at the First Battle of Manassas. Along the peninsula, the civilian population consisted of some small family farms; the region was surrounded by pine woods. Confederate pilots would climb the tall pine trees with large ladders, spot the nearest blockade runner and depart, meeting the incoming ship to guide it past the several passive defenses to Wilmington. Fort Fisher was further overhauled with more powerful artillery, provided from Charleston. So armed, the fortress could force the Union blockade to remain well offshore, which ensured that the Union ships could not shell the shoreline.
In July 1862, Col. William Lamb assumed command of the fort. Soon after arriving, he expressed some displeasure at Fort Fisher's ongoing crude state; the fall of Norfolk increased the fort's prominence, since Wilmington's trading activity had to be secured. A line of soil-mounds was built which formed the Land Face, which extended along Shepherd Battery to the sea; the Sea Face was constructed as a continuation of the previous mount line. It was extended down to a location. At the intersection of both faces, the Northeast Bastion was erected, 30 feet high. Mound Battery was the most important structure of Fort Fisher, it was built during spring of 1863, it demanded a workforce of many hundreds and the use of a small locomotive which discharged the soil over the pile. A lighting beacon was used to signal the blockade runners. Being built of soil, Fort Fisher's structure was efficient at absorbing salvos of heavy ordnance; this aspect of its design emulated the Tower of Malakoff, constructed at Sevastopol, during the Crimean War.
Over time, more than a thousand individuals including Confederate soldiers and slaves, had toiled at the location. The efforts had drawn more than 500 black slaves from nearby plantations; some Native Americans Lumbee Indians had been impressed to assist with work on the fortifications. After the im
Edenton Historic District
Edenton Historic District is a national historic district located at Edenton, Chowan County, North Carolina. The district encompasses 342 contributing buildings, 4 contributing sites, 3 contributing structures, it includes several buildings. The Lane House the oldest surviving house in North Carolina, is owned by Steve and Linda Lane and is located within the district. Located in the district are the Dixon-Powell House, William Leary House, Louis Ziegler House designed by architect George Franklin Barber, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, with boundary increases in 2001 and 2007