Tsar /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/, spelled tzar, csar, or czar, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, the word could be used to designate other secular supreme rulers. Simeon II, the last Tsar of Bulgaria, is the last person to have borne the title Tsar, the title Tsar is derived from the Latin title for the Roman emperors, Caesar. In the history of the Greek language, basileus had originally meant something like potentate and it gradually approached the meaning of king in the Hellenistic Period, and it came to designate emperor after the inception in the Roman Empire. Thus, tsar was not only used as an equivalent of Latin imperator but was used to refer to Biblical rulers. From this ambiguity, the development has moved in different directions in the different Slavic languages, the Bulgarian language and Russian language no longer use tsar as an equivalent of the term emperor/imperator as it exists in the West European tradition.
Currently, the term refers to native sovereigns and Biblical rulers, as well as monarchs in fairy tales. The title of king is sometimes perceived as alien and is by some Russian-speakers reserved for European royalty, foreign monarchs of imperial status, both inside and outside of Europe, ancient as well as modern, are generally called imperator, rather than tsar. Biblical rulers in Serbian are called цар and in Croatian kralj, in the Polish language however tsar is always used as imperator, never as king. The term tsar is very used to refer to the Russian rulers after Peter the Great. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named Tervel of Bulgaria Caesar, the first foreigner to receive this title, the sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the tsar was actually adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I. Since in Byzantine political theory there was place for two emperors and Western, the Bulgarian ruler was crowned basileus as a spiritual son of the Byzantian basileus.
In Latin sources the Emperor of Bulgaria is sometimes designated Emperor of Zagora, various additional epithets and descriptions apart, the official style read Emperor and autocrat of all Bulgarians and Greeks. During the five-century period of Ottoman rule in Bulgaria, the sultan was referred to as tsar. This may be related to the fact that he had claimed the legacy of the Byzantine Empire or to the fact that the sultan was called Basileus in medieval Greek, after Bulgarias liberation from the Ottomans in 1878, its new monarchs were at first autonomous prince. With the declaration of independence, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria adopted the traditional title tsar in 1908. However, these titles were not generally perceived as equivalents of emperor any longer, in the Bulgarian as in the Greek vernacular, the meaning of the title had shifted
False Dmitry II
The real Dmitry had died under uncertain circumstances, most likely an assassination in 1591 at the age of nine at his widowed mothers appanage residence in Uglich. The second False Dmitry first appeared on the scene around 20 July 1607 and he is believed to have been either a priests son or a converted Jew, and was relatively highly educated for the time. He spoke both the Russian and Polish languages and was something of an expert in liturgical matters. In the course of the year Jerzy Mniszech, father of Marina Mniszech, widow of False Dmitry I, reunited him with Marina and this brought him the support of the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth who had supported False Dmitry I. He quickly captured Karachev and other towns, was reinforced by the Poles, promises of the wholesale confiscation of the estates of the boyars drew many common people to his side. The village of Tushino, twelve versts from the capital, was converted into a camp where Dmitry gathered his army. His force initially included 7,000 Polish soldiers,10,000 Cossacks and 10,000 other rag-tag soldiers and his forces soon exceeded 100,000 men.
He raised to the rank of patriarch another illustrious captive, Philaret Romanov, the arrival of King Sigismund III Vasa at Smolensk caused a majority of his Polish supporters to desert him and join with the armies of the Polish king. He made another attack on Moscow, supported by the Don Cossacks. However, he was killed, while drunk, on 11 December 1610 by a Tatar princeling, Peter Urusov. Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski described this event in his memoirs, Having drunk deep at dinner. he ordered a sleigh to be harnessed, coming out into the open country, he drank with some boyars. Prince Peter Urusov, together with several score horsemen with whom he was in league, was riding after him. False Dmitry I False Dmitry III
Elizabeth of Russia
Elizabeth Petrovna, known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country into the two major European conflicts of her time, the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War, on the eve of her death Russia spanned almost 16,200,000 square kilometres. Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She encouraged Mikhail Lomonosovs establishment of the University of Moscow and Ivan Shuvalovs foundation of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg and she spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral in Saint Petersburg are among the monuments of her reign. She remains one of the most popular Russian monarchs due to her opposition to Prussian policies. Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on 18 December 1709, Peter valued Catherine and married her again at Saint Isaacs Cathedral in St.
Petersburg on 9 February 1712. On this day his two surviving children by Catherine were legitimized by their father and this circumstance would be used by Elizabeths political opponents to challenge her right to the throne on grounds of illegitimacy. Of the twelve children born to Peter and Catherine only two daughters and Elizabeth survived to adulthood, both of them were given the title of Tsarevna on 6 March 1711, and of Tsesarevna on 23 December 1721. They had one surviving sibling, crown prince Alexei Petrovich, who was their fathers son by his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. As a child Elizabeth was the favorite of her father. She resembled him both physically and temperamentally and she was a bright girl, if not brilliant, but received only an imperfect and desultory formal education. Even though he adored his daughter Peter did not devote time or attention to her education and he had a son from his first marriage to a noblewoman and did not anticipate that a daughter born to his second wife might one day inherit the throne.
Indeed, no woman had ever sat upon the throne of Russia yet and it was therefore left to Catherine to raise the girls, but she was herself too uneducated to be able to superintend the formal education of her daughters. Elizabeth had a French governess and grew fluent in Italian and she was an excellent dancer and rider. Like her father Elizabeth was physically active and loved riding, sledging, from her earliest years she delighted everyone with her extraordinary beauty and vivacity, and was regarded as the leading beauty of the Russian Empire. The wife of the British minister described Elizabeth as fair, with brown hair, large sprightly blue eyes, fine teeth. She is inclinable to be fat, but is very genteel and she speaks German and Italian, is extremely gay and talks to everyone
Royal intermarriage is the practice of members of ruling dynasties marrying into other reigning families. It was more commonly done in the past as part of diplomacy for national interest. Although sometimes enforced by legal requirement on persons of royal birth, monarchs were often in pursuit of national and international aggrandisement on behalf of themselves and their dynasties, thus bonds of kinship tended to promote or restrain aggression. Marriage between dynasties could serve to initiate, reinforce or guarantee peace between nations, kinship by marriage could secure an alliance between two dynasties which sought to reduce the sense of threat from or to initiate aggression against the realm of a third dynasty. In parts of Europe, royalty continued to marry into the families of their greatest vassals as late as the 16th century, thenceforth. In other parts of the world royal intermarriage was less prevalent, there are often political or other non-romantic functions that must be served and the relative wealth and power of the potential spouses may be considered.
Marriage for political, economic, or diplomatic reasons, the marriage of state, was a pattern seen for centuries among European rulers, at times, marriage between members of the same dynasty has been common in Central Africa. In West Africa, the sons and daughters of Yoruba kings were given in marriage to their fellow royals as a matter of dynastic policy. Sometimes these marriages would involve members of other tribes, erinwinde of Benin, for example, was taken as a wife by the Oba Oranyan of Oyo during his time as governor of Benin. Their son Eweka went on to birth to the dynasty that rules the Kingdom of Benin today. Marriages between the Swazi and Thembu royal houses of southern Africa are common, for example, the daughter of former South African president and Thembu royal Nelson Mandela, Zenani Mandela, in 1977 married Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini, a brother of Mswati III, King of Swaziland. Elsewhere in the region, Princess Semane Khama of the Bamangwato tribe of Botswana married Kgosi Lebone Edward Molotlegi of the Bafokeng tribe of South Africa.
This is in due to Section 11 of 1924 Palace Law of Succession which excludes members of the royal family from the line of succession if they marry a non-Thai national. The most recent king, Bhumibol Adulyadej, is a first-cousin once removed of his wife, Chulalongkorn married a number of his half-sisters, including Savang Vadhana and Sunandha Kumariratana, all shared the same father, Mongkut. The Lý dynasty which ruled Dai Viet married its princesses off to regional rivals to establish alliances with them. One of these marriages was between a Lý princess and a member of the Chinese Trần clan, which enabled the Trần to topple the Lý and established their own Trần dynasty. The Cambodian King Chey Chettha II married the Vietnamese Nguyễn lord Princess Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Vạn, marriage policy in imperial China differed from dynasty to dynasty. Several dynasties practiced Heqin, which involved marrying off princesses to other royal families, the Xiongnu practiced marriage alliances with Han dynasty officers and officials who defected to their side
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
First Bulgarian Empire
The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded circa 681 when Bulgar tribes led by Asparukh moved to the north-eastern Balkans, there they secured Byzantine recognition of their right to settle south of the Danube by defeating – possibly with the help of local South Slavic tribes – the Byzantine army led by Constantine IV. At the height of its power, Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea, as the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered into a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantiums chief antagonist to its north, resulting in several wars, Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain, the Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia.
During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines, thereafter, he was recognized with the title of Emperor, and proceeded to expand the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Byzantines, eventually recovered, and in 1014, under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion. By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, and it was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185. After the adoption of Christianity, Bulgaria became the center of Slavic Europe. Old Bulgarian became the lingua franca of much of Eastern Europe, in 927, the fully independent Bulgarian Patriarchate was officially recognized. The Bulgars and other tribes in the empire gradually adopted an essentially foreign Slavic language. Since the late 9th century, the names Bulgarians and Bulgarian gained prevalence and became permanent designations for the local population, the First Bulgarian Empire became known simply as Bulgaria since its recognition by the Byzantine Empire in 681.
Some historians use the terms Danube Bulgaria, First Bulgarian State, during its early existence, the country was called the Bulgar state or Bulgar qaghanate. Between 864 and 917/927, the country was known as the Principality of Bulgaria or Knyazhestvo Bulgaria, in English language sources, the country is often known as the Bulgarian Empire. The eastern Balkan Peninsula was originally inhabited by the Thracians who were a group of Proto-Indo-European tribes, the whole region as far north as the Danube River was gradually incorporated into the Roman Empire by the 1st century AD. The decline of the Roman Empire after the 3rd century AD, nonetheless, it never relinquished the claim to the whole region up to the Danube. A series of administrative, legislative and economic reforms somewhat improved the situation, the group of Slavs that came to be known as the South Slavs was divided into Antes and Sclaveni who spoke the same language. The Slavic incursions in the Balkans increased during the half of Justinian Is reign and while these were initially pillaging raids
False Dmitry I
Dmitry I was the Tsar of Russia from 10 June 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ivanovich. He is sometimes referred to as False Dmitry I, according to historian Chester L. Dunning, Dmitry was the only Tsar ever raised to the throne by means of a military campaign and popular uprisings. It is generally believed that the real Dmitry died in Uglich, Dmitry I entered history circa 1600, after making a positive impression on Patriarch Job of Moscow with his learning and assurance. After the doctors death, Dmitry had fled to Poland, working there as a teacher for a brief time, in March 1604, Dmitry visited the royal court of Sigismund III Vasa in Kraków. The king provisionally supported him, but gave no promise of aid to help ease the young mans path to the throne. During his time at court, Dmitry met Marina Mniszech, daughter of the Polish nobleman Jerzy Mniszech, the tsars public support soon began to wane, especially as Dmitrys loyalists spread counter-rumors. Several Russian boyars pledged themselves to Dmitry, thus giving them a reason not to pay taxes to Tsar Boris.
Dmitry, having now gained the support of the Polish Commonwealth. With these men, he advanced on Russia in March 1605, Godunovs many enemies, including the southern Cossacks, joined Dmitrys army on the long march to Moscow. The young mans cause was only saved when news of the death of Boris Godunov on 13 April 1605 reached his troops in the aftermath. Finally, on 1 June, the boyars of Moscow staged a palace coup, imprisoning newly crowned tsar Feodor II and his mother. On 20 June, Dmitry made his entry into Moscow, and on 21 July, he was crowned tsar by a new Muscovite Patriarch of his own choosing. The new tsar moved to consolidate his power by visiting the tomb of Tsar Ivan, and the convent of his widow Maria Nagaya, who accepted him as her son and confirmed his story. The Godunovs, including Tsar Feodor and his mother, were executed, with the exception of Tsarevna Xenia, whom Dmitry took as his royal concubine for five months. Feodor Romanov, sire of the imperial dynasty, was soon appointed as metropolitan of Rostov, old patriarch Job.
Dmitry planned to introduce a series of political and economical reforms and he restored Yuris Day, the day when serfs were allowed to move to another lord, to ease the conditions of peasantry. His favorite at the Russian court, the 18-year-old Prince Ivan Khvorostinin, is considered by historians to be one of Russias first Westernizers, in foreign policy, Dmitry sought an alliance with his sponsor, the Polish Commonwealth, and the Papal States. He planned for war against the Ottoman Empire, ordering the production of firearms to serve in the conflict
Giovanna of Italy
Giovanna of Italy was the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria. Giovanna was born in Rome, the daughter and fourth child of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Queen Elena. Upon her Roman Catholic christening, she was given the names Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria and her older brother was the future Italian king Umberto II of Italy. Giovanna married Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria in the Basilica of St Francis of Assisi, Assisi in October 1930, in a Roman Catholic ceremony, bulgarians deemed her a good match, partly because her mother, Elena of Montenegro, was of Slavic ethnicity. At a second ceremony in Sofia, Giovanna was married in an Eastern Orthodox Church ceremony, Giovanna adopted the Bulgarian version of her name, Ioanna. Giovanna knew the Popes Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria, Archbishop Angelo Roncalli and she and Boris had two children, Marie Louise of Bulgaria, born in January 1933, and the future Simeon II of Bulgaria in 1937. In the years prior to World War II, Tsaritsa Ioanna became heavily involved in charities, during the war she counterbalanced her husband consigning Bulgaria to the Axis by obtaining transit visas to enable a number of Jews to escape to Argentina.
Tsar Boris proved less malleable than Hitler had hoped, and following a meeting in Berlin in August 1943, stress and a heart condition were the official reasons for his death. Ioannas son, became the new tsar and a regency was established, led by his uncle Prince Kyril, in the dying days of the Second World War, Bulgaria was invaded by the Soviet Union. Prince Kyril was tried by a Peoples Court and subsequently executed and her son Simeon remained under house arrest at Vrana Palace, near Sofia, until 1946, when the new Communist government gave them 48 hours to leave the country. After initially fleeing to Alexandria in the Kingdom of Egypt, to join her father, King Victor Emmanuel III, during this last visit to Bulgaria she received a cordial welcome, and thousands of people went on the streets to greet her. She is buried in the Communal Cemetery of Assisi, where she had married King Boris III in 1930
Boris III of Bulgaria
This was the countrys second major defeat in only five years, after the disastrous Second Balkan War. Under the Treaty of Neuilly, Bulgaria was forced to cede new territories and pay crippling reparations to its neighbours, thereby threatening political, two political forces, the Agrarian Union and the Communist Party, were calling for the overthrowing of the monarchy and the change of the government. It was in circumstances that Boris succeeded to the throne. He distinguished himself during the Second World War by opposing attempts by Adolf Hitler to deport the Jewish population of his country, Boris was born on 30 January 1894 in Sofia. He was the first son of Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria and his wife Princess Marie Louise, in order to remedy this difficult situation, Ferdinand christened all his remaining children as Catholics. Nicholas II of Russia stood as godfather to Boris and met the boy during Ferdinands official visit to Saint Petersburg in July 1898. He received his education in the so-called Palace Secondary School.
Later, Boris graduated from the Military School in Sofia, took part in the Balkan Wars, during the First World War, he served as liaison officer of the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army on the Macedonian front. In 1916, he was promoted to colonel and attached again as liaison officer to Army Group Mackensen, Boris worked hard to smooth the sometimes difficult relations between Field Marshal Mackensen and Lieutenant General Stefan Toshev, the commander of the Third Army. In 1918, Boris was made a major general, with the abdication of his father, he acceded to the throne as Tsar Boris III on 3 October 1918. One year after Boriss accession, Aleksandar Stamboliyski of the Bulgarian Peoples Agrarian Union was elected prime minister, on 14 April 1925, an anarchist group attacked Boriss cavalcade as it passed through the Arabakonak Pass. Two days later, a bomb killed 150 members of the Bulgarian political, following a further attempt on Boriss life the same year, military reprisals killed several thousand communists and agrarians, including representatives of the intelligentsia.
Finally, in October 1925, there was a border war with Greece, known as the Incident at Petrich. In the coup on 19 May 1934, the Zveno military organisation established a dictatorship, King Boris was reduced to the status of a puppet king as a result of the coup. The following year, he staged a counter-coup and assumed control of the country, the political process was controlled by the Tsar, but a form of parliamentary rule was re-introduced, without the restoration of the political parties. With the rise of the Kings government in 1935, Bulgaria entered an era of prosperity and astounding growth, which deservedly qualifies it as the Golden Age of the Third Bulgarian Kingdom. Boris married Giovanna of Italy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, first in a Catholic ceremony in Assisi, Italy on 25 October 1930, and at an Orthodox ceremony in Sofia. The marriage produced a daughter, Maria Louisa, in January 1933, in the early days of the Second World War, Bulgaria was neutral, but powerful groups in the country swayed its politics towards Germany
An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the equivalent, may indicate an emperors wife, mother. Emperors are generally recognized to be of an honour and rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both kings and emperors are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German speaking states. In Eastern Europe the rulers of the Russian Empire used translatio imperii to wield authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their title of Emperor was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, in practice the Russian Emperors are often known by their Russian-language title Tsar, which may used to refer to rulers equivalent to a king.
Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia, however such empires did not need to be headed by an emperor. Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century, outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era, the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, rules for indicating successors varied, there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known.
Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue and military force could mingle in for appointing successors, probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Romes third century rule. When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the half of the 1st century BC
Peter the Great
Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a larger empire that became a major European power. He led a revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, westernized. Peters reforms made an impact on Russia and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. From an early age, Peters education was put in the hands of tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peters elder half-brother and this position changed when Feodor died in 1682. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family and Naryshkin family over who should inherit the throne, Peters other half-brother, Ivan V, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind.
Consequently, the Boyar Duma chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent and this arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, and was ratified. Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis daughters from his first marriage, in the subsequent conflict some of Peters relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, and Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence. The Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys and their allies, to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, Sophia acted as regent during the minority of the sovereigns and exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat, a large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Ivan and Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, while feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and this throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Peter was not particularly concerned that others ruled in his name and he engaged in such pastimes as shipbuilding and sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army.
Peters mother sought to force him to adopt a conventional approach. The marriage was a failure, and ten years Peter forced his wife to become a nun, by the summer of 1689, Peter planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns. When she learned of his designs, Sophia conspired with the leaders of the Streltsy, Sophia was eventually overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs. Power was instead exercised by his mother, Natalya Naryshkina and it was only when Nataliya died in 1694 that Peter became an independent sovereign