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Tsushima Island

Tsushima Island is an island of the Japanese archipelago situated in-between the Tsushima Strait and Korea Strait halfway between the Japanese mainland and the Korean Peninsula. The main island of Tsushima was once a single island but was divided into two in 1671 by the Ōfunakoshiseto canal and into three in 1900 by the Manzekiseto canal; these canals were driven through isthmuses in the center of the island, creating "North Tsushima Island" and "South Tsushima Island". Tsushima incorporates over 100 smaller islands; the name Tsushima refers to all the islands collectively. The island group measures about 70 km by 15 km and had a population of about 34,000 as of 2013; the main islands are the largest coherent satellite island group of Nagasaki Prefecture and the fifth largest in Japan. The city of Tsushima lies on the Tsushima islands, is divided into six boroughs. Tsushima Island is located west of the Kanmon Strait at a latitude between Honshu and Kyushu of the Japanese mainland; the Korea Strait splits at the Tsushima Island Archipelago into two channels.

Ōfunakoshi-Seto and Manzeki-Seto, the two canals built in 1671 and 1900 connect the deep indentation of Asō Bay to the east side of the island. The archipelago comprises over 100 smaller islets in addition to the main island. Tsushima is the closest Japanese territory to the Korean Peninsula, lying 50 km from Busan. On a clear day, the hills and mountains of the Korean peninsula are visible from the higher elevations on the two northern mountains; the nearest Japanese port, situated on Iki Island within the Tsushima Basin, is 50 km away. Tsushima Island and Iki Island are collectively within the borders of the Iki–Tsushima Quasi-National Park, designated as a nature preserve and protected from further development. Much of Tsushima is covered by natural mountains. Tsushima Island has many mountains such as the Mt. Ohira, Mt. Yatate, Mt. Hokogatake, Mt. Koyasan, Mt. Ontake, Mt. Gogen; the Government of Japan administers Tsushima Island as a single entity despite the artificial waterways that have separated it into two islands.

The northern area is known as Kamino-shima, the southern island as Shimono-shima. Both sub-islands have a pair of mountains. Shimo-no-shima has Mount Yatate, standing 649 m high, Ariake-yama, at 558 m high. Kami-no-shima has 487 m; the two main sections of the island are now joined by causeway. The island has a total area of 696.26 km2. Tsushima has a marine subtropical climate influenced by monsoon winds; the average temperature is 15.8 °C, the average yearly precipitation is 2,132.6 mm. The highest temperature recorded on the island is 36.6 °C, on August 20, 2013, the lowest –8.6 °C, in 1895. Throughout most of the year, Tsushima is 1 – 2 °C cooler than the city of Nagasaki; the island's rainfall is higher than that of the main islands of Japan. Because Tsushima is small and isolated, it is exposed on all sides to moist marine air, which releases precipitation as it ascends the island's steep slopes. Continental monsoon winds cool the island in the winter; the rainy season begins and ends than in other areas in Nagasaki Prefecture, Tsushima suffers direct hits by typhoons.

The island's fauna include leopard cat, Japanese marten, Siberian weasel, rodents. Otters were discovered to be living in Tsushima in February 2017. Migrating birds that stop over on the island include hawks, harriers and black-throated loons. Forests, covering 90% of the island, consist of broad-leafed evergreens and deciduous trees including cypress. Honey bees are common, with many used to produce commercial honey. Tsushima Island pitviper is a venomous snake endemic to the Tsushima Island. Tsushima Reef, in the bay between Tsushima and Iki Island, is the northernmost coral reef in the world, surpassing the Iki Island reef discovered in 2001, it is dominated by cool-tolerant stony or Scleractinian Favia corals but the observed settling of tropical Acropora coral is expected to provide an ongoing indicator for continuing global warming. The whole island is covered in forest and there are few plains. There are Yoshino Chionanthus retusus. According to a 2000 census, 23.9% of the local population is employed in primary industries while 19.7% and 56.4% of the population are employed in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively.

Of these economic activities, fishing amounts to 82.6% of the primary industry, with much of it dedicated to catching squid on the eastern coast of the island. The number of employees in the primary industries has been decreasing, while employee growth in the secondary and tertiary industries has been increasing. Tourism, targeting South Koreans, has made a great contribution to the islands' economy; the number of Korean tourists to the island increased after the launching of a high-speed ferry service from Busan to the island in 1999. In 2008, 72,349 Koreans visited the island. Due to a drop in the value of the won, the number fell to 45,266 in 2009. Korean tourists generate an estimated ¥2.1 billion in revenue for the local economy and generate about 260 jobs on the island. The island will see around 200,000 visitors from Korea in 2013, surpassing the number of visitors from other parts

Long-tailed shrike

The long-tailed shrike or rufous-backed shrike is a member of the bird family Laniidae, the shrikes. They are found distributed across Asia and there are variations in plumage across the range; the species ranges both on the mainland and the eastern archipelagos. The eastern or Himalayan subspecies, L. s. tricolor, is sometimes called the black-headed shrike. Although there are considerable differences in plumage among the subspecies, they all have a long and narrow black tail, have a black mask and forehead, rufous rump and flanks and a small white patch on the shoulder, it is considered to form a superspecies with the grey-backed shrike which breeds on the Tibetan Plateau. The long-tailed shrike is a typical shrike, favouring dry open habitats and found perched prominently atop a bush or on a wire; the dark mask through the eye is broad and covers the forehead in most subspecies and the whole head is black in subspecies tricolor and nasutus. The tail graduated with pale rufous on the outer feathers.

Subspecies erythronotus has the grey of the mantle and upper back suffused with rufous while the southern Indian caniceps has pure grey. A small amount of white is present at the base of the primaries; the bay-backed shrike is smaller and more contrastingly patterned and has a more prominent white patch on the wing. The sexes are alike in plumage; the genus name, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", some shrikes are known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. The specific schach is an onomatopoeic name based on the call; the common English name "shrike" is from "shriek", referring to the shrill call. A number of subspecies are noted within the distributed range of this species. Stuart Baker in the second edition of The Fauna of British India considered Lanius schach, Lanius tephronotus and Lanius tricolor as three species, he included erythronotus as a race of schach. Other treatments were proposed by Hugh Whistler and N B Kinnear where tephronotus was considered a subspecies of schach and nigriceps and nasutus grouped together.

Another treatment considered tricolor as a subspecies of L. tephronotus. It was subsequently however noted that tephronotus and schach co-occurred in the Kumaon region and so the two were confirmed as distinct species. Molecular distances indicate that they are distant enough; the erythronotus group have a grey head which continues into the back with a gradual suffusion of rufous. The westernmost population from Transcaspia named by Sergei Buturlin as jaxartensis and said to be larger, is not considered valid. A light grey form from western dry region of India named by Walter Koelz as kathiawarensis is considered as a variant. In southern India and Sri Lanka, subspecies caniceps, is marked by the rufous restricted to the rump, light crown and the pure grey on the back. Biswamoy Biswas supported the view. Subspecies longicaudatus is found in Thailand and Burma; the nominate subspecies is found in China from the Yangtze valley south to Taiwan. Some individuals of the nominate form were once described as a species fuscatus.

Island forms include nasutus, suluensis and stresemanni of New Guinea. The species is found across Asia from Kazakhstan to New Guinea, it is found in scrub and open habitats. Many of the temperate zone populations are migratory, moving south in winter while those in the tropics tend to be sedentary although they may make short distance movements. Subspecies caniceps of southern India is found in winter in the dry coastal zone of southern India. Subspecies tricolor migrates south to Bengal in India, they are found in scrub and open land under cultivation. A survey in southern India found them to be among the commonest wintering shrikes and found at a linear density along roadsides at about 0.58 per kilometer choosing wires to perch. This species is a rare vagrant to western Europe on the strength of two accepted records in Great Britain on South Uist in November 2000 and the Netherlands near Den Helder in October 2011. A bird matching the features of caniceps was seen on the island of Maldives, it has occurred as a vagrant to Jordan, Turkey, Hungary and Sweden.

This bird has a characteristic upright "shrike" attitude when perched on a bush, from which it glides down at an angle to take lizards, large insects, small birds and rodents. They maintain feeding territories and are found single or in pairs that are well spaced out. Several members have been observed indulging in play behaviour fighting over perches; the usual calls are harsh grating and scolding calls, likened to the squealing of a frog caught by a snake. They are capable of vocal mimicry and include the calls of many species including lapwings, cuckoos and squirrels in their song; this singing ability makes it a popular pet in parts of southeast Asia. Long-tailed shrikes take a wide variety of animal prey. On occasion, they have been noted capturing fish from a stream, they take small snakes. It sometimes takes prey from other birds, it captures flying insects in the air. They sometimes impale prey on a thorny bush after feeding just on the brain, they have been reported to feed on the fruits of the neem in Kerala attempting to impale them on a twig.

The breeding season is in summer in the temperate ranges. The nest is a deep and loose cup made up of thorny twigs and hair

Grammy Award for Best Polka Album

The Grammy Award for Best Polka Album was an award presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony, established in 1958 and called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for quality polka albums. Honors in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position". Called the Grammy Award for Best Polka Recording, the award was first presented to Frankie Yankovic in 1986. Polka recordings had been placed in the folk category. While neither Billboard nor the Recording Industry Association of America tracked polka sales at the time the award category was introduced, polka musicians viewed its inclusion as a sign of respect and increasing popularity. In 1987, a tie vote resulted in awards being presented to Jimmy Sturr and His Orchestra for the album I Remember Warsaw as well as to Eddie Blazonczyk's Versatones for the album Another Polka Celebration.

In 1992, the name of the category was changed to Best Polka Album. Beginning in 2001, award recipients included the producers, and/or mixers associated with the nominated work in addition to the recording artists; the Academy retired the award category in 2009 to remain "relevant and responsive" to the music community. Sturr holds the record for the most wins in this category, with a total of eighteen. Sturr holds the record for the most consecutive Grammy wins. Walter Ostanek received the award three times consecutively, the band Brave Combo was presented the award twice. American artists were presented with the award more than any other nationality, though it was presented to Ostanek and his band from Canada three times. Lenny Gomulka holds the record for the most nominations without a win, with twelve. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. In 2009, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences announced the retirement of the award category. President and CEO Neil Portnow stated that the Academy needed to do so in order to remain a "relevant and responsive" organization within a "dynamic music community".

Polka musicians and fans were disappointed with the category elimination. Three-time award winner Walter Ostanek admitted he " sorry for the future artists" that would fail to be recognized by the Academy. Carl Finch of the group Brave Combo stated the following: "Having a polka category was the most important step to legitimacy that we could hope to achieve. To have that taken away, it's like it was all for nothing." Apart from ensuring that the "awards process remains representative of the current musical landscape", the Academy cited dwindling competition as one reason for the category retirement. Others speculated. Due to the elimination of a polka-specific category, polka musicians are to submit recordings in the folk and world music categories. In 2011, the Grammy Award organization announced a major overhaul of Grammy categories, lowering the number of awards from over 120 to just 78. Several regional American roots genres, such as Hawaiian music or Native American music, were combined in the new Best Regional Roots Music Album category, for which polka albums would be eligible.

List of Grammy Award categories Polka in the United States Polka Hall of Fame International Polka Association Official site of the Grammy Awards

Keep It Hid

Keep It Hid is the debut solo album by the American blues-rock musician Dan Auerbach of the Black Keys, released in 2009 on Nonesuch Records. The final track "Goin' Home" was included in the soundtrack of the 2009 film Up in the Air. All songs written except where noted. "Trouble Weighs a Ton" – 2:19 "I Want Some More" – 3:49 "Heartbroken, in Disrepair" – 3:21 "Because I Should" – 0:53 "Whispered Words" – 4:06 "Real Desire" – 4:26 "When the Night Comes" – 4:11 "Mean Monsoon" – 3:47 "The Prowl" – 3:18 "Keep It Hid" – 3:41 "My Last Mistake" – 3:14 "When I Left the Room" – 4:02 "Street Walkin'" – 3:52 "Goin' Home" – 4:57 Dan Auerbach - lead and backing vocals and rhythm guitar, organ, bass, percussion, drum loops, sound effects, producer Bob Cesare – drums on tracks, rhythm guitar on "Goin' Home Dave Huddleston – upright bass on "Whispered Words" Rob "Thorny" Thorsen – upright bass on "Mean Monsoon" James Quine – electric rhythm guitar on "Mean Monsoon" and "Street Walkin'",harmony vocals on "Trouble Weighs A Ton" and "Heartbroken, in Disrepair" Jessica Lea Mayfield – harmony vocals on "When the Night Comes" Mark Neillmaracas on "Heartbroken, in Disrepair" James Quine – photography Amy Burrows – album cover design Bob Cesare – assistant engineer Mark Neill – mixer Jim Demain – masteringTracks 4 and 7 recorded and engineered by Mark Neill for Soil of the South Productions

Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder

Carnacki the Ghost-Finder is a collection of occult detective short stories by English writer William Hope Hodgson. It was first published in 1913 by the English publisher Eveleigh Nash. In 1947, a new edition of 3,050 copies was published by Mycroft & Moran and included three additional stories. In 1951 Ellery Queen covered the Mycroft & Moran version as No. 53 in Queen's Quorum: A History of the Detective-Crime Short Story As Revealed by the 100 Most Important Books Published in this Field Since 1845. For several decades subsequent to the Mycroft and Moran edition, Carnacki collections if not always contained all nine stories. Project Gutenberg Ebook #10832 contains only the first six stories and arranges them in sequence of their 1910 and 1912 magazine publication; some other publications follow Project Gutenberg using its text. Carnacki the Ghost-Finder contains the following tales: "The Gateway of the Monster", the first story published, January 1910 "The House Among the Laurels" "The Whistling Room" "The Horse of the Invisible" "The Searcher of the End House" "The Thing Invisible" "The Hog" "The Haunted Jarvee" "The Find" Jaffery, Sheldon.

The Arkham House Companion. Mercer Island, WA: Starmont House, Inc. pp. 22–23. ISBN 1-55742-005-X. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. p. 844. Joshi, S. T.. Sixty Years of Arkham House: A History and Bibliography. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. Pp. 177–178. ISBN 0-87054-176-5. Nielsen, Leon. Arkham House Books: A Collector's Guide. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 149–150. ISBN 0-7864-1785-4. Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder at Project Gutenberg Carnacki, the Ghost Finder public domain audiobook at LibriVox Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder series listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Kraków Old Town

Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland. It is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the center of Poland's political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596; the entire medieval old town is among the first sites chosen for the UNESCO's original World Heritage List, inscribed as Cracow's Historic Centre. The old town is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments chosen in the first round, as designated September 16, 1994, tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland; the Old Town is known in Polish as Stare Miasto. It is part of the city's first administrative district, named "Stare Miasto," although it covers a wider area than the Old Town itself. Medieval Kraków was surrounded by a 1.9 mile defensive wall complete with 46 towers and seven main entrances leading through them. The fortifications around the Old Town were erected over the course of two centuries; the current architectural plan of Stare Miasto – the 13th-century merchants' town – was drawn up in 1257 after the destruction of the city during the Tatar invasions of 1241 followed by raids of 1259 and repelled in 1287.

The district features the centrally located Rynek Główny, or Main Square, the largest medieval town square of any European city. There is a number of historic landmarks in its vicinity, such as St. Mary's Basilica, Church of St. Wojciech, Church of St. Barbara, as well as other national treasures. At the center of the plaza, surrounded by kamienice and noble residences, stands the Renaissance cloth hall Sukiennice with the National Gallery of Art upstairs, it is flanked by the Town Hall Tower. The whole district is bisected by the Royal Road, the coronation route traversed by the Kings of Poland; the Route begins at St. Florian's Church outside the northern flank of the old city walls in the medieval suburb of Kleparz, it leads down Floriańska Street through the Main Square, up Grodzka to Wawel, the former seat of Polish royalty overlooking the Vistula river. In the 19th century most of the Old Town fortifications were demolished; the moat encircling the walls was turned into a green belt known as Planty Park.

The first mention of Kraków dates back to the second half of the 9th century. By the end of 10th century the city was incorporated into the Polish state under the rule of Piast dynasty; the episcopal bishopric was awarded to Kraków in 1000 and around that time, it became the residence of Polish kings for centuries to come. The history of the old city of Kraków revolves around its Old Town District of today. Here, the regalia were stored and, back in early a cathedral school was erected. Around 700 A. D. local tribes initiated the process of forming the Vistulan State by uniting with each other. Numerous remains of a once massive earth embankment encircling Wawel Hill survived till this day. A chest with 4,200 iron axes weighing about 4 tons was found in a basement of a house at Kanoniczna 19 street; these axes were known under the name of "płacidłos", a word derived from the Polish verb "płacić" – to pay. As it happens the axes were a main legal tender in the neighboring Great Moravian State; the value of the treasure chest is the greatest to be discovered thus far and testifies to Kraków's significant wealth and power in the region.

At Wawel's foot, in the place where now Kanoniczna and other neighboring streets are located, remains of a Vistulan settlement called Okół were found. This settlement, the beginnings of which can be dated at least back to the early 9th century, was surrounded by an enormous oak palisade and, in the place where now the Straszewska and St. Gertrude's streets run, by one of Vistula's arms. Near Main Market Square – near Church of St. Wojciech and Church of St. Mary and Bracka street - another discovery was made. Found were the relics of craft workshops and of dwelling houses which were raised near Vistula. What is more, under St. Wojciech's Church parts of a wooden temple were discovered. In those days Vistula had many arms. Kazimierz was one of such islands, it is possible that Okół, Wawel and the Main Market Square were islands separated from the main land by moats or Vistula's arms. Many structures were found on Wawel but it is difficult to establish when they were built; the bishops residing at Wawel and the prince's court provided a strong intellectual atmosphere.

Since the 14th century, Kraków was the site of royal coronations. Under Casimir III the Great the Jagiellonian University, one of Europe's oldest institutions of higher learning, was founded. In 1386 the Polish throne was entrusted to Lithuanian prince Władysław Jagiełło, husband of Queen Jadwiga. Jagiełło founded the Jagiellon dynasty. Kraków became the capital of a large monarchy which propelled the city's political and cultural development. Many great artists did their work in Kraków at that time; the Old Town saw considerable development during the Renaissance. It was when, for instance, Wawel Cathedral was rebuilt to include the architectural features of the Italian Reneissance. Bona Sforza, the second wife of Sigismund I of Poland, asked Bartolommeo Berrecci, Francisco the Florentian, Giovanni Maria Padovano, Santi Gucci and others to do this task; as a result, Kanoniczna Street became a part of the Old Town. It carries many features. With the passing of the last Jagiellon king, the po