Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968; the novel is set in a post-apocalyptic San Francisco, where Earth's life has been damaged by nuclear global war. Most animal species are endangered or extinct from extreme radiation poisoning, so that owning an animal is now a sign of status and empathy, an attitude encouraged towards animals; the book served as the primary basis for the 1982 film Blade Runner, many elements and themes from it were used in its 2017 sequel Blade Runner 2049. The main plot follows Rick Deckard, a bounty hunter, tasked with "retiring" six escaped Nexus-6 model androids, while a secondary plot follows John Isidore, a man of sub-par IQ who aids the fugitive androids. In connection with Deckard's mission, the novel explores the issue of what it is to be human and whether empathy is a purely human ability. In post-apocalyptic 1992, after "World War Terminus", the Earth's radioactively polluted atmosphere leads the United Nations to encourage mass emigrations to off-world colonies to preserve humanity's genetic integrity.
This comes with the incentive of free personal androids: robot servants identical to humans. The characters and text refer to these androids variously as "robots," "machines," and "programmed," but it is made clear that they are constructed of organic materials so similar to a human's that only a tedious "bone marrow analysis" can independently prove the difference. To save time in identifying incognito androids, various polygraph-style tests have been devised; the Rosen Association manufactures the androids on Mars, but certain androids violently rebel and escape to the underpopulated Earth where they hope to remain undetected. Therefore and Soviet police departments remain vigilant, keeping bounty-hunting officers on duty. On Earth, owning real live animals has become a fashionable status symbol, because of mass extinctions and the accompanying cultural push for greater empathy. High-status animals, such as horses, cost far more than low-status animals; however poor people can only afford realistic-looking robot imitations of live animals.
Rick Deckard, for example, owns an electric black-faced sheep. These artificial animals appear and feel identical to real animals, but are described as "electric," having "circuits" and hidden access "control panels," and requiring "repairs." Compared to the android robots, Deckard regards these electric animals as "a kind of vastly inferior robot." The trend of increased empathy has coincidentally motivated a new technology-based religion called Mercerism. Mercerism uses "empathy boxes" to link users to a virtual reality of collective suffering, centered on a martyr-like character, Wilbur Mercer, who eternally climbs up a hill while being hit with crashing stones. Acquiring high-status animal pets and linking in to empathy boxes appear to be the only two ways that humans can attain existential fulfillment. Police department bounty hunter Rick Deckard is assigned to retire six androids of the intelligent Nexus-6 model; these androids are difficult to detect, but Deckard hopes to earn enough bounty money to buy a live animal to replace his lone electric sheep.
Deckard visits the Rosen Association's headquarters in Seattle to confirm the latest empathy test's accuracy. The test appears to give a false positive on Eldon Rosen's niece, meaning the police have been executing human beings. Rosen attempts to blackmail Deckard to get him to drop the case, but Deckard retests Rachael and determines that Rachael is, indeed, an android. Deckard soon meets a Soviet police contact who turns out to be one of the Nexus-6 renegades in disguise. Deckard retires the android flies off to retire his next target: an opera singer android; when administering the empathy test on her, she calls the police. Failing to recognize Deckard as a bounty hunter, they arrest and detain him at a station he has never heard of housed by officers whom he is surprised never to have met. An official named Garland accuses Deckard himself of being an android with implanted memories. After a series of mysterious revelations at the station, Deckard ponders the ethical and philosophical questions his line of work raises regarding android intelligence and what it means to be human.
Garland reveals that the entire station is a sham, claiming that Phil Resch, the station's resident bounty hunter is an android. Resch shoots Garland in the head, escaping with Deckard back to the opera singer, whom Resch brutally retires in cold blood. Deckard uses the empathy test on Resch to confirm that he is human and on himself, finding that he has a sense of empathy for the androids. Deckard buys his wife Iran an authentic Nubian goat with his reward money, his supervisor insists that he visit an abandoned apartment building where the three remaining Nexus-6 android fugitives are. Experiencing a vision of the prophet-like Mercer confusingly telling him to proceed, despite the immorality of the mission, Deckard calls on Rachael Rosen again, since her knowledge of androids will aid his investigation. Rachael declines to help, but reluctantly agrees to meet Deckard at a hotel in exchange for him abandoning the case. At the hotel, she reveals that one of the fugitive androids is the same exact model as herself, meaning that he will have to shoot down an android that looks just like her.
Rachael coaxes Deckard into sex. However, she reveals she has slept with many bounty hunters, having been programmed to do so in order to dissuade them from their missions, he threatens to kill her, but holds b
That's Too Bad
"That's Too Bad" is the debut single by Tubeway Army, the band which provided the initial musical vehicle for Gary Numan. It was released in February 1978 by independent London record label Beggars Banquet. On the day of its release, Numan quit his job in a warehouse to become a professional musician. Although it failed to enter the UK singles charts, "That's Too Bad" nonetheless sold well, taking into account the small numbers pressed and the lowly status of both label and artist. Numan said, "The song was written 99% to get a contract, it was a naive attempt to make punk commercial, which it didn't do!"The B-side of the single was "Oh! Didn't I Say". Both songs are in an aggressive punk rock style different from the synthesizer-based music which became Numan's trademark. At this stage of his career, Numan had not yet found his future stage name and called himself'Valerian'. Webb's compositional credits on the original vinyl single were under the Valerian pseudonym as well; the back of the original vinyl single's sleeve contained two discrepancies: Valerian was spelt'Valeriun'.
It was reached No. 97 in the UK Charts. These tracks have subsequently been included on CD reissues of the album The Plan. "That's Too Bad" – 3:20 "Oh! Didn't I Say" – 2:16 Gary Numan – producer Valerian – vocals, guitar Scarlett – bass guitar Rael – drums Versions of "That's Too Bad" released to date include: The original track, recorded 16 October 1977 at Spaceward Studios, near Cambridge; this version was not released to the public until 1983, re-issued on yellow vinyl in 1985 on the 1978 EP of early Tubeway Army recordings. The single version, a remix by Mick Glossop of the original recording, done at Manor Studio, Oxfordshire; this new mix brought forward the vocals, buried in the earlier version. It was released on 10 February 1978 as Tubeway Army's debut. Both the original and single mixes have since appeared on CD reissues of The Plan. A live version thought to have been recorded in January or February 1978; this was part of a bootleg called Live at the Roxy, released and retitled Living Ornaments'78 on the 1998 CD reissue of the debut album Tubeway Army.
It contained a recording of "Oh! Didn't I Say" from the same gig. A live version recorded on 6 November 1993 and released on the double album Dream Corrosion. Paul Goodwin. Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide to Gary Numan
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
Gary Anthony James Webb, known professionally as Gary Numan, is an English singer, songwriter and record producer. Born in West London, he first entered the music industry as frontman of the new wave band Tubeway Army. After releasing two albums with the band, Numan released his debut solo LP The Pleasure Principle in 1979, topping the UK Albums Chart, he achieved his peak of mainstream popularity in the late 1970s and early 1980s with the No. 1 singles "Are'Friends' Electric?" and "Cars", but maintains a cult following. Numan is considered a pioneer of commercial electronic music, his signature sound consists of heavy synthesiser hooks fed through guitar effects pedals, he is known for his distinctive voice and androgynous "android" persona. In 2017 he received an Ivor Novello Award, the Inspiration Award, from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. Gary Anthony James Webb was born on 8 March 1958 in Hammersmith, West London, the son of a British Airways bus driver based at Heathrow Airport.
He was educated at Town Farm Junior School in Stanwell, Ashford County Grammar School Slough Grammar School in Berkshire, followed by Brooklands Technical College in Surrey. He joined the Air Training Corps as a teenager, he briefly held various jobs including forklift truck driver, air conditioning ventilator fitter, accounts clerk. When Numan was 15 years old, his father bought him a Gibson Les Paul, which he regards as his most treasured possession, he played in various bands, including Mean Street and the Lasers, before forming Tubeway Army with his uncle, Jess Lidyard, Paul Gardiner. His initial pseudonym was "Valerian" in reference to the hero in French science fiction comic series Valérian and Laureline, he picked the surname "Numan" from an advert in the Yellow pages for a plumber whose surname was "Neumann". Numan came to prominence at the mid of the 1970s as lead singer and record producer for Tubeway Army. After recording an album's worth of punk-influenced demo tapes, he was signed by Beggars Banquet Records in 1978 and released two singles, "That's Too Bad" and "Bombers", neither of which charted.
A self-titled, new wave-oriented debut album that same year sold out its limited run and introduced Numan's fascination with dystopian science fiction and synthesisers. Tubeway Army's third single, the dark-themed and slow-paced "Down in the Park" failed to chart, but it would prove to be one of Numan's most enduring and oft-covered songs, it was featured with other contemporary hits on the soundtrack for the 1980 film Times Square, a live version of the song can be seen in the 1982 film Urgh! A Music War. Following exposure in a television advertisement for Lee Cooper jeans with the jingle "Don't Be a Dummy", Tubeway Army released the single "Are'Friends' Electric?" in May 1979. The single took seven weeks before reaching No. 1 at the end of June. A few months Numan found success in the charts on both sides of the Atlantic with "Cars", which peaked at No. 1 in the UK in 1979, No. 1 in Canada and No. 9 in the U. S. in 1980. "Cars" and the 1979 album The Pleasure Principle were both released under Numan's own stage name.
The album reached number-one in the UK, a sell-out tour followed. The Pleasure Principle was a rock album with no guitars. A second single from the album, "Complex", made it to No. 6 on the UK Singles Chart. In 1980, Numan topped the album charts for a third time with Telekon, with the singles "We Are Glass", "I Die: You Die" released prior to the album reaching No. 5 and No. 6. "This Wreckage" taken from the album in December entered the Top 20. Telekon, the final studio album that Numan retrospectively termed the "Machine" section of his career, reintroduced guitars to Numan's music and featured a wider range of synthesisers; the same year he embarked on his second major tour with an more elaborate stage show than the Touring Principle the previous year. He announced his retirement from touring with a series of sell-out concerts at Wembley Arena in April 1981, supported by experimental musician Nash the Slash and Shock, a rock/mime/burlesque troupe whose members included Barbie Wilde and Tok, Carole Caplin.
A live two album set from the 1979 and 1980 tours released at this time reached No. 2 in the charts. Both albums individually released as Living Ornaments'79 and Living Ornaments'80 charted; the decision to retire would be short-lived. Departing from the pure electropop that he had been associated with, Numan began experimenting with jazz and ethereal, rhythmic pop, his first album after his 1981 farewell concerts was Dance. The album charted as high as No. 3 on the UK charts, with an eight-week chart run and produced one hit single reaching No. 6. The album featured several distinguished guest players. With his former backing band, Chris Payne, Russell Bell, Ced Sharpley now reformed as Dramatis, Numan contributed vocals to the minor hit "Love Needs No Disguise" from the album For Future Reference and lent vocals to the first single release by his long-term bassist Paul Gardiner, "Stormtrooper in Drag", which made the charts. However, Numan's career had begun to experience a gradual decline, he was eclipsed by acts s
Bombers (Gary Numan song)
"Bombers" is the second single by Tubeway Army, released in 1978. The song is in a somewhat more conventional rock style than their punk-oriented debut, "That's Too Bad", features sound effects simulating air raid sirens, dive bombers, machine gun fire. Like its predecessor, the single failed to chart, it is one of the few recordings in his career. Though their musical styles differ, the song's subject matter is seen as a thinly disguised rewrite of David Bowie's "Five Years", the opening track of The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. Both songs feature detached observations of urban panic caused by impending catastrophe. "Bombers" is sung from the perspective of both a witness on the bomber pilot. In his review for Record Mirror in October 1978, Robin Smith stated that "..the market for this sort of heavyweight monotony has died." The B-sides were "Blue Eyes", which harked back to the fast-paced punk style of "That's Too Bad", "O. D. Receiver", a slower piece whose lyrics reflected a Burroughsian world of drug addiction.
All tracks on the original vinyl single were credited to'Valerian', the name that Numan had chosen for himself prior to Tubeway Army's début album. "Bombers" was later released as a gatefold with the single "That's Too Bad" "Bombers" – 3:52 "Blue Eyes" – 1:43 "O. D. Receiver" – 2:37 Producers: Kenny Denton Musicians: Gary Numan: Vocals, Guitar Paul Gardiner: Bass guitar Barry Benn: Drums Sean Burke: Guitar Five recordings of "Bombers" have been released: The original demo version, recorded 7–9 March 1978 at Spaceward Studios, near Cambridge; this recording was not released to the public until October 1984, on an album of unissued tracks from the same sessions called The Plan. These sessions featured Gary Numan, Paul Gardiner, Numan's uncle Jess Lidyard on drums; the single version released in July the same year. This session was produced by Kenny Denton, featured a short-lived band line-up of Numan, Barry Benn, Sean Burke, it has since appeared on CD reissues of The Plan. The single features a revised lyric: on the demo, the third verse starts with "All the junkies pulling needles from their arms."
Beggars Banquet feared that the word "junkies" would prevent the song receiving airplay and so, for the single, Numan changed the line to "All the nurses pulling needles from their arms." An ink tracing by Garry Robson of Numan's face on the single's sleeve would provide the design for the 1979 reissue cover of Tubeway Army's eponymously titled debut album. A live version recorded 28 September 1979 at the Hammersmith Odeon and released on the B-side of the single "Complex" that year; this arrangement differed from the earlier recordings, featuring a Roland CR-78 drum machine and synthesizer, along with guitar and conventional percussion. The track was included as a bonus track on various CD re-releases of The Pleasure Principle, as well as on an expanded version of Numan's live album Living Ornaments'79, where it appeared as the first of three songs utilising the same CR-78 preset drum pattern, the others being "Remember I Was Vapour" and "On Broadway"; the Hammersmith recording was released on the limited edition bonus disc issued with The Pleasure Principle 30th anniversary edition.
This edition shows that it was supposed to have been released as part of a Live E. P. in January 1980. Live version, recorded 31 May 1980 in Sydney and released on the live album Engineers; this album was available and for a limited time on Numan's official website in early 2008. Live version, recorded 6 November 1993, released on the album Dream Corrosion; this rendition resembles the original, rock-oriented version of the song rather than the slowed-down version from'The Touring Principle'. Live version, recorded on the Machine Music Tour at the Dome, Brighton on 3rd June 2012, released on Machine Music Live, June 2013. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Tubeway Army (album)
Tubeway Army is the debut album by Tubeway Army, released in 1978. Its initial limited-edition run of 5,000 did not chart; when reissued in mid-1979, following the success of the follow-up Replicas, the more known cover art featuring a stylised portrait of Gary Numan was introduced. This release made No. 14 in the UK album charts. Despite being the band's debut, Tubeway Army was seen as a transitional record, linking the punk flavour of early singles "That's Too Bad" and "Bombers" with the electronic music and science fiction imagery of Replicas; the first track, "Listen to the Sirens", borrowed its opening line from the Philip K. Dick novel Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said, while "Steel and You" contained references to androids; these and a number of other tracks featured primitive synthesizer effects, the legacy of Numan chancing upon a Minimoog in the recording studio one day. Elsewhere, the album’s lyrics inhabited a seedy world, compared to William Burroughs, an author whose influence Numan acknowledged.
"Friends" concerned male prostitution. "Every Day I Die" was about teenage masturbation. "Jo the Waiter" referenced drug addiction. "The Life Machine" was told from the perspective of a comatose man on life support who can only "watch from somewhere as the loved ones come and go". Sonically, the album ranged from hard rock with punk overtones, such as "My Shadow in Vain", "Friends" and "Are You Real?", through the post-punk of "Listen to the Sirens" and "The Dream Police", to the predominantly acoustic "Every Day I Die" and "Jo the Waiter". Major influences cited for this album's overall sound included David Bowie, early Roxy Music and Brian Eno, Lou Reed and The Velvet Underground, early Ultravox. Numan has performed tracks from this album since his early solo career, including "My Shadow in Vain", "Something's in the House", "Every Day I Die" and "The Dream Police". Others that appeared in his live repertoire included "Listen to the Sirens", "Friends" and "Jo the Waiter"; the 1998 CD reissue of Tubeway Army included a live concert a bootleg called Live at the Roxy, retitled as Living Ornaments'78 - a retrospective reference to Numan's official live albums Living Ornaments'79,'80 and'81.
It included early versions of "My Shadow In Vain" and "Friends" as well as a cover of The Velvet Underground's "White Light/White Heat". Crust punk/death metal band Deviated Instinct covered "Listen to the Sirens" on their 1990 EP Nailed; the 1997 Numan tribute album Random featured covers of Tubeway Army songs by Pop Will Eat Itself, The Orb and Dubstar. Terre Thaemlitz recorded a piano version of "Friends", released in 1999 on the Numan tribute album Replicas Rubato. All songs written by Gary Numan except "White Light/White Heat" "Listen to the Sirens" – 3:06 "My Shadow in Vain" – 2:59 "The Life Machine" – 2:45 "Friends" – 2:30 "Something's in the House" – 4:14 "Everyday I Die" – 2:24 "Steel and You" – 4:44 "My Love Is a Liquid" – 3:33 "Are You Real?" – 3:25 "The Dream Police" – 3:38 "Jo the Waiter" – 2:41 "Zero Bars" – 3:12CD bonus tracks "Positive Thinking" – 2:56 "Boys" – 2:13 "Blue Eyes" – 2:03 "You Don't Know Me" – 2:28 "My Shadow in Vain" – 4:13 "Me My Head" – 4:10 "That's Too Bad" – 3:26 "Basic J" – 3:03 "Do Your Best" – 2:40 "Oh!
Didn't I Say" – 2:31 "I'm a Poseur" – 2:30 "White Light/White Heat" – 2:49 "Kill St. Joy" – 3:46 Gary Numan – guitars, lead vocals, keyboards Paul Gardiner – bass guitar, backing vocals Jess Lidyard – drums Gary Numan – producer Mike Kemp – engineer, mixer John Dent – digital remastering numanme.co.uk 1998 CD reissue liner notes
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth