The Tulsa race massacre of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921, when mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history." The attack, carried out on the ground and from private aircraft, destroyed more than 35 square blocks of the district – at that time the wealthiest black community in the United States, known as "Black Wall Street". More than 800 people were admitted to hospitals and as many as 6,000 black residents were interned at large facilities, many for several days; the Oklahoma Bureau of Vital Statistics recorded 36 dead, but the American Red Cross declined to provide an estimate. A 2001 state commission examination of events was able to confirm 39 dead, 26 black and 13 white, based on contemporary autopsy reports, death certificates and other records; the commission gave overall estimates from 75–100 to 150–300 dead. The massacre began over Memorial Day weekend after 19-year-old Dick Rowland, a black shoeshiner, was accused of assaulting Sarah Page, the 17-year-old white elevator operator of the nearby Drexel Building.
He was taken into custody. A subsequent gathering of angry local whites outside the courthouse where Rowland was being held, the spread of rumors he had been lynched, alarmed the local black population, some of whom arrived at the courthouse armed. Shots were fired and twelve people were killed: ten white and two black; as news of these deaths spread throughout the city, mob violence exploded. White rioters rampaged through the black neighborhood that night and morning killing men and burning and looting stores and homes, only around noon the next day Oklahoma National Guard troops managed to get control of the situation by declaring martial law. About 10,000 black people were left homeless, property damage amounted to more than $1.5 million in real estate and $750,000 in personal property. Many survivors left Tulsa. Black and white residents who stayed in the city were silent for decades about the terror and losses of this event; the massacre was omitted from local and national histories. In 1996, seventy-five years after the massacre, a bipartisan group in the state legislature authorized formation of the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.
Members were appointed to investigate events, interview survivors, hear testimony from the public, prepare a report of events. There was an effort toward public education about these events through the process; the Commission's final report, published in 2001, said that the city had conspired with the mob of white citizens against black citizens. The state passed legislation to establish some scholarships for descendants of survivors, encourage economic development of Greenwood, develop a memorial park in Tulsa to the massacre victims; the park was dedicated in 2010. In 2020, the massacre became part of the Oklahoma school curriculum. In 1921, Oklahoma had a racially and politically tense atmosphere; the First World War had ended in 1918 with the return of many ex-servicemen. The American Civil War was still in living memory though it had ended in 1865. Civil rights for disenfranchised peoples were lacking and the Ku Klux Klan was resurgent. Tulsa, as a booming oil city, supported a large number of affluent and professional African Americans.
This combination of factors played a part in the rising tensions which were to culminate in the coming events. The territory of Northern Oklahoma had been established for resettlement of Native Americans from the Southeast, some of whom had owned slaves. Other areas had received many settlers from the South whose families had been slaveholders before the Civil War. Oklahoma was admitted as a state on November 16, 1907; the newly created state legislature passed racial segregation laws known as Jim Crow laws, as its first order of business. The 1907 Oklahoma Constitution did not call for strict segregation. S. President Theodore Roosevelt would veto the document. Still, the first law passed by the new legislature segregated all rail travel, voter registration rules disenfranchised most blacks; that meant they were barred from serving on juries or in local office. These laws were enforced until after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. Major cities passed additional restrictions. In the early 20th century, lynchings were common in Oklahoma as part of a continuing effort to assert and maintain white supremacy.
Between the declaration of statehood and the massacre thirteen years at least 31 persons were lynched in Oklahoma. During the twenty years following the massacre, the number of known lynchings statewide fell to two. On August 4, 1916, Tulsa passed an ordinance that mandated residential segregation by forbidding blacks or whites from residing on any block where three-fourths or more of the residents were of the other race. Although the United States Supreme Court declared such an ordinance unconstitutional the following year and many other border and Southern cities continued to establish and enforce segregation for the next three decades; as returning veterans tried to reenter the labor market following World War I, social tensions and anti-black sentiment increased in cities where job competition was high. At the same time, black veterans pushed to have their civil rights enf
Clotilde Luisi was the first female lawyer in Uruguay. She was a professor, translator, feminist activist, the first Uruguayan woman to study at the Faculty of Law of the University of the Republic. Born in Paysandú in 1882, Luisi was the daughter of Angel Luisi Pisano, an Italian emigre, Josefina Janicki, daughter of Polish exiles in France, she had two sisters and Paulina. Luisi attended the Normal Institute for Girls in Montevideo and completed the qualifications for Normal Teacher of Primary Instruction. In 1900, with a scholarship awarded by the Institute for Deaf-Mute Children of Buenos Aires, she moved to this city to study methods for teaching disabled children. Two years having passed her examinations in this subject area, she returned home and entered the University of the Republic. From 1906 to 1911, she studied Law and Social Science and took her Advocate's degree, being the first woman in Uruguay to do so. Subsequently, she was sent to Europe to represent Uruguay at the Conference of Deaf-Mute Teachers held in Rome.
On her return home, she was appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy and Religion in the Normal Institute for Girls. After organizing the library of the Law School of the University of the Republic, she was appointed to a professorship in that school; when the Women's University was founded in 1913 in Montevideo, Luisi became the first dean, a position which she occupied until 1919. She wrote on historical and philosophical subjects, translated several philosophical works into Spanish, she wrote stories in the "fantastic" vein. Luisi died in Montevideo in 1969. 1953, Regreso y otros cuentos 1958, Treinta jovenes poetas italianos First woman lawyers around the world
Indo-pop known as Indonesian pop is loosely defined as Indonesian pop music. Indonesian pop music today is influenced by trends and recordings from America, Britain and Korea. Although influences ranging from American pop, British pop, Asian J-pop and K-pop are obvious, the Indonesian pop phenomenon is not derivative. J-pop style based JKT48 Koes Bersaudara formed as Koes Plus is considered as one of the pioneer of Indonesian pop and rock'n roll music in 1960s and 1970s; the American and British music influences were obvious in the music of Koes Bersaudara, The Beatles were known to be the main influences of this band. Several Indonesian pop and ballad singers were survived through decades and become Indonesian music legends, such as Iwan Fals and Chrisye. In 2000s, the popular bands include Peterpan, Gigi, Dewa 19, Sheila on 7, D'Masiv and Nidji, all of which are featured on MTV Asia and tour nationwide plus the neighbouring countries of Singapore and Malaysia; these bands have received immense reception in the region, some people have attributed this to the neutral shared vocabulary in songwriting compared to the spoken vernaculars spoken between these countries while some have speculated on the proliferation of pirated cassettes and CDs being the cause.
The popularity of Indonesian music in Malaysia in particular had become so overwhelming that in 2008, demands had been made for radio stations there to restrict the number of Indonesian songs being aired so local musicians would be given a fairer chance. Some of these pop rock bands incorporate traditional Malay roots into their sound, reviving the old Orkes Melayu style once popular in the region across Indonesia and Malaysia; such bands belong to the "Band Pop Melayu" subgenre which became popular in late 2000s with acts like Kangen Band, WALI, Hijau Daun, Angkasa and ST 12. The most recent foreign influences on Indonesian pop musics are the style and genre of J-pop and K-pop. Several bands that follow these music genres' conventions include such as J-Rocks, Zivilia, S. O. S, Hitz and JKT48. Indonesian singers such as Agnez Mo have been gaining popularity in neighbouring Asian countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Philippines; the 2018 single, "Heaven" recorded by Afgan, Isyana Sarasvati and Rendy Pandugo became popular not only in Indonesia but in Taiwan and Sri Lanka too, reaching the top 10 in all four countries.
Tirunettur Mahadeva Temple is located at Vyttila village in Ernakulam district. The temple have Sri Parameswara and Maha Vishnu. Deities having separate temple complex. Both deities are facing east, it is believed that Shiva temple is one of the 108 Shiva temples of Kerala and is installed by sage Parasurama dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is believed that Vilwamangalam Swamiyar visited Thiru Nettur Shiva Temple and he had suggested the construction of the temple of Vishnu idol. Apart from the temples of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu. Deities in the Thirunettur temple include Ganapathy, Subramanya, Saraswati and Pamban Devan. Many people visit Maha Vishnu temple to offer their ancestors on Amavasya day of the Malayalam month of Karkkidakam. Temple is famous for "Vavu Bali"; the temple compound is 5.5 acres. The four sides of the circumference of the Siva temple have been completed and the Nalambalam of Vishnu temple is halved; the temple complex and the lighthouse are built in the Kerala style of architecture.
The prayer hall and the bellikkal pura are beautiful. Since there is no flag mast in the temple, the Kodiyattu festival is uncommon; however Shivarathri celebrate in Shiva temple in the month of February/March and Ashtami Rohini celebrate in Vishnu temple in the month of August/September. 108 Shiva Temples Temples of Kerala Thiru Nettur Temple
Baron 52 was the call sign of a United States Air Force EC-47 carrying eight crew members, shot down over Laos during the predawn hours of 5 February 1973, a week after the Paris Peace Accords ended the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. The remains of four crewmen were recovered from the crash site, but those of the remaining four have never been found. Although the U. S. government considers them to have been killed in action and as late as 1996 listed them as "accounted for", family members and POW/MIA advocates believe the four survived the crash and were taken captive and sent to the USSR. The intelligence gatherers and their equipment would have been valued by the Soviets who maintained a presence both in Laos and North Vietnam; the incident has been featured on several nationwide news programs and a 1991 episode of the U. S. television series Unsolved Mysteries. More recent research by the National Alliance of Families for the Return of America's Servicemen presented to Congress has prompted a status review of the incident scheduled to take place in 2016.
Although the Paris Peace Accords had ended the United States' direct role in the Vietnam War, only a week after its signing the U. S. Air Force sent an EC-47Q electronic warfare collection aircraft on a night-time radio-direction-finding mission to monitor the Ho Chi Minh trail and locate North Vietnamese tanks moving south; the plane, tail number 43-48636, belonged to the 361st Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron and began its mission from Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base. The flight crew were part of the 361st while the collection crew manning the rear of the plane were from Det 3, 6994th Security Squadron. Over Laos, the plane began taking anti-aircraft fire and went down in Salavan Province, Laos about 50 miles east of the city of Salavan and 20 miles from the border with South Vietnam at a site in the jungle within 8 miles of three major roads leading into North Vietnamese-held territory. 361st Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron: Capt. George R. Spitz – Pilot 2nd Lt. Severo J. Primm III – Co-Pilot Capt. Arthur R. Bollinger – Navigator 1st Lt. Robert E. Bernhardt – 3rd Pilot6994th Security Squadron: SSgt.
Todd M. Melton – Radio Operator Sgt. Joseph A. Matejov – Radio Operator Sgt. Peter R. Cressman – Radio Operator Sgt. Dale Brandenburg – Systems Repair Technician The location of the wreckage was first discovered by U. S. Air Force search and rescue on 7 February 1973; the plane was determined to have crashed inverted, coming to rest upside down in the jungle. A team consisting of three pararescuemen and an intelligence expert were on the ground for an hour and found three bodies in the charred wreckage, those of Spitz and Bollinger in the cockpit, still strapped in their seats. Outside of the wreckage, they found Lt. Bernhardt's body. In the rear of the plane they observed that the jump door had been removed, the crew's safety belts were unbuckled, all of the top secret sensitive equipment was missing as were the rear crew's parachutes. On 9 February 1973, Bernhardt's remains were recovered and positively identified four days later. On 22 February, the other seven men were declared killed in action despite no confirmation of the fates of the four members of the collection crew.
The families of the missing crew members believe there is evidence they bailed out and were taken captive by the North Vietnamese Army. They point to information in official reports, such as the fact that their safety belts were unbuckled and their remains were not at the crash site, to support their beliefs that the rear crew had time to bail out. In addition, at 8:00 AM on 5 February, U. S. Intelligence listening post at Phu Bai Combat Base in South Vietnam intercepted NVA communications from the area indicating they were transporting four captured Airmen; such communications continued to be intercepted for the next three months. On record is a Pathet Lao radio intercept regarding four "air pirates" captured the day Baron 52 was shot down. S. aircraft was downed that day. A Laotian operative secretly working for the U. S. reported observing the transport of four prisoners along the road near the crash site. All of these records remained classified by the U. S. government. This evidence was first presented to the American public by columnist Jack Anderson on the U.
S. news program Good Morning America in 1978. During Anderson's report, he stated a "Pentagon spokesman now agrees there's a good chance these four men were survivors of the crash. Yet, the Pentagon deliberately gave the families misinformation". In 1992, in front of the Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, a representative of the Defense Intelligence Agency testified that it was the government's position that these reports were unrelated to Baron 52. In November 1992, the Lao government allowed a team to survey the crash site where a dogtag with Sgt. Matejov's name on it was found, after nearly 20 years. Recovered were 23 bone fragments and half of a tooth which were taken to the Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii, where Ellis R. Kerley publicly stated that the bone fragments "can not be proven conclusively to be human." According to further testimony given before the House Subcommittee by Albert Santoli, Kerley was replaced by "a U. S. Army Lt. Colonel, professionally a dentist, who has limited forensic experience", the bone fragments were declared to be the remains of all seven of the remaining crew members.
The families requested DNA analysis be done on the bone fragments and tooth, but their requests were denied by the govern
The Greenwich Time Signal, popularly known as the pips, is a series of six short tones broadcast at one-second intervals by many BBC Radio stations. The pips were introduced in 1924 and have been generated by the BBC since 1990 to mark the precise start of each hour, their utility in calibration is diminishing. There are six pips in total, which occur on each of the 5 seconds leading up to the hour and on the hour itself; each pip is a 1 kHz tone the first five of which last a tenth of a second each, while the final pip lasts half a second. The actual moment when the hour changes – the "on-time marker" – is at the beginning of the last pip; when a leap second occurs, it is indicated by a seventh pip. In this case the first pip occurs at 23:59:55 and there is a sixth short pip at 23:59:60 followed by the long pip at 00:00:00; the possibility of an extra pip for the leap second thus justifies the final pip being longer than the others, so that it is always clear which pip is on the hour. Before leap seconds were conceived, the final pip was the same length as the others.
Although "negative" leap seconds can be used to make the year shorter, this has never happened in practice. Although broadcast only on the hour by BBC domestic radio, BBC World Service use the signal at other times as well; the signal has on occasion been broadcast in error. Up to 1972 the pips were of equal length and confusion arose as to, the final pip, hence the last pip is now of extended length; the pips are available to BBC radio stations every 15 minutes but except in rare cases, they are only broadcast on the hour before news bulletins or news programmes. BBC Radio 4 broadcast the pips every hour except at 18:00 and 00:00 and at 22:00 on Sundays when they were replaced by the Westminster chimes of Big Ben at the Palace of Westminster. However, the chimes have been suspended temporarily for the duration of the refurbishment of the clock mechanism. No time signal is broadcast at 15:00 at 10:00 and 11:00 on Sundays; this is caused by the scheduling of the afternoon play on Saturday and the omnibus edition of The Archers on Sunday.
On BBC Radio 2, the pips are used at 07:00, 08:00 and 17:00 on weekdays, at 07:00 and 08:00 on Saturdays and at 08:00 and 09:00 on Sundays. The pips were used on Radio 1 during The Chris Moyles Show at 06:30 just after the news, 09:00 as part of the Tedious Link feature, 10 am and before Newsbeat; as most stations only air the pips on the hour, The Chris Moyles Show was the only show where the pips were broadcast on the half-hour. Chris Moyles continues to use the pips at the beginning of his show on Radio X. Zane Lowe's Masterpieces, the playing of an album in its entirety, is begun with pips, they feature at 19:00 on Fridays to signify the start of the weekend and at 16:00 on Sundays to mark the start of The Official Chart Show; the Weekend Breakfast Show with Dev begins with the pips at 06:00, they sometimes feature on the hour at other points during the show, Gemma Cairney's Early Breakfast Show begins with the pips. Dev's previous Early Breakfast Show featured the pips at the beginning, on the half-hour/hour at other points at 06:00 before or after the "I'm Here All Week" track.
The pips are used at 19:00 on Saturday evenings at the start of Radio 1's 12-hour simulcast with digital station BBC Radio 1Xtra. BBC Radio 3 and BBC Radio Five Live do not feature the Greenwich Time Signal in their scheduled programming; the BBC World Service broadcasts the pips every hour. Pips can be heard on many BBC Local Radio stations although their use is up to the discretion of individual stations. A rare quarter-hour Greenwich Time Signal can be heard at 05:15 weekdays on Wally Webb's programme on six BBC Local Radio stations in the east of England, as part of his "synchronised cup of tea" feature. In 1999, pip-like sounds were incorporated into the themes written by composer David Lowe to introduce BBC Television News programmes, they are still used today on BBC World News and BBC News. The BBC does not allow the pips to be broadcast except as a time signal. Radio plays and comedies which have fictional news programmes use various methods to avoid playing the full six pips, ranging from fading in the pips to a version played on On the Hour in which the sound was made into a small tune between the pips.
The News Quiz featured a special Christmas pantomime edition where the pips went missing, the problem was avoided there by only playing individual pips and not the whole set. The 2012 project Radio Reunited, did use the pips not as a time signal, but to commemorate 90 years of BBC Radio; the pips for national radio stations and some local radio stations are timed relative to UTC, from an atomic clock in the basement of Broadcasting House synchronised with the National Physical Laboratory's Time from NPL and GPS. On other stations, the pips are generated locally from a GPS-synchronised clock; the BBC compensates for the time delay in both broadcasting and receiving equipment, as well as the time for the actual transmission. The pips are timed so that they are received on long wave as far as 160 kilometres from the Droitwich AM transmitter, the distance to Central London; as a pre-IRIG and pre-NTP time transfer and transmission system, the pips have been a great technological success. In modern times, time can be transferred to systems with CPUs and operating systems by using BCD or some Unix Time variant.
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