A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a subgrouping of the Scombridae family. The Thunnini comprise 15 species across five genera, the sizes of which vary ranging from the bullet tuna up to the Atlantic bluefin tuna; the bluefin averages 2 m, is believed to live up to 50 years. Tuna and mackerel sharks are the only species of fish that can maintain a body temperature higher than that of the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, is among the fastest-swimming pelagic fish – the yellowfin tuna, for example, is capable of speeds of up to 75 km/h. Found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially, is popular as a game fish; as a result of overfishing, some tuna species, such as the southern bluefin tuna, are threatened with extinction. The term "tuna" derives from Thunnus, the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek: θύννος, romanized:, lit.'tunny-fish' –, in turn derived from θύνω, "rush, dart along". However, the immediate source for the word tuna in English is American Spanish < Spanish atún < Andalusian Arabic at-tūn, assimilated from al-tūn التون:'tuna fish' < Greco-Latin thunnus mentioned above.

The Thunnini tribe is a monophyletic clade comprising 15 species in five genera: family Scombridae tribe Thunnini: the tunas genus Allothunnus: slender tunas genus Auxis: frigate tunas genus Euthynnus: little tunas genus Katsuwonus: skipjack tunas genus Thunnus: albacores, true tunas subgenus Thunnus: bluefin group subgenus Thunnus: yellowfin groupThe cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa, is read left-to-right as if on a timeline. The following cladogram illustrates the relationship between the tunas and other tribes of the family Scombridae. For example, the cladogram illustrates that the skipjack tunas are more related to the true tunas than are the slender tunas, that the next nearest relatives of the tunas are the bonitos of the Sardini tribe; the "true" tunas are those. Until it was thought that there were seven Thunnus species, that Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna were subspecies of a single species. In 1999, Collette established that based on both molecular and morphological considerations, they are in fact distinct species.

The genus Thunnus is further classified into two subgenera: Thunnus, Thunnus. The Thunnini tribe includes seven additional species of tuna across four genera, they are: The tuna is a sleek and streamlined fish, adapted for speed. It has two spaced dorsal fins on its back. Seven to ten yellow finlets run from the dorsal fins to the tail, lunate – curved like a crescent moon – and tapered to pointy tips; the caudal peduncle, to which the tail is attached, is quite thin, with three stabilizing horizontal keels on each side. The tuna's dorsal side is a metallic dark blue, while the ventral side, or underside, is silvery or whitish, for camouflage. Thunnus are but sparsely distributed throughout the oceans of the world in tropical and temperate waters at latitudes ranging between about 45° north and south of the equator. All tunas are able to maintain the temperature of certain parts of their body above the temperature of ambient seawater. For example, bluefin can maintain a core body temperature of 25–33 °C, in water as cold as 6 °C.

However, unlike "typical" endothermic creatures such as mammals and birds, tuna do not maintain temperature within a narrow range. Tunas achieve endothermy by conserving the heat generated through normal metabolism. In all tunas, the heart operates at ambient temperature, as it receives cooled blood, coronary circulation is directly from the gills; the rete mirabile, the intertwining of veins and arteries in the body's periphery, allows nearly all of the metabolic heat from venous blood to be "re-claimed" and transferred to the arterial blood via a counter-current exchange system, thus mitigating the effects of surface cooling. This allows the tuna to elevate the temperatures of the highly-aerobic tissues of the skeletal muscles and brain, which supports faster swimming speeds and reduced energy expenditure, which enables them to survive in cooler waters over a wider range of ocean environments than those of other fish. Unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red.

The red myotomal muscles derive their color from myoglobin, an oxygen-binding molecule, which tuna express in quantities far higher than most other fish. The oxygen-rich blood further enables energy delivery to their muscles. For powerful swimming animals like dolphins and tuna, cavitation may be detrimental, because it limits their maximum swimming speed. If they have the power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed, because collapsing cavitation bubbles on their tail are too painful. Cavitation slows tuna, but for a different reason. Unlike dolphins, these fish do not feel the bubbles, because they have bony fins without nerve endings, they cannot swim faster because the cavitation bubbles create a vapor film around their fins that limits their speed. Lesions have been found on tuna. Tuna is an important commercial fish; the International Seafood Sustainabi

Dark Sanctuary

Dark Sanctuary is a French Dark Atmospheric, Goth Opera band, formed in 1996 in Paris. The band's first official release was a 20-minute single-track music CD, Funeral Cry, released in 1997. At that time, the band consisted of only two members, Arkdae on keyboards and Marquise Ermia on vocals. In 1998, the band added additional members to their line-up: Sombre Cÿr and Eliane. Together, they recorded Royaume Mélancolique, they held their first concert in September 1998 near Paris. In November 1999, they signed with Wounded Love Records, after Marguerite joined, recorded their 2nd album, De Lumière Et d'Obscurité, released in November 2000. Right after the recording sessions, Marquise Ermia left the band to continue her studies, a new singer, Dame Pandora, joined, their third album, L'Être Las - L'envers Du Miroir was released at the beginning of 2003, a few months after the release of a two-track single. After few concerts in France, the band returned to Germany to record their 4th album, Les Mémoires Blessées.

This album, released in early 2004, confirmed Dark Sanctuary's own style while providing a deeper maturity, as well as new musical horizons. In 2005, their first compilation album Thoughts: 9 Years In The Sanctuary was released. Subsequently, they released two albums called Exaudi Vocem Meam - Part 1 and Exaudi Vocem Meam - Part 2, in 2005 and 2006, respectively; as of 2009, they will be on an indefinite hiatus. They have finished recording, shall be releasing, a collaborative effort with Victoria Francés entitled Dark Sanctuary. German rapper Bushido has been charged with copying 16 songs from Dark Sanctuary; the song "Les Mémoires Blessées" was sampled by Bushido on his single "Janine" off his 6th and top-selling album Von der Skyline zum Bordstein zurück. On that album Bushido sampled eight musical works of Dark Sanctuary without permission, including the songs "Les Larmes du méprisé", "L'autre Monde". On 23 March 2010 he was convicted by the German courts, was obliged to stop sales of the particular albums and samples, including Von der Skyline zum Bordstein zurück.

In addition to that, he was bound to destroy all unsold copies. A video was leaked by Marzel Becker and Stephan Heller, two German music reviewers. In the video they compared Dark Sanctuary's songs to Bushido's songs. Royaume Mélancolique De Lumière et d'Obscurité L'être las - L'envers du miroir Les Mémoires Blessées Exaudi Vocem Meam - Part 1 Exaudi Vocem Meam - Part 2 Dark Sanctuary Metal Funeral Cry Vie Éphémère La Clameur du Silence Thoughts: 9 Years in the Sanctuary Current Members: Dame Pandora - vocals Arkdae - keyboards/guitars —, with the Dutch band Deinonychus) Hylgaryss - keyboards/guitars Sombre Cÿr - bass/percussion — Alexis - PercussionFormer Members: Eliane - violins Marguerite - violins Marquise Ermia - vocals Biography on Rock Detector Biography on Metal Storm CD Review on Sonic Cathedral Discography on Spirit of metal Interview with Dark Sanctuary Dark Sanctuary Official Site Dark Sanctuary discography at MusicBrainz Dark Sanctuary at Dark Sanctuary at Encyclopaedia Metallum


Hinder is an American rock band from Oklahoma, formed in 2001 by lead singer Austin Winkler, guitarist Joe "Blower" Garvey, drummer Cody Hanson. The band released four studio albums with Winkler. After Winkler left the band in 2013, they looked for a new lead vocalist, added Marshal Dutton, they have since released: The Reign with their new vocalist. Their seventh studio album is expected in 2020, with the lead single "Halo"; the band was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame in 2007. Before the band formed, Austin Winkler sang in an Oklahoma City cover band until July 2001, when he met drummer Cody Hanson and lead guitarist Joe Garvey at a college party. Soon after meeting, the three formed Hinder. Hanson commented on Austin Winkler shortly after the band formed saying he was "blown away" and "he has the kind of charisma few people have and that unique voice. You can't compare him to anybody." After recruiting bassist Cole Parker, they recorded a 4 track demo disc, with the track listing "Someday", "Like Me", "Broken", "Worthless Home".

The tracks "Someday" and "Broken" would be re-recorded and put on their debut EP Far From Close and the other two tracks "Like Me" and "Worthless Home" still remain unreleased, only being able to find them on their demo CDs, although they are now posted on YouTube. The band began. Profits from the shows went to advertising, as well as paying the expenses for the group's first release. In April 2003, Hinder entered the March Bandness contest for Oklahoma City radio station KHBZ-FM, they made it to the Final Four out of a field of thirty-two losing to the OKC group Falcon Five-O. After saving enough money from local concerts the band's debut EP Far From Close was released in 2003 on the independent label Brickden Records and sold around 5,000 copies. Bassist Mike Rodden was recruited from Oklahoma City band Shade Seven and rhythm guitarist Mark King joined the band that year. Cody Hanson, along with former lead singer Austin Winkler, wrote the majority of the band's music on their first four albums.

After the release of Far from Close, Hinder was offered record deals by Atlantic Records, Roadrunner Records, Universal Records signing with Universal Records in 2005. The album was produced by Brian Howes, along with Cody Hanson and Austin Winkler, wrote most of the material on the album; the album was engineered by Jay Van Poederooyen. The album reached triple-platinum certification for sales,Hinder toured and released singles in support of their first album. Hinder's debut single, "Get Stoned", was released in October 2005; the band's second single, "Lips of an Angel", entered charts in the US, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. The band's third single, "How Long", was released in September 2006 and appeared at number six on the US Billboard Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. In 2006, as a Christmas gift to their fan club, the Hinder Army, the band recorded their version of the public domain song "A Little Drummer Boy" and released it on their fan club website, their second song to be released in New Zealand was "Better Than Me", which spent three weeks on the New Zealand charts, peaking at number 16.

In 2007, Hinder was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, in October of the same year, the band released their limited edition CD/DVD of Extreme Behavior entitled You Can't Make This S**t Up. The first single from the band's second album, "Use Me", was released on July 15, 2008 and peaked at No. 3 on the US Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. The second album, Take It to the Limit, was released on November 4, 2008; the title track features Mötley Crüe's Mick Mars on guitar. They announced the release of the album's second single, "Without You," through their official MySpace page on September 13, 2008. Take It To the Limit debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 with 81,000 sales its first week and ended up going Gold in the US Through late 2008, Hinder headlined the Jägermeister Music Tour with Trapt and Rev Theory on the bill. In early 2009, Hinder embarked on Mötley Crüe's Saints Of Los Angeles Tour, which included Theory of a Deadman and The Last Vegas. In July, Hinder embarked on Nickelback's Dark Horse Tour, which ran through Live Nation outdoor amphitheaters.

On March 27, 2013 Take It To The Limit was certified gold in the US. During early 2010, the band was engaged in writing and recording material for their third album, titled All American Nightmare; the album was released on December 7, 2010, with the first single, the title track, released on September 14, 2010. Although the album was planned to be produced by Howard Benson, Kevin Churko was announced to be the producer. Winkler said. “We wrote 70 or so songs, recorded about 50 and cut it down to 12," the singer explained. "It’s something that we’ve never done before, so it’s like our ultimate baby. A lot of the songs could be shit, too, we don’t know. You don’t know until you put it out there and have more than two people’s opinion on it.” Both he and drummer Cody Hanson mentioned the song "Memory" as one, a strong contende