The Luo are several ethnically and linguistically related Nilotic ethnic groups in Africa that inhabit an area ranging from South Sudan and Ethiopia, through Northern Uganda and eastern Congo, into western Kenya, the Mara Region of Tanzania. Their Luo languages belong to the Nilotic group and as such form part of the larger Eastern Sudanic family. Luo groups in South Sudan include the Shilluk, Pari, Balanda Boor, Thuri and Luwo, those in Uganda include the Alur and Joluo; the Joluo and their language Dholuo are known as the "Luo proper", being eponymous of the larger group. The level of historical separation between these groups is estimated at about eight centuries. Dispersion from the Nilotic homeland in South Sudan was triggered by the turmoils of the Muslim conquest of Sudan; the migration of individual groups over the last few centuries can to some extent be traced in the respective group's oral history. The Luo are part of the Nilotic group of people; the Nilote had separated from the other members of the East Sudanic family by about the 3rd millennium BC.
Within Nilotic, Luo forms part of the Western group. Within Luo, a Northern and a Southern group is distinguished. "Luo proper" or Dholuo is part of the Southern Luo group. Northern Luo is spoken in South Sudan, while Southern Luo groups migrated south from the Bahr el Ghazal area in the early centuries of the second millennium AD. A further division within the Northern Luo is recorded in a "widespread tradition" in Luo oral history: the foundational figure of the Shilluk nation was a chief named Nyikango, dated to about the mid-15th century. After a quarrel with his brother, he moved northward along the Nile and established a feudal society; the Pari people descend from the group. The Anuak are a Luo people whose villages are scattered along the banks and rivers of the southwestern area of Ethiopia, with others living directly across the border in South Sudan; the name of this people is spelled Anyuak and Anywaa. The Anuak of South Sudan live in a grassy region, flat and treeless. During the rainy season, this area floods, so that much of it becomes swampland with various channels of deep water running through it.
The Anuak who live in the lowlands of Gambela are distinguished by the color of their skin and are considered to be Nilotic Africans. The Ethiopian peoples of the highlands are of different ethnicities, identify by lighter skin color; the Anuak have accused the current Ethiopian government and dominant highlands people of committing genocide against them. The government's oppression has affected the Anuak's access to education, health care and other basic services, as well as limiting opportunities for development of the area; the Acholi, another Luo people in South Sudan, occupy what is now called Magwi County in Eastern Equatorial State. They border the Uganda Acoli of Northern Uganda; the South Sudan Acholi numbered about 10,000 on the 2008 population Census. Around 1500, a small group of Luo known as the Biito-Luo, led by Chief Labongo, encountered Bantu-speaking peoples living in the area of Bunyoro; these Luo settled with the Bantu and established the Babiito dynasty, replacing the Bachwezi dynasty of the Empire of Kitara.
According to Bunyoro legend, the first in the line of the Babiito kings of Bunyoro-Kitara, was the twin brother of Kato Kimera, the first king of Buganda. These Luo were assimilated by the Bantu, they lost their language and culture. In the 16th century, other Luo-speaking people moved to the area that encompasses present day South Sudan, Northern Uganda and North-Eastern Congo – forming the Alur and Acholi. Conflicts developed when they encountered the Lango, living in the area north of Lake Kyoga; the Lango speak a Luo language. According to Driberg, the Lango reached the eastern province of Uganda, having traveled southeasterly from the Shilluk area; the Lango language is similar to the Shilluk language. There is not consensus as to whether the Lango share ancestry with the Luo, or if they have closer ethnic kinship with their easterly Ateker neighbours, with whom they share many cultural traits. Between the middle of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, some Luo groups proceeded eastwards.
One group called. They settled in a thickly forested area as a defence against attacks from Bantu neighbours who had settled there; this self-imposed isolation helped them maintain their language and culture amidst Bantu and Ateker communities. Those who went further a field were the Joka Joka Owiny; the Jok Luo moved deeper into the Kaviirondo Gulf. Jo Owiny occupied an area near Ramogi hill in Alego of Siaya district; the Owiny's ruins are still identifiable to this day at Bungu Owiny near Lake Kanyaboli. The other notable Luo group is the Omolo Luo who inhabited Gem areas of Siaya district; the last immigrants were the Jo Kager. Their leader Ochieng Waljak Ger used his advanced military skill to drive away the Omiya or Bantu groups, who were living in present-day Ugenya around 1750AD. Between about 1500 and 1800, other Luo groups crossed into present-day Kenya and into present-day Tanzania, they inhabited the area on the banks of Lake Victoria. According to the Joluo, a warrior chief named Ramogi Ajwang led them into prese
The Pokot people live in West Pokot County and Baringo County in Kenya and in the Pokot District of the eastern Karamoja region in Uganda. They form a section of the Kalenjin ethnic group and speak the Pökoot language, broadly similar to the related Marakwet, Nandi and other members of the Kalenjin language group. Pokot identity formed in the Kerio Valley as early as the late 18th and not than the mid 19th century, it emerged from the assimilation of the Sirkwa era Chok by the Pokotozek section of the Maliri. Early 20th century accounts of the Pokot identify two distinct branches of the community with the caveat that much as two ways of life are detailed, they were one people. Beech identified significant differences between pastoral sections of the Pokot in, he however notes that "it must be therefore borne in mind that, although written of here as two distinct sections, the hill and pastoral Suk are the same". In the early stages of assimilation, there were no notable differences in matters of social organisation, initiation or governance between the two Pokot groupings.
Pokot men were divided into three groupings. Boys once circumcised; the Turkana and Pokot ethnic groups have organized cattle raids against each other. The two groups have been through numerous periods of peace; the number of Pokot speakers in Kenya has been estimated at 783,000 while the number of Pokot speakers in Uganda is etimated at 130,000. Verbal art is important among the Pokot. Proverbs are used with versatility both to make a point. At a gathering of elders, a person may use proverbs to show what a good speaker, they are used to teach younger people the consequences of straying from the moral path. A popular tale, that of the Louwialan clan, is told to warn against pride. Another common tale is that of the blind girl. Riddles are used as a way of sharpening children's wits and capturing their attention during story-telling time; the Pokot have descriptive terms for different classes of speech that man engages in. These are as follows. In November 2014 there was public outrage abroad when pictures of circumcision of young Pokot girls were published in the West, despite Kenya's legal ban on the practice.
Key personalities of recent times from the community include the renowned athlete Tegla Loroupe, who in 2012 appeared in the African top 100 personalities of the year. Stephen Cheptai Lomeri the first elected Pokot Member of Parliament in the Tugen dominated Baringo County. Kamama Asman Abongutum is another key personality from Tiaty constituency, because of the positive contribution he has achieved since he captured power chairman of parliamentary select committee on security under the Ministry of interior and co-ordination of national security. Baroja, Tomás Herreros 1998. Pökot-English, English-Pökot Dictionary, ed. Kacheliba. Beech, M. W. H.. The Suk. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bianco, Barbara 1992; the Historical Anthropology of a Mission Hospital in Northwestern Kenya. A Ph. D. dissertation New York University. Bolling, Michael 1996. Bridewealth and Stockfriendship, the Accumulation of Security through Reciprocal Exchange." In Angewandte Sozialforschung, 1996–1997, Vol. 20: 57-72. Cox, P. S. V. 1972.
The Disease Pattern of the Karapokot and its Relationship to Their Environment and Culture. A dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Medicine. University of London. Dietz, T. 1987. Pastoralists in Dire Straits. A Ph. D. dissertation University of Amsterdam. Kjartan Jonsson 2006. Pokot Masculinity, The Role of Rituals in Forming Men. A Ph. D. dissertation, Reykjavik: University of Iceland, Faculty of Social Sciences. Meyerhoff, Elisabeth L. 1981. The Socio-Economic and Ritual Roles of Pokot women. A Ph. D. dissertation, Lucy Cavendish College, Cambridge. Meyerhoff, Elizabeth L.. "The Threatened Ways of Kenya's Pokot People". National Geographic. Vol. 161 no. 1. Pp. 120–140. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Reckers, Ute 1992. Nomadische Viehalter in Kenya: die Ost-Pokot aus human-ökologischer Sicht. Hamburg: Institut für Afrika-Kunde im Verbund der Stiftung Deutsches Übersee-Institut. ISBN 3-928049-12-7 Reynolds, John Eric 1982. Community Development and Stratification in a Rural Destination: Mnagei, Kenya. A Ph.
D. dissertation, University of Washington. Schladt, Matthias 1997. Kognitive Strukturen von Körperteilvokabularien in Kenianischen Sprachen. Köln: Institut für Afrikanistik / Universität zu Köln. Schneider, Harold K. 1953. The Pakot of Kenya, with Special Reference to the Role of Livestock in Their Subsistence Economy. PhD Dissertation, Northwestern University. Tully, Dorene R. 1985. Human Ecology and Political Process: The Context of Market Incorporation in West-Pokot District, Kenya. A Ph. D. dissertation, University of Washington. Visser, J. J. 1989. Pökoot Reli
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
A zebu, sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in South Asia. Zebu are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap, sometimes drooping ears, they are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle. Zebu are used as draught and riding animals, dairy cattle, beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. Zebu, namely Miniature Zebu, are kept as companion animals. In 1999, researchers at Texas A&M University cloned a zebu; the scientific name of zebu cattle was Bos indicus, but they are now more classified within the species Bos taurus as B. t. indicus, together with taurine cattle and the extinct ancestor of both of them, the aurochs. Taurine cattle are descended from the Eurasian aurochs, while zebu are descended from the Indian aurochs.
"Zebu" may be either singular or plural, but "zebus" is an acceptable plural form. The Spanish name, cebu or cebú, is present in a few English works. Zebu cattle are thought to be derived from Indian aurochs, sometimes regarded as a subspecies, B. p. namadicus. Wild Asian aurochs disappeared during the time of the Indus Valley Civilisation from its range in the Indus River basin and other parts of the South Asian region due to interbreeding with domestic zebu and resultant fragmentation of wild populations due to loss of habitat. Archaeological evidence including depictions on pottery and rocks suggests that the species were present in Egypt around 2000 BC and were thought to be imported from the near east or south. Bos indicus is believed to have first appeared in sub-Saharan Africa between 700 and 1500 and was introduced to the Horn of Africa around 1000; some 75 breeds of zebu are split about evenly between African breeds and Indian ones. The major zebu cattle breeds of the world include Gyr and Guzerat, Indo-Brazilian, Sibi Bhagnari, White Nukra, Cholistani, Lohani, Ongole, Red Sindhi and Kenana, Tharparkar, Southern Yellow, Kedah-Kelantan and Local Indian Dairy.
Kedah-Kelantan and LID originated from Malaysia. Other breeds of zebu are quite local, like the Hariana of Haryana and eastern Punjab or the Rath of Alwar in eastern Rajasthan; the African sanga cattle breeds originated from hybridization of zebu with indigenous African humpless cattle. Sanga cattle can be distinguished from pure zebu by having smaller humps located farther forward on the animals. Zebu were imported to Africa over many hundreds of years, interbred with taurine cattle there. Genetic analysis of African cattle has found higher concentrations of zebu genes all along the east coast of Africa, with pure cattle on the island of Madagascar, either implying that the method of dispersal was cattle transported by ship or alternatively, the zebu may have reached East Africa via the coastal route much earlier and crossed over to Madagascar. Partial resistance to rinderpest led to another increase in the frequency of zebu in Africa. Zebu, which can tolerate extreme heat, were imported into Brazil in the early 20th century and crossbred with Charolais cattle, a European taurine breed.
The resulting breed, 63% Charolais and 37% zebu, is called the Canchim. It has a better meat quality than the zebu and better heat resistance than European cattle; the zebu breeds used were Indo-Brazilian with some Nelore and Guzerat. Another Charolais cross-breed with Brahmans is called Australian Charbray and is recognised as a breed in some countries. Many breeds are complex mixtures of the zebu and various taurine types, some have yak, gaur, or banteng genes. Zebu are common in much of Asia, including China, India and all countries in Southeast Asia. In Asia, taurine cattle are only found in the northern regions such as Japan and Mongolia domesticated separately from the other taurine cattle originating from Europe and Africa). Other species of cattle domesticated in parts of Asia include yak, gaur and water buffalo. Hanwoo is a traditional Korean taurine–zebu hybrid breed. Zebu have humps on the shoulders, large dewlaps, droopy ears. Compared to taurine cattle, zebus are well adapted to the dry environment of the tropics.
Adaptations include resistance to tolerance of intense heat and sunlight. Zebu are mature enough to begin reproducing around 44 months old; this is based on the development of their bodies to withstand the strain of lactation. Early reproduction can place too much stress on the body and shorten lifespans. Carrying time of the calf averages at 285 days, but varies depending on the age and nutrition of the mother; the sex of the calf may affect the carrying time, as male calves are carried for a shorter period than females. Location, body weight, season affect the overall health of the animal and in return may affect the carrying period. Zebu are used as draught and riding animals, dairy cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides, dung for fuel and manure, bone for knife handles and the like. Zebu miniature zebu, are kept as pets. B. T. indicus cows have low production of milk. They do not produce milk until maturation in their lives and do not produce much, giving it to their calves; when B. t. indicus is crossed wi
H. E. Hon. Wycliffe Ambetsa Oparanya, EGH is a Kenyan politician, serving as the incumbent governor of Kakamega County and Council of Governors chairperson, he was elected 4 March 2013 and became the first governor of Kakamega County following promulgation of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, subsequently in August 2017, for his second term as the governor. He is, the pioneer Governor of Kakamega County under the devolved system of governance in Kenya that established 47 counties, he was Minister of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 in the government of President Mwai Kibaki. He was appointed on 14 January 2019 as the Council of Governors of Kenya chairperson. Wycliffe Oparanya was born at Emabole in Butere Constituency Western Kenya on 25 March 1956, he attended Kisii High School. He proceeded and acquired Bachelor of Commerce and an MBA from the University of Nairobi and is in the process of completing his PhD at the University of Dar- es- Salaam, Tanzania, he is a certified public accountant and a member of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.
He was awarded the prestigious recognition for his contribution to the accounting profession in 2014 and became a Fellow of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. He was a member of numerous other professional bodies. Hon. Oparanya has 23 years experience in local and international Finance Management and Business Consultancy, he belongs to the Orange Democratic Movement and represented Butere Constituency in the National Assembly of Kenya since the Kenyan parliamentary election, 2007. Oparanya was among ministers appointed by secondment of Prime Minister Raila Odinga from The Orange Democratic Movement party after the prime minister signed the National Accord Act to form a coalition government with President Kibaki after the disputed 2007 elections. Before joining politics in 2002, Oparanya worked at the Kenya Aerotec Ltd as chief financial controller, he plunged into politics and captured the Butere seat from Amukowa Anangwe
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
The Ethiopian Empire known as Abyssinia, was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg; the territory of present-day Eritrea became Italian Eritrea. Following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African nations to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa by the European imperial powers in the late 19th century. Ethiopia remained independent after defeating Italians during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. After the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italian Empire occupied Ethiopia for five years and established the Italian East Africa colony in the region; the Italians were driven out with the help of the British army. The country was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945. By 1974, Ethiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state, together with Japan and Iran under the Pahlavi dynasty.
It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor. Ethiopia's human occupation began early, it is believed that the ancient Egyptians claimed that Punt, known as gold country, was in Ethiopia in 980 BC. According to the Kebra Nagast, Menelik I founded the Ethiopian empire in the 1st century BC, around when the Axumite Empire was established. In the 4th century, under King Ezana of Axum, the kingdom adopted Christianity as the state religion, it was thus one of the first Christian states. After the conquest of Aksum by Queen Gudit or Yodit, a period began which some scholars refer to as the Ethiopian Dark Ages. According to Ethiopian tradition, she ruled over the remains of the Aksumite Empire for 40 years before transmitting the crown to her descendants. In 1063AD the Sultanate of Showa describes the passing of their overlord Badit daughter of Maya; the earliest Muslim state in Ethiopia, the Makhzumi dynasty with its capital in Wahal, Hararghe region succeeds Queen Badit. The Zagwe kingdom another dynasty with its capital at Adafa, emerged not far from modern day Lalibela in the Lasta mountains.
The Zagwe continued the Orthodox Christianity of Aksum and constructed many rock-hewn churches such as the Church of Saint George in Lalibela. The dynasty would last until its overthrow by a new regime claiming descent from the old Aksumite kings. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite kings and, from Solomon; the eponymously named Solomonic dynasty was founded and ruled by the Abyssinians, from whom Abyssinia gets its name. The Abyssinians reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century; this dynasty governed large parts of Ethiopia through much of its modern history. During this time, the empire annexed various kingdoms into its realm; the dynasty successfully fought off Italian and Egyptian forces and made fruitful contacts with some European powers. In 1529, the Adal Sultanate's forces led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi invaded the Ethiopian Empire in what is known as the Abyssinian–Adal war; the Adal occupation lasted fourteen years.
During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. In 1543, with the help of the Portuguese Empire, the Solomonic dynasty was restored. In 1543, Emperor Gelawdewos beat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi armies and Ahmad himself was killed at the Battle of Wayna Daga, close to Wegera; this victory allowed the Empire to reconquer progressively the Ethiopian Highlands. In 1559 Gelawdewos was killed attempting to invade Adal Sultanate, his severed head was paraded in Adal's capital Harar; the Ottoman Empire, distated by the defeat of its ally Gragn, made another attempt at conquering Ethiopia, from 1557, establishing Habesh Eyalet, the province of Abyssinia, by conquering Massawa, the Empire’s main port and seizing Suakin from the allied Funj Sultanate in what is now Sudan. In 1573 Harar attempted to invade Ethiopia again however Sarsa Dengel defended the Ethiopian frontier.
The Ottomans were checked by Emperor Sarsa Dengel victory and sacking of Arqiqo in 1589, thus containing them on a narrow coast line strip. The Afar Sultanate maintained the remaining Ethiopian port at Baylul. Oromo migrations through the same period, occurred with the movement of a large pastoral population from the southeastern provinces of the Empire. A contemporary account was recorded from the Gamo region. Subsequently, the empire organization changed progressively, with faraway provinces taking more independence. A remote province such as Bale is last recorded paying tribute to the imperial throne during Yaqob reign. By 1607, Oromos were major players in the imperial politics, when Susenyos I, raised by a clan through gudifacha, took power, he was helped by fellow Luba age-group generals Mecha and Densa, who were rewarded by Rist feudal lands, in the present-day Gojjam districts of the same name. Susenyos reign was marked by his short-lived conversion to Catholicism, which ignited a major civil war.
His son Fasilides I reverted the move. The reign of Iyasu I the Great was a major period of consolidation, it saw the dispatching of