Minnehaha County, South Dakota
Minnehaha County is a county on the eastern border of the state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 169,468, making it the most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is the largest city in the state. The county was created in 1862 and organized in 1868, its name was derived from the Sioux word Mnihaha, meaning "rapid water," or "waterfall". Minnehaha County is part of the Sioux Falls, SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, the largest in the state, it is the site of a former listed Superfund site, the Williams Pipeline Company Disposal Site, cleaned up under direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency to contain and remove environmental hazards. Minnehaha County lies on the east side of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota as well as the north and west boundary lines of the state of Iowa. The Big Sioux River flows south-southeasterly through the east central part of the county, its terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture except around built-up areas, dotted with lakes and ponds in its western portion.
Its terrain slopes to the south, in addition the east and west edges slope to the river valley through the center of the county. Its highest point is in the NW corner, at 1,752' ASL. Minnehaha County has a total area of 814 square miles, of which 807 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Sioux Falls Regional Airport Wheelborg Landing Field, a small airport in Dell Rapids As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 148,281 people, 57,996 households, 37,581 families in the county; the population density was 183 people per square mile. There were 60,237 housing units at an average density of 74 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.03% White, 1.51% Black or African American, 1.85% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. 2.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 57,996 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.20% were non-families.
27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.04. The county population contained 26.20% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 32.00% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,566, the median income for a family was $52,031. Males had a median income of $32,208 versus $24,691 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,713. About 5.00% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 169,468 people, 67,028 households, 42,052 families in the county; the population density was 210.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 71,557 housing units at an average density of 88.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.1% white, 3.8% black or African American, 2.5% American Indian, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.8% were German, 17.7% were Norwegian, 11.6% were Irish, 6.8% were Dutch, 6.3% were English, 3.2% were American. Of the 67,028 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $51,799 and the median income for a family was $64,645. Males had a median income of $40,187 versus $31,517 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $26,392. About 6.9% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Minnehaha is a Republican county with only one Democratic presidential candidate, Michael Dukakis in 1988, receiving an absolute majority in the last fifty years. Humboldt Sherman Anderson Meadow View Addition Pine Lakes Addition Renner Corner East Sioux Falls Eminija South Sioux Falls West Sioux Falls Wingert National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnehaha County, South Dakota Minnehaha County, SD government website Envision 2035 Comprehensive Plan webpage Capture Minnehaha County website "Minnehaha"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Clay County, South Dakota
Clay County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,864; the county seat is Vermillion, home to the University of South Dakota. The county is named for Henry Clay, American statesman, US Senator from Kentucky, United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Clay County comprises the Vermillion, SD Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Sioux City-Vermillion, IA-SD-NE Combined Statistical Area; the future Clay County area was opened for legal settlement in 1859. In Autumn 1859, Ahira A. Partridge crossed the Missouri river into the Dakota territory, became the first white man to settle, on 160 acres of land that now underlies Vermillion. In 1862 the county was formally organized; the Clay County Courthouse was built in 1912. Clay County is the name of 17 other counties in the United States, most of them named for Henry Clay. Clay County lies on the south line of South Dakota; the south boundary line of Clay County abuts the north line of the state of Nebraska.
The Missouri River flows SE along the south boundary line of Clay County. A small drainage creek flows into the county from Turner County, draining the central and eastern portions of the county and discharging into the river. Smaller drainages move water from the western county areas into the river. In addition to sloping into the drainage through the center of the county, the terrain slopes to the south; the area is devoted to agriculture. The county has a total area of 417 square miles, of which 412 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. It is the smallest county by area in South Dakota. South Dakota Highway 19 South Dakota Highway 46 South Dakota Highway 50 Missouri National Recreational River Spirit Mound Historic Prairie As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 13,537 people, 4,878 households, 2,721 families in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 5,438 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile. There were 4,878 households out of which 28.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.20% were non-families.
31.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 18.80% under the age of 18, 31.50% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 15.80% from 45 to 64, 10.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,864 people, 5,110 households, 2,628 families in the county; the population density was 33.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,639 housing units at an average density of 13.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.1% white, 3.1% American Indian, 1.7% Asian, 1.3% black or African American, 0.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.9% were German, 16.4% were Norwegian, 15.8% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 5.4% were Swedish, 1.8% were American.
Of the 5,110 households, 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.6% were non-families, 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 25.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,198 and the median income for a family was $61,159. Males had a median income of $37,059 versus $28,016 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,518. About 8.0% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. The racial makeup of the county was 92.78% White, 1.00% Black or African American, 2.66% Native American, 1.95% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. 0.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.0 % were of 9.9 % Irish and 5.4 % English ancestry.
From 2000 Census data, over 50% consider themselves "unclaimed". Mainline Protestant with 3,840 is most common around 28%. University of South Dakota - In 1862 the territorial legislature located the State University in Vermillion, but nothing was done until 1882 when Clay County voted $10,000 in bonds to construct a building on its campus. Irene Vermillion Wakonda Largely due to the presence of the University of South Dakota, Clay County has voted for Democratic Party candidates for president from 1988 onward by double digit margins. National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, South Dakota Clay County, SD Clay County, Historical Society South Dakota Association of County Officials
U.S. Route 18
U. S. Route 18 is an east–west U. S. highway in the Midwestern United States. The western terminus is in Orin, Wyoming at an interchange with Interstate 25, its eastern terminus is in downtown Wisconsin. However, US 18 runs concurrent with other U. S. routes from its western terminus to Wyoming. US 18 is one of the original United States highways of 1926; the US 18 designation was proposed for a road in Michigan from Grand Haven east to Detroit. This roadway was designated as U. S. Route 16. In Wyoming, US 18 runs concurrent with U. S. Route 20 from Interstate 25 to Lusk, where US 18 branches off to run concurrently with U. S. Route 85. At the unincorporated community of Mule Creek Junction in northeastern Niobrara County, US 18 leaves US 85; this ten-mile stretch from US 85 to the South Dakota border is the only segment of US 18 in Wyoming, not co-signed with another highway. U. S. 18 enters South Dakota west of Edgemont. It passes through Hot Springs, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the Rosebud Indian Reservation and Gregory before crossing the Missouri River near Pickstown over the Fort Randall Dam.
East of the Missouri River, U. S. 18 passes through Lake Andes and Tripp before a brief concurrency with Interstate 29 near Worthing. East of I-29, U. S. 18 passes through Canton before crossing the Big Sioux River into Iowa. The Oyate Trail is one of the names given to the section of US-18 traveling across South Dakota from I-29 east of Vermillion to Maverick Junction. Named in an attempt to encourage more tourism traffic through the lands of various AmerInd tribes in southern South Dakota, it passes through or near the Yankton Sioux Indian Reservation, the Rosebud Indian Reservation, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, crossing the James River Valley, the Missouri River near Fort Randall Dam, portions of Pine Ridge, the High Plains of South Dakota, connecting the urban areas of the middle Missouri River with the Black Hills. Portions of the road were known as the Grant Highway, Black Hills Sioux Trail, as part of the Omaha and Black Hills Highway and the Custer Battlefield Trail. Towns along the road include Gregory, Olivet, Martin and Pine Ridge.
Nearby towns and locales of interest include Rosebud, Wounded Knee. The South Dakota section of U. S. 18, other than the concurrency with Interstate 29, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-141. U. S. 18 enters Iowa via a Big Sioux River crossing northeast of Beloit. It overlaps U. S. Route 75 for a mile near Hull and U. S. Route 59 for a mile near Sanborn, it overlaps U. S. Route 71 through Spencer. U. S. 18 passes through Emmetsburg before intersecting U. S. Route 169 at Algona. U. S. 18 continues east through Garner before intersecting Interstate 35 in Clear Lake. After a brief concurrency with I-35, U. S. 18 continues as a freeway bypassing Mason City to the south. At Charles City, U. S. 18 becomes a rural two-lane highway again, except for a brief concurrency with the U. S. Route 63 bypass of New Hampton. After passing through West Union, it turns northeast and joins U. S. Route 52 at Postville leaving 52 about 7 miles east of Monona before crossing the Mississippi River into Wisconsin via the Marquette–Joliet Bridge in the city of Marquette.
U. S. 18 is the designated route of the Avenue of the Saints between Charles City. Upon entry into Wisconsin at Prairie du Chien, US 18 is the terminus for WIS 60; the two routes are concurrent until Bridgeport where WIS 60 splits off to the east and US 18 crosses the Wisconsin River and turns east on the other side. The route joins the US 151 expressway in Dodgeville and the two remain concurrent east to Madison. US 18 follows US 12 south of Madison and passes through or around Cambridge and Waukesha before terminating in Milwaukee at the junction of East Michigan Street and Lincoln Memorial Drive in downtown. Wyoming I‑25 / US 20 / US 26 / US 87 in Orin. US 18/US 20 travel concurrently to Lusk. US 85 in Lusk; the highways travel concurrently to the northeastern part of Niobrara County. South Dakota US 385 in Hot Springs; the highways travel concurrently to Oelrichs. US 83 west of Mission; the highways travel concurrently to Mission. US 183 southeast of Witten; the highways travel concurrently to Colome.
US 281 east-southeast of Fairfax. The highways travel concurrently to south of Armour. US 81 east of Menno I‑29 south-southwest of Worthing; the highways travel concurrently for 3.02 miles. Iowa US 75 in Lincoln Township; the highways travel concurrently through the township. US 59 in Sanborn; the highways travel concurrently to Franklin Township. US 71 in Spencer; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 169 in Algona US 69 in Garfield Township; the highways travel concurrently to Garner. I‑35 in Clear Lake; the highways travel concurrently to Lake Township. US 65 in Mason City US 218 in Floyd; the highways travel concurrently to Charles City. US 63 in New Hampton; the highways travel concurrently to Dresden Township. US 52 in Post Township; the highways travel concurrently to Giard Township. Wisconsin US 61 in Fennimore; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 151 east of Dodgeville; the highways travel concurrently to Madison. US 12 / US 14 in Madison. US 12/US 18 travel concurrently to Cambridge.
US 14/US 18 travel concurrently through Madison. US 51 in Madison I‑39 / I‑90 in Madison I‑94 northeast of Waukesha Michigan Street/Lincoln Memorial Drive in Milwaukee U. S. Route 18 Bypass in Hot Springs, South Dakota U. S. Route 18 Business in Mason City, Iowa U. S. Route 18 Business in Marquette and McGregor, I
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
U.S. Route 81
U. S. Route 81 is a major north-south highway that extends for 1220 miles in the central United States and is one of the earliest United States Numbered Highways established in 1926 by the US Department of Agriculture Bureau of Public Roads; the route of US-81 follows that of the old Meridian Highway which dates back as early as 1911. The highway has alternately been known as part of the Pan-American Highway. In the segment in the State of Oklahoma, the highway corresponds to the old Chisholm Trail for cattle drives from Texas to railheads in Kansas in the 1860s and 1870s; as of 2004, the highway's northern terminus is just north of Pembina, North Dakota at the Canada–US border. At this point, it is routed along Interstate 29 and continues northward into Manitoba on Highway 75 that leads to Winnipeg, its southern terminus is in Fort Worth, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35W. Between the inception of the numbered highway system in 1926 through 1991, US 81's southern terminus was at the Mexican border in Laredo, Texas.
In 1991, the terminus was moved to San Antonio. The route was shortened to its present length of 1,234 miles in 1993, when the terminus was moved to Fort Worth. In both cases, the dropped portions of US 81 were replaced by Interstate 35. Portions of former US-81 south of Fort Worth continue to exist as business loops of I-35; the decommissioning of portions of U. S. 81 that have been displaced by concurrent Interstate highways means that U. S. 81 no longer extends from the Canada–US border to the Mexico—US border, while one of its "children", U. S. Route 281 does extend to both borders; as a result of decommissioning portions of US 81, the length of U. S. 81 is 672 miles shorter than of its "child." US 81 at its inception in 1926 followed the route of State Highway 2, which began in Laredo and passed through San Antonio, Austin and Fort Worth before passing over the Red River into Oklahoma four miles north of Ringgold. The 1936 Official Map of the Highway System of Texas shows the route labeled both as US 81 and S.
H. 2. It was cosigned with U. S. Highway 83 for 18 miles from Laredo to 2 miles south of Webb, with U. S. Highway 79 for 18 miles from Austin north to Round Rock, with U. S. Highway 77 for 33 miles from Waco to Hillsboro. In 1940 U. S. Highway 287 was extended south into Texas, a 67-mile stretch from Fort Worth northwest to Bowie was cosigned with US 81; the Summer 1941 Texas Highway Map shows this pairing, the current southern terminus of US 81 is still cosigned with US 287. The Spring and Summer 1949 Texas Highway Department Official Map designates the length of US 81 from Laredo to Fort Worth as part of the National System of Interstate Highways, but no numeric designation is given, it was not until 1959 that parts of US 81 in Texas appeared on the Texas Official Highway Travel Map cosigned with Interstate 35 shields. Succeeding maps reflect the slow completion of I-35 and I-35W over the stretch of US 81 between Laredo and Fort Worth, with the 1978-79 Texas Official Highway Travel Map showing only a 14-mile section from Encinal north to 3 miles south of Artesia Wells as incomplete, the 1980 Texas Official Highway Travel Map showing that section completed.
In 1980, US 81 was cosigned with I-35 and I-35W except where the Interstate bypassed towns, with US 81 providing the main route through town and reconnecting with I-35 on the other side. The longest section of US 81 in 1980 not cosigned with the Interstate ran from I-35 in Hillsboro 20 miles north to I-35W, just north of Grandview. Enid, El Reno and Duncan are major Oklahoma towns on the highway. Among the elders throughout the small towns that are dotted along Route 81 in Oklahoma, the sixth meridian is known among the locals as the "Indian Meridian" but Route 81 is not known as the "Indian Meridian Highway." The Indian Meridan is located some 40 miles east and parallel of U. S. Route 81. By pure coincidence, the Chisholm Trail of the Post-Civil-War decades followed along the corridor of present-day Route 81. Nearly all of US-81 in Kansas is either expressway; the route enters Kansas as a two-lane near Caldwell. From South Haven to Wichita it parallels Interstate 35, known as the Kansas Turnpike in that area.
After South Haven, the only town of any significance along US 81 until Wichita is Wellington, just west of the Turnpike along U. S. Route 160. At Wichita, US-81 joins Interstate 135; the two highways remain joined with I-135's mile markers taking precedence. Interstate 135 ends at Interstate 70 but US-81 continues as a freeway to Minneapolis as an expressway passing through Concordia before exiting the state north of Belleville; the alignment of US-81 from Wichita to Salina prior to the completion Interstate 135 is intact. The prior alignment ran from where current US-81 breaks off for Interstate 135 at 47th street, north through Wichita along Broadway street. Old US-81 parallels Interstate 135 to Newton. Ol US-81 follows current K-15 through Newton between an interchange with US-50 and Hesston Road, where old US-81 breaks northwest onto Hesston road. Old US-81 travels through the small Kansas towns of Hesston and Elyria, before turning to the nort
South Dakota's at-large congressional district
South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of South Dakota. Based on area, it is the fourth largest congressional district in the nation; the district is represented by Dusty Johnson. The district was created when South Dakota achieved statehood on November 2, 1889, electing two members At-Large. Following the 1910 Census a third seat was gained, with the legislature drawing three separate districts; the third district was eliminated after the 1930 Census. Following the 1980 Census the second seat was eliminated. Since 1983, South Dakota has retained a single congressional district. Hillary Clinton of New York won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota Democratic Primary with 55.35% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while Barack Obama of Illinois received 44.65%. The state/at-large congressional district gave Clinton her final win during the course of the historic and drawn-out 2008 Democratic Presidential Primary season. U. S. Representative Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, who had endorsed John Edwards, decided to support Obama before her state/congressional district voted in the primary for Clinton.
John McCain of Arizona won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota GOP Primary with 70.19% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while libertarian-leaning Ron Paul of Texas finished in second place in the state/congressional district with 16.52%. Incumbent U. S. Representative Bill Janklow resigned the seat January 20, 2004, after he was convicted of second-degree manslaughter, triggering a special election. Democrat Stephanie Herseth was selected as the Democratic nominee for this special election and she defeated Republican Larry Diedrich with 51 percent of the vote in a close-fought election on June 1, 2004. Herseth's victory gave the state its first all-Democratic congressional delegation since 1937. In the November general election, Herseth was elected to a full term with 53.4 percent of the vote, an increase of a few percentage points compared with the closer June special elections. Herseth's vote margin in June was about 3,000 votes, but by November it had grown to over 29,000. Herseth thereby became the first woman in state history to win a full term in the U.
S. Congress. Both elections were hard-fought and close compared to many House races in the rest of the United States, the special election was watched by a national audience; the general election was viewed as one of the most competitive in the country, but was overshadowed in the state by the competitive U. S. Senate race between Democrat Tom Daschle and Republican John Thune, which Thune narrowly won. Two seats were created in 1889, they were changed into three districts in 1913. One at-large seat remained after 1983. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2004 campaign finance data