The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea, west of Tuscany, Italy. The islands' proximity to several major cities has made them a favourite tourist location. History and literature have ensured that most people are familiar with the islands of Elba and Montecristo. Legends says the archipelago originates from a necklace that Venus, the Roman goddess of beauty and sensuality, lost while emerging from the Tyrrhenian sea; the seven islands are in fact seven pearls. The Tuscan Archipelago contains seven major islands; the Archipelago extends 166 kilometres from the northernmost island to the southernmost and 56 kilometres from the westernmost to the Tuscan coast. Main Islands: There are several islets in the archipelago including: and skerries as: Others islets and skerries that are not part of the archipelago: The Tuscan Archipelago represents a region of correlation between the Sardinia-Corsica block and the Italian Peninsula; the origin of the archipelago dates to the Triassic period according to the type of the rocks.
In the Quaternary the archipelago was related to the sea level fluctuations due to the glacial and interglacial periods. The Würm glaciation was followed by a warming phase, the sea rose to reach its current level; the archipelago is distinguished by some endemic taxa which are protected in order to avoid the loss of the biodiversity of fauna and flora. The most important are Oxychilus pilula of Capraia. 31 species of mammals, several introduced, are known from the Tuscan archipelago, with the greatest diversity on Elba, with 24 species. The introduction of the wild boar to Elba several years ago has caused problems regarding the conservation of some plant species. All the islands of the Tuscan Archipelago are a place where the migrant birds take a stop along their seasonal movement from north to south and vice versa; the Falco peregrinus brookei nests on Elba and Capraia, the shearwater and the rare Audouin's gull are common on all the islands. The rich productivity of the coastal waters provides habitats for various marine life dolphins and whales, including fin and sperm whales.
The archipelago is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with high insolation all year round. The archipelago's flora differs from island to island. Elba has a complex orography including the mountain Mount Capanne which favoured the preservation of the chestnut, the holm oak and the black alder on the northern side; the main plant formations are those of shrubs of Erica, strawberry tree, mastic, Mediterranean buckthorn and Phoenician juniper. The endemic species of the archipelago are Centaurea aetalieae, Centaurea gymnocarpa, Centaurea ilvensis, Crocus ilvensis, Limonium doriae, Limonium gorgonae, Limonium ilvae, Limonium planesiae, Limonium sommerierianum, Linaria capraria, Romulea insularis and Silene capraria. Endemic taxa of lower rank are Biscutella pichiana subsp. Ilvensis, Festuca gamisansii subsp. Aethaliae, Mentha requienii subsp. Bistaminata and Viola corsica subsp. Ilvensis. Elba is a Mediterranean island in 10 kilometres from the coastal town of Piombino; the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia.
It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 50 kilometres east of the French island of Corsica. Isola del Giglio is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, is part of the Province of Grosseto; the island is one of seven that form the Tuscan Archipelago, lying within the Arcipelago Toscano National Park. Giglio means "lily" in Italian, though the name would appear consistent with the insignia of Medici Florence, it derives from Aegilium, "Goat Island", a Latin transliteration of the Greek word for "little goat". Capraia is an Italian island, is the north-westernmost of the seven islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, the third largest after Elba and Giglio; the island has a population of about 400. Montecristo is part of the Tuscan Archipelago. Administratively it belongs to the municipality of Portoferraio in the province of Italy; the island has an area of 10.39 km2 and is 4.3 km wide at its widest point. The island is a state nature reserve and forms part of the Tuscan Ar
Greatest Hits is a compilation album by the British rock band Queen, released worldwide on 26 October 1981. The album consisted of Queen's biggest hits since their first chart appearance in 1974 with "Seven Seas of Rhye", up to their 1980 hit "Flash". There was no universal track listing or cover art for the album, each territory's tracks were dependent on what singles had been released there and which were successful. In 1991, the US version of the album Classic Queen was released following the band's increase in popularity in the nation. In the years after its release, Greatest Hits became a commercial success worldwide with sales of over 25 million copies worldwide, it is one of the best-selling albums of all time. It reached number one on the UK Albums Chart, spending four weeks at the top and sold well throughout the 1980s, becoming the fourth-biggest selling album of the decade. In the United States, the album sold moderately well on initial release in 1981; the single "Under Pressure", Queen's collaboration with David Bowie, released the same week as Greatest Hits topped the UK Singles Chart.
Although initial reviews of Greatest Hits by British critics were negative, retrospective reviews have rated the album higher. British journalist Brian Viner called it the "greatest album of all time"; as of October 2019, Greatest Hits has spent 868 weeks on the UK Albums Chart and has been certified 20× platinum with sales of over 6 million copies, making it the best-selling album of all time in the UK. It has been certified 15× platinum in Australia, 10× platinum in New Zealand, 8× platinum in the United States and 3× platinum in Canada. Following the release of the Queen biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, it re-entered the charts of countries worldwide. There was no universal track listing or cover art for the Greatest Hits album, each territory's tracks were dependent on what singles were released there and what tracks charted. In some cases, despite the band's popularity, not enough songs were issued as singles to fill a compilation album, a few album tracks were used as filler; some examples of these were "Sweet Lady" and "Love of My Life", neither was released as a single in any country, but appear on some regions' 1981 Hits release.
In the UK and the US, where solid numbers could be collected, the album included only top 20 hits. The US ended up with its original edit of Queen's first single release, "Keep Yourself Alive", re-released in the US in 1975 after the success of "Bohemian Rhapsody"; the US version added "Under Pressure", Queen's collaboration with David Bowie, released the same week as Greatest Hits and subsequently topped the UK Singles Chart and reached the top ten in many charts around the world. However, the song was not included on the European versions of Greatest Hits – according to Queen's business manager Jim Beach, this was because the longer manufacturing time required to press records in Europe meant that several hundred thousand copies of the album had been pressed up before the song had been recorded. In Argentina and Brazil, the LP edition included the same list of UK Greatest Hits minus "Seven Seas of Rhye", including "Love of My Life". CD version is the same as the British; the cover photo that appeared on the UK and US release was taken by Lord Snowdon at his home studio using only natural light.
For the 1981 release the photo was skewed but presented as it was taken for the 2011 re-release. In 1991, Queen sought to issue a second Greatest Hits collection worldwide, this time with a standard track listing. However, the band had just changed record labels in the US, from Capitol to Hollywood Records, who were keen on a massive promotion of the band's back catalogue; the problem was. Hollywood Records decided to not release Greatest Hits II to the US market, but instead created their own collection, Classic Queen, peaking at number four; this compilation was made up of tracks such as "Bohemian Rhapsody", "Keep Yourself Alive" and "Under Pressure" as well as newer tracks. Some tracks were not singles in the US or anywhere. Though well received, this collection would pose the problem of overlapping track lists in the future. Hollywood Records that year, re-released a companion collection Greatest Hits with similar artwork. Referred to as the Red Greatest Hits, it features most of the'70s tracks absent from Classic Queen.
In 2004, to promote the Las Vegas production of the musical We Will Rock You, Hollywood Records released Greatest Hits: We Will Rock You Edition, the UK Greatest Hits with three bonus tracks. On June 21, 2019, a red vinyl re-release of Greatest Hits re-charted at number 31 on the Official UK Album Chart; the release of Greatest Hits was accompanied by Greatest Flix, a 60-minute compilation released on VHS video and LaserDisc of all the videos Queen had made up until that point in chronological order, Greatest Pix, a 96-page paperback book edited by Jacques Lowe which featured photos of the band taken by Neal Preston. Although Greatest Flix only listed 17 videos on its sleeve, it contained two videos for "We Will Rock You"; the video for "Killer Queen" had been shot for Greatest Flix, as no video had been m
The United States Army Ranger School is a 62-day small unit tactics and leadership course that develops functional skills directly related to units whose mission is to engage the enemy in close combat and direct fire battles. It is open to soldiers, sailors and Marines in the U. S. Armed Forces, as well as select allied military students. Ranger training has undergone multiple changes to its training regimen. A Desert Phase was employed for about a decade between the 1990s, its removal left the three phases used in the 21st century: Darby and Florida. The course is conducted in various locations. Training in the Benning Phase occurs in and around Camp Rogers and Camp Darby at Fort Benning, Georgia. Training at the Mountain Phase is conducted at Camp Merrill, in the remote mountains near Dahlonega, Georgia; the Florida Phase is conducted at various locations near Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The Desert Phase—conducted at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, relocated to Dugway Proving Ground and Fort Bliss, was eliminated in 1995.
The United States Army Ranger School is not organizationally affiliated with the 75th Ranger Regiment. Ranger School falls under control of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command as a school open to most members of the United States Army, but the 75th Ranger Regiment is a Special Operations warfighting unit organized under the United States Army Special Operations Command; the two share a common heritage and subordinate battalions common lineage, Ranger School is a requirement for all officers and NCOs of the 75th Ranger Regiment. Those graduating from Ranger School are presented with the Ranger Tab, worn on the upper shoulder of the left sleeve of a military uniform, according to U. S. Army regulations Wearing the tab is permitted for the remainder of a soldier's military career; the cloth version of the tab is worn on Army Green Service Uniform. Ranger Training had begun in September 1950 at Fort Benning Georgia "with the formation and training of 17 Airborne Companies by the Ranger Training Command".
The first class graduated from Ranger training in November 1950, becoming the 1st Ranger Infantry Company. The United States Army's Infantry School established the Ranger Department in December 1951. Under the Ranger Department, the first Ranger School Class was conducted in January–March 1952, with a graduation date of 1 March 1952, its duration was 59 days. At the time, Ranger training was voluntary. In 1966, a panel headed by General Ralph E. Haines Jr. recommended making Ranger training mandatory for all Regular Army officers upon commissioning. On 16 August 1966, General Harold K. Johnson, directed it so; this policy was implemented in July 1967. It was rescinded on 21 June 1972 by General William Westmoreland. Once again, Ranger training was voluntary. In August 1987, the Ranger Department was split from the Infantry School and the Ranger Training Brigade was established; the Ranger Companies that made up the Ranger Department became the current training units—the 4th, 5th and 6th Ranger Training Battalions.
In 1983, the Desert Phase was added and the length of the Ranger course was extended to 65 days. The duration was again expanded in October 1991 to 68 days, concurrently with the reshuffling of the Desert phase from the last phase to the second; the 7th Ranger Training Battalion was added to administer this phase. The most recent duration change to Ranger School occurred in May 1995, when the Desert Phase was removed from the Ranger course. Ranger School was reduced to its current 61- day length of training, at 19.6 hours of training per day. The Ranger Assessment Phase, the first five days of Ranger School, was added in 1992. In 2015 Ranger School was permanently opened to women. In 2019 the first female Air Force officer graduated from Ranger School. Ranger School is open to all Military Occupational Specialties in the U. S. Army, although—as of April 2011—an Army combat exclusion zone still limits some from attending, but this does not include women as women are now allowed to attend the school.
Ranger students come from units in the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, from foreign military services. However, the two largest groups of attendees for Ranger School are from the U. S. Army's Infantry Basic Officer Leadership Course, the 75th Ranger Regiment. Competitions and pre-Ranger courses are used to determine attendance; the Marine Corps is only allotted 20 slots and the U. S. Air Force is only allotted six slots for Ranger school each year. Ranger students' ranks range from Private First Class to Captain, with lieutenants and specialists making up the largest group of students; the average age is 23, the average class will have 366 students, with 11 classes conducted per year. The vast majority of Ranger students have completed Airborne School and make multiple jumps during the course. A small number of students have entered and completed Ranger School without being Airborne qualified; these individuals completed tasks assigned by cadre. Following the graduation of Captain Kristen Marie Griest and First Lieutenant Shaye Lynne Haver in August 2015, the Army announced Ranger School would henceforth be open to women students.
They are "tough soldiers" who "proved their mettle beyond a doubt, one of the school's top leaders says." In October 2015, Army Major Lisa Jaster graduated from Ranger School and became the first female Army Reserve officer to receive her Ranger tab. Ranger School training has a basic scenario: the flourishing drug and terrorist ope
Max Isidor Bodenheimer was a lawyer and one of the main figures in German Zionism. An associate of Theodor Herzl, he was the first president of the Zionist Federation of Germany and one of the founders of the Jewish National Fund. After his flight in 1933 from Nazi Germany, a short sojourn in Holland, he settled in Palestine in 1935. Max Bodenheimer was born on 12 March 1865 in Stuttgart to an assimilated Jewish family, he studied at Tübingen, Strassburg and Freiburg universities from 1884 to 1889. In 1890 he moved to Cologne to start a law practice. In 1891 he published his first Zionist article in the weekly "Die Menorah". In Cologne he met the two became close friends. Bodenheimer and Wolffsohn participated in various Zionist groups and activities in Cologne and established a Zionist group named “Zion”. At that time Bodenheimer began correspondence with Theodor Herzl. In 1893 he helped. In 1896 he married Rosa Dalberg and had three children: Simon Fritz, a professor of zoology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Henrietta Hannah, who wrote a biography of her father, Ruth, a lawyer.
When Bodenheimer died, the national institutions flew flags at half staff and a eulogy was delivered by Ussishkin, president of the Jewish National Fund. Bodenheimer participated at the 1st Zionist Congress and was elected to be a member of the Inner Actions Committee. In 1898 he visited Palestine as a member of the delegation which accompanied Herzl to meet the German Emperor, Wilhelm II. Bodenheimer took part in the Zionist Congresses, helped to write the constitution of the Zionist movement and the Jewish National Fund, was the chairman of the Board of Directors of the JNF in Germany; when the First World War broke out, he moved the JNF offices from Cologne to The Hague. In August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Exposé on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne, he set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front. With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, he established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews, together with 6 German Zionist colleagues, on 17 August 1914.
He resigned his chairmanship of the Jewish National Fund. Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic States, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an'East European Federation' in which'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, in the Pale of Settlement, it seems like he was the author of the conception of the establishment of the League of East European States - a German client state with autonomous Jewish cooperation referred as Judeopolonia. Like other veterans from the Herzl period, Bodenheimer’s status declined after the First World War, he was not re-elected as a member of the Board of Directors of the JNF. In August 1929, joins the Revisionist party led by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Bodenheimer attended the 17th Zionist Congress as a representative of the Revisionist party. During the Congress, a sharp controversy arose between the majority and the Revisionist party concerning the "ultimate goal" of Zionism, the Revisionists left the Congress.
This was the last Zionist Congress. In 1935 Bodenheimer immigrated to Palestine and settled in Jerusalem, where he began writing his memoirs, he died in July 1940. Prelude to Israel; the Memoirs of M. I. Bodenheimer. Edited by Henriette Hannah Bodenheimer, New York, Thomas Yoseloff, 1963. Bodenheimer, Max I. and Bodenheimer, Henriette Hannah, Die Zionisten und das Kaiserliche Deutschland, Schaeube Verlag, 1972. M. I. Bodenheimer, So wurde Israel: Aus der Geschichte der zionistischen Bewegung: Erinnerungen, Frankfurt a. M.: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1958. Syrien ein Zufluchtsort der russischen Juden. Hamburg, Verlag des Deutsch-Israelitischen Familienblattes'Die Menorah', 1891; the Society for the Commemoration of Max I. Bodenheimer and Hannah Henriette Bodenheimer The personal papers of Max Bodenheimer are kept at the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem; the notation of the record group is A15
The La Parisienne is an 1889 painting by Félix Resurrección Hidalgo. The painting depicts a woman holding an umbrella known as the parasol, a theme similar to Juan Luna's La Madrileña. Hidalgo's La Parisienne was the first Philippine work of art to be chosen as a cover for Sotheby's sale catalog due to its importance, rarity and exclusivity. Before the painting's appearance at Sotheby's Southeast Asian paintings sale in Singapore on April 6, 2003, the last time the La Parisienne was exhibited was at the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, it is the only painting of Hidalgo, featured on the cover of La Illustraccion Española y Americano, a popular weekly magazine in Spain. It appeared on the Spanish magazine's cover on February 28, 2003. Like Luna's La Madrileña, Hidalgo's La Parisienne is one of two rare paintings created by famous Filipino artists that have not been viewed for a century by the public; the La Parisienne was created by Hidalgo in the impressionist style employing a "light palette".
It shows Hidalgo's versatility and unique talent in using a "different color palette and style" which deviates from his trademark as a "conventional epic painter". The impressionist character of La Parisienne was compared to the style used by James Tissot, as in his Summer painting in 1878 and to Pierre-Auguste Renoir's The Umbrellas in 1879; the La Parisienne is the only exhibited masterpiece of Hidalgo that survived in perfect condition because many the artist's award-winning works were missing or ruined during the Spanish Civil War
USS Iolanda was an Acubens-class general stores issue ship commissioned by the U. S. Navy for service in World War II, she was responsible for disbursing goods and equipment to locations in the war zone. Iolanda a "liberty ship", was launched by New England Shipbuilding Corporation, South Portland, Maine, 21 October 1944; the ship decommissioned 2 November 1944 for conversion to Navy use, commissioned in full 14 June 1945, Lt. Comdr. E. G. Kelly in command. Following shakedown in the Chesapeake Bay area, Iolanda arrived Bayonne, New Jersey, 21 July 1945 to load 3,000 tons of general stores consisting of the 8,000 different items needed by the operating ships of the fleet, she departed 3 August for duty in the western Pacific Ocean and sailing via the Panama Canal Zone and Pearl Harbor arrived Ulithi, America's bustling advance base in the western Carolines. Iolanda steamed into Ulithi 24 September to help supply America's victorious fleet, she steamed from Ulithi 30 September, to provision ships at Okinawa and Hong Kong.
The first day of 1946 saw her at Manus loading additional stores, she departed 1 February to replenish vessels at Guam, Hong Kong, Shanghai. Iolanda supplied both ships and shore stations in support of the occupation until departing Shanghai 10 April 1946. After a stopover at Guam she proceeded to Pearl Harbor, where she decommissioned 11 July 1946. Towed to San Francisco, Iolanda was returned to the Maritime Commission 24 April 1947 and was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, Suisun Bay, where she remained until she was scrapped in 1972. Iolanda’s crew was eligible for the following medals: American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Service Medal This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive - AKS-14 Iolanda