The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region. They were referred to as the Watutsi, Wahuma, Wahima or the Wahinda; the Tutsi form a subgroup of the Banyarwanda and the Barundi people, who reside in Rwanda and Burundi, but with significant populations found in DR Congo and Uganda. Tutsis are the second largest population division among the three largest groups in Rwanda and Burundi. Small numbers of Hema and Kiga people live near the Tutsi in Rwanda; the Northern Tutsi who reside in Rwanda are called Ruguru, while southern Tutsi who live in Burundi are known as Hima, the Banyamulenge do not have a territory. The definitions of "Hutu" and "Tutsi" people may have changed through location. Social structures were not stable throughout Rwanda during colonial times under the Belgian rule; the Tutsi aristocracy or elite was distinguished from Tutsi commoners, wealthy Hutu were indistinguishable from upper-class Tutsi. When the Belgian colonists conducted censuses, they wanted to identify the people throughout Rwanda-Burundi according to a simple classification scheme.
They defined "Tutsi" as anyone owning more than ten cows or with the physical feature of a longer nose, or longer neck associated with the Tutsi. Tutsis were said to have arrived in the Great Lakes region from the Horn of Africa. Tutsis are considered to be of nilotic origin by some researchers, although they do not speak a nilotic language, have lived in the areas where they are for at least 400 years, leading to considerable intermarriage with the Hutu in the area. Due to the history of intermingling and intermarrying of Hutus and Tutsis and historians have come to agree that Hutu and Tutsis cannot be properly called distinct ethnic groups. Many analysts and inhabitants of the Great Lakes Region oppose the Tutsi – as "Nilotics" – to Bantu people like the Hutu and several ethnic groups in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and e.g. in Uganda. However, Bantu is a linguistic classification; as the Tutsi speak the same Bantu language as the Hutu, they are Bantu people. Modern-day genetic studies of the Y-chromosome indicate that the Tutsi, like the Hutu, are of Bantu extraction.
Paternal genetic influences associated with the Horn of Africa and North Africa are few, are ascribed to much earlier inhabitants who were assimilated. However, the Tutsi have more haplogroup B paternal lineages than do the Hutu. Trombetta et al. found 22.2% of E1b1b in a small sample of Tutsis from Burundi, but no bearers of the haplogroup among the local Hutu and Twa populations. The subclade was of the 4,000-year-old migrant M293 variety, which suggests that the ancestors of Tutsis in this area may have assimilated some Southern Cushitic-speaking pastoralists, its parental marker E-V1515 is thought to have originated in the northern part of the Horn of Africa around 12,000 to 14,000 years ago. There are no peer-reviewed genetic studies of the Tutsi's maternal lineages. However, Fornarino et al. report that unpublished data indicates that one Tutsi individual from Rwanda carries the India-associated mtDNA haplogroup R7. In general, the Tutsi appear to share a close genetic kinship with neighboring Bantu populations the Hutus.
However, it is unclear whether this similarity is due to extensive genetic exchanges between these communities through intermarriage or whether it stems from common origins: generations of gene flow obliterated whatever clear-cut physical distinctions may have once existed between these two Bantu peoples – renowned to be height, body build, facial features. With a spectrum of physical variation in the peoples, Belgian authorities mandated ethnic affiliation in the 1920s, based on economic criteria. Formal and discrete social divisions were imposed upon ambiguous biological distinctions. To some extent, the permeability of these categories in the intervening decades helped to reify the biological distinctions, generating a taller elite and a shorter underclass, but with little relation to the gene pools that had existed a few centuries ago; the social categories are thus real, but there is little if any detectable genetic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. Tishkoff et al. found their mixed Hutu and Tutsi samples from Rwanda to be predominantly of Bantu origin, with minor gene flow from Afro-Asiatic communities.
Their average height is 5 feet 9 inches, although individuals have been recorded as being taller than 7 feet. Prior to the arrival of colonists, Rwanda had been ruled by a Tutsi-dominated monarchy after mid-1600. Beginning in about 1880, Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in the Great Lakes region; when German forces occupied the area during World War I, the conflict and efforts for Catholic conversion became more pronounced. As the Tutsi resisted conversion, missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes. In Burundi, Tutsi domination was more entrenched. A ruling faction, the Ganwa, soon emerged from amongst the Tutsi and assumed effective control of the country's administration; the area was ruled as a colony by Germany (prior to Wor
Sophora is a genus of about 45 species of small trees and shrubs in the pea family Fabaceae. The species are native to southeast Europe, southern Asia, various Pacific islands, western South America, the western United States and Puerto Rico; the generic name is derived from an Arabic name for a pea-flowered tree. The genus had a broader interpretation including many other species now treated in other genera, notably Styphnolobium, which differs in lacking nitrogen fixing bacteria on the roots, Dermatophyllum. Styphnolobium has galactomannans as seed polysaccharide reserve, in contrast Sophora contains arabinogalactans, Dermatophyllum amylose; the New Zealand Sophora species are known as kowhai. The seeds of species such as Sophora affinis are reported to be poisonous. One Sophora fossil seed pod from the middle Eocene epoch has been described from the Miller clay pit in Henry County, United States. Sophora comprises the following species: The status of the following species is unresolved: Media related to Sophora at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Sophora at Wikispecies Sophora macrocarpa pictures from Chilebosque
"New York City Serenade" is the twelfth episode of the third season of the American fantasy drama series Once Upon a Time, the show's 56th episode overall. The episode marks the mid-season premiere of the show, following the executive producers' decision to split the season into two volumes, it aired on March 2014, with a special entitled "Wicked is Coming" preceding the premiere. The episode marks the first appearance of Rebecca Mader as Zelena, The Wicked Witch of the West, the primary antagonist for the second half of the season. In this episode, after the fairy tale characters return to the Enchanted Forest, they discover something has changed that now places their lives in danger, resulting in Hook's escaping to the real world in an effort to restore Emma Swan's memories so she can save them. Most commentators commented positively on the episode due to the unpredictable nature of the new storylines created by the writers and producers. Upon airing, the episode was watched by 7.66 million viewers, attaining an 18-49 rating of 2.4.
This presents a significant rise from the previous episode. Furthermore, the episode achieved its highest weekly viewership rank for the series since the second episode of the second season in October 2012. New York City's skyline appears in the background. Emma Swan, in her new life with Henry in New York City, goes on a date with her new boyfriend Walsh when she is interrupted by Hook who implores her to regain her memories and save her family. Emma angrily rebuffs him, despite using her superpower to prove. Hook passes her a note stating. After Hook leaves, Walsh proposes to Emma, shocked and says she needs time to think; the next morning,Emma hands Henry a permission slip for a field trip and finds Hook’s note which contains an address: Neal's former apartment. When she arrives, she finds a camera strap with Henry's name embroidered on it. Wanting answers, Emma meets with Hook in Central Park where he tries to convince her to drink a memory potion. Again Emma doesn't believe handcuffs Hook to a bike rack.
She flags down insists that Hook assaulted her. Despite his protests, the police take him away. While Emma walks Henry home from school, she discusses adding Henry's small family. Henry is in favor. After dropping Henry at home, Emma looks at the photos from Henry's camera which show them in Storybrooke, she bails Hook out of jail. After complaining about the dreadful condition, Hook gives the memory potion which restores all her memories. Over a drink, Hook tells Emma about the events of the past year. Walsh arrives and Emma decides to tell him that she can't marry him for she has to go home to save her family. Walsh says. Walsh reveals himself to be a flying monkey in disguise, he attacks Emma, as Hook arrives, she knocks him off the roof with a nearby pipe. They watch; the next morning Emma tells Henry that she "needs his help with a case.” Henry is overjoyed by the prospect of helping his mother. Hook arrives and as he and Henry take their luggage to Emma's yellow bug, she dons her signature red leather jacket, they leave for home.
That night the trio arrives in Storybrooke with Henry asleep in the car. Emma goes to Snow and Charming’s loft, they share an emotional reunion, it is obvious that Snow is pregnant, but they do not remember anything that happened in the past year. Storybrooke characters arrive back in the Enchanted Forest due to the curse and are met by Prince Phillip and a pregnant Princess Aurora. After catching up, Snow and Regina decide to make for Regina's castle since she protected it prior to the curse. Aurora and Phillip argue about telling "her" about the returned Storybrooke characters. Hook leaves the group, he plans to find his ship, the Jolly Roger, resume living a pirate’s life. During the march to Regina's castle, Grumpy points out that the Queen is missing, Snow finds her burying something in the forest. Regina is burying her heart due to the pain of never seeing Henry again, the fact that he doesn't remember her. Snow convinces her that Regina can have happiness and that she deserves to find it for Henry, which leads to Regina putting the heart back in her chest.
Snow and Regina are accosted by a flying monkey, but they are saved by Robin Hood. While walking to the castle and Baelfire talk about finding a way to resurrect Rumplestiltskin, are reunited with Robin Hood; as the characters reach the castle, Regina realizes someone else has dispelled her protective barrier and put up their own. Robin Hood offers them shelter in Sherwood Forest. A flying monkey returns to the castle with the blood of Regina from his attack and gives it to a green skinned witch, who adds it to a potion, gloating that she'll get her revenge and saying that while the Queen may be evil, she is wicked, wicked always wins, revealing herself as the infamous Wicked Witch of the West. Lost actress Rebecca Mader's casting as an upcoming villain for the series was announced in December 2013, it was revealed that she will play The Wicked Witch of the West, despite rumors that she would be playing the One Hundred and One Dalmatians antagonist Cruella De Vil. Other casting confirmations for the se
Emanuel Moravec was a Czech army officer and writer who served as the collaborationist Minister of Education of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia between 1942 and 1945. He was chair of the Board of Trustees for the Education of Youth, a fascist youth organisation in the protectorate. In World War I, Moravec served in the Austro-Hungarian Army, but following capture by the Russians he changed sides to join Russian-backed Serbian forces and the Czechoslovak Legion, which went on to fight on the side of the White Army in the Russian Civil War. During the interwar period he commanded an infantry battalion in the Czechoslovak Army; as a proponent of democracy during the 1930s, Moravec was outspoken in his warnings about the expansionist plans of Germany under Adolf Hitler and appealed for armed action rather than capitulation to German demands for the Sudetenland. In the aftermath of the German occupation of the rump Czechoslovakia, he became an enthusiastic collaborator, realigning his political worldview towards fascism.
He committed suicide in the final days of World War II. Unlike some other officials of the short-lived protectorate government, whose reputations were rehabilitated in whole or in part after the war, Moravec's good reputation did not survive his tenure in office and he has been derided as a "Czech Quisling". Emanual Moravec was born in Prague, the son of a modest merchant family from Kutná Hora, he found employment as a clerk at a Prague company. At the outbreak of World War I, Moravec was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian Army and dispatched with his unit to the Carpathian Front. Moravec was captured by the Imperial Russian Army in 1915 and held at a prisoner-of-war camp in Samarkand, he was subsequently paroled and given command of a machine-gun platoon in the First Serbian Volunteer Division. In September 1916, following fierce action against Bulgarian forces along the Dobrudzha Front, Moravec was hospitalized with shell shock. Upon his release, he joined the Czechoslovak Legion, falsely claiming to hold an engineering degree to receive an officer's commission.
The Czechoslovak Legion, a volunteer unit composed of diaspora Czechs and Slovaks as well as deserters from the Austro-Hungarian Army, had been formed in 1917 to support the Allies. Over the next two years, Moravec saw combat with the Legion in Russia. Moravec returned to a newly independent Czechoslovakia at the end of World War I with the legionary rank of captain, he was accepted into Prague's War School and, upon graduation, commissioned as a major in the Czechoslovak Army. He came to command the 1st Field Battalion of the 21st Infantry Regiment in Znojmo. Simultaneous with his military career, Moravec contributed to newspapers and magazines, including Lidové noviny, on political and military matters. Writing under the pen name Stanislav Yester, he won the Baťa Prize for Journalism. In 1931 Moravec was promoted to colonel. In his writings, Moravec had become emphatic about the growing ambitions of Nazi Germany, he called for Czechoslovakia to form an alliance with Poland and Italy against what he saw as a rising German threat.
Moravec came to be seen as one of Czechoslovakia's leading geopolitical strategists and caught the attention of President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Moravec wrote the preface to a printed edition of one of Masaryk's addresses to the Czechoslovak Army. In it, he signaled his support for the creation of the democratic state of Czechoslovakia that had come out of World War I, as well as his personal loyalty to Masaryk: When Masaryk died in 1935, Moravec served as one of the pallbearers at his funeral. In 1938 Moravec warned that "if Czechoslovakia should fall, France would find herself politically on the European periphery". Moravec argued that the head of the Danube Basin was guarded by what he described as the "fortress of Bohemia" – the land barrier that marked the natural border between eastern and western Europe. If a state were to take Czechoslovakia it would, control the head of the Danube basin and be free to strike against either France or Poland with ease. Although Moravec was concerned with German political and military aims he rejected some of the more extreme aspects of anti-German thought, taking a cautiously receptive approach to Emanuel Rádl's thesis which posited the existence of an irrational Czech racism towards Germans.
In 1938 German demands for the Sudetenland came to a head. In September, General Jan Syrový, inspector-general of the Czechoslovak Army, was installed by President Edvard Beneš as prime minister. In response to the German ultimatum, Syrový declared that "further concessions from our side are no longer possible". By the end of September, with Czechoslovakia abandoned by France and Britain, territorial demands piled on from Poland, Beneš backtracked on Czechoslovakia's refusal to accept further German requests. At this time, as well as holding his army post, Moravec was serving as a member of the Committee for the Defense of the Republic, a nationalist pressure group led by the son of the former Czechoslovak finance minister Alois Rašín. In that capacity he sought an audience with Beneš during the last week of September, on the eve of the Munich ratification. During a two-hour confrontation with Beneš, Moravec pleaded with the president to declare war against Germany, not capitulate to Germa
Frank Phillips College is a community college located in Borger, Texas. The college manages the Allen Campus in Perryton in Ochiltree County, the Dalhart Center in Dallam County, the Cosmetology Center in Hereford in Deaf Smith County. In 2011, Frank Phillips College, along with Ranger College in Ranger, Brazosport College in Lake Jackson, Odessa College in Odessa, were proposed for closure by the State of Texas; the Texas Association of Community Colleges rallied to keep the four institutions open. In a letter to Texas House Speaker Joe Straus of San Antonio and Jim Pitts of Waxahachie the chairman of the House Appropriations Committee, TAAC leaders referred to state budget restrictions at the time: Community colleges are aware of the state's budget crisis, we understand that we will have to bear our share of the budget pain. We pledge to work with you to reach a fair and equitable solution... the decision to close these four colleges is unfair and inequitable in that it appears to be arbitrary and ill-advised.
We stand in support of our sister colleges, we look forward to a productive debate... Official website
William B. Hanna School was a historic school building located in the Carroll Park neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it was designed by Henry deCoursey Richards and built in 1908–1909. It was a three-story, reinforced concrete, brick faced building in the Late Gothic Revival-style, it featured a central Gothic arched entry with grotesques, limestone trim, a cornice with terra cotta trim. The school name was changed to Guion Bluford Elementary School in recognition of astronaut Guion Bluford, who attended Hanna School; the older portion of the school was demolished in 2010 and a replacement attached to its 1974 addition. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986