Mine train roller coaster
A mine train roller coaster is a steel roller coaster whose trains depict a set of mine carts, with the forward-most car or portions of it sometimes resembling a small steam locomotive. Most mine train roller coasters are themed in the style of a mine, a Western scene, or a mountain range. Traditional mine train roller coaster track elements include several banked helices. There are sometimes few large drops. Most include more than one lift hill. A mine train roller coaster will make its way through trees, rock formations, over small bodies of water; some feature scenes with animatronic figures. The first mine train roller coaster of its kind was Runaway Mine Train at Six Flags Over Texas. Built by Arrow Development in 1966, Mine Train is the oldest roller coaster in the park. With Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, it is one of the first roller coasters with tubular steel tracks. Other notable Mine Trains are Colorado Adventure in Phantasialand, the Big Thunder Mountains in various Disney parks, Thunder Run in Canada's Wonderland, Cedar Creek Mine Ride at Cedar Point, Thunderation in Silver Dollar City near Branson, Missouri.
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Pipeline roller coaster
The Pipeline Coaster is a roller coaster model where the trains ride between the tracks as opposed to a traditional roller coaster where they ride above them. The concept was first developed by Japanese ride company TOGO, was known as the Ultra Twister, they built six installations of the design, five are still in operation. Arrow Dynamics created an alternate version of the concept, but it never made it past the prototype stage in development. Intamin experimented with the pipeline concept and built and relocated one model, known as the Spiral Coaster, but it is no longer operating; some of the drawbacks of the design include the need for large, uncomfortable over-the-shoulder restraints as well as the obstruction of the riders' view by the enclosed pipe structure. TOGO developed the first Pipeline coaster and the first recorded Ultratwister coaster built was in 1985 at Tokyo Dome City amusement park in Tokyo, Japan called Ultra Twister; the ride became somewhat popular in Japanese parks, one year after the first was built, Six Flags purchased one of these coasters for their Six Flags Great Adventure theme park, where it resided until 1990 when it was moved to Six Flags Astroworld until the park closed in 2005.
This coaster would remain the only pipeline coaster in America. The American Ultratwister still exists, however, it awaits possible future assembly at Six Flags America. TOGO's model would be the only somewhat successful design. Six of these were successful in small parks due to its small footprint; the ride inverts riders three times through three Heartline Roll elements and utilizes a special near-vertical lift hill. The lift hill would be prone to down time for maintenance and the Ultra Twister owned by Six Flags had its lift hill modified by Premier Rides to a less steep angle when it was moved to Six Flags Astroworld. Throughout the early 1990s, Arrow Dynamics attempted to develop a pipeline roller coaster. Only one of these was built as a prototype at Arrow's facility in Utah. Plans for the coaster were scrapped altogether due to other factors. However, one was built at Alton Towers in the United Kingdom. In the early 1990s, John Wardley twice attempted to build one of these at the park; the second attempt was built, but scrapped for the coaster Nemesis.
The coaster was not finished due to Arrow's finance problems. In the mid 1990s, Intamin built a spiral roller coaster in South Korea. Not much is known about the design; this Spiral Coaster was relocated to Kuwait and opened in 2000 at Al-Sha'ab Leisure Park, but it was closed in 2005 after only five years of operation. The ride remained SBNO until its removal in 2017. Intamin's Official Website
Bobsled roller coaster
A bobsled roller coaster is a roller coaster that uses a track design, a "pipe" with the top half removed and has cars that are sent down this pipe in a freewheeling mode. The name derives from the great similarity to the track design used for the winter sport of bobsleigh. Most modern bobsled roller coasters are made of steel. On Oct 4, 2013, after seven years of construction, Knoebels in Pennsylvania opened the world's only modern wooden flying turns coaster, Flying Turns; the ride was scheduled to open in 2007, but had been delayed due to dysfunctional wheels and other issues. As there were no historic plans available, the new coaster was designed from scratch. Both the bobsled coaster and the flying turns coaster are buildable in the RollerCoaster Tycoon and Thrillville series of video games; as of 2012, 21 bobsled roller coasters have been built. The roller coasters are listed in order of opening dates. * Denotes that exact closing date is not known. † The Screamin' Delta Demon was transported to Old Indiana Fun Park following Opryland's closure in 1998, but was never reassembled and scrapped.
Media related to Bobsled roller coasters at Wikimedia Commons
Motorbike roller coaster
A motorbike roller coaster is a type of steel roller coaster designed with motorcycle type cars. Booster Bike at Toverland was the world's first motorbike roller coaster. Vekoma was the first company to design such a ride, although Intamin and Zamperla have since created similar designs. A similar but unrelated Steeplechase roller coaster was Knott's Berry Farm's Motorcycle Chase by Arrow Dynamics which opened in 1976; that attraction featured single motorbike themed vehicles racing side-by-side, each on one of four parallel tracks, launched together. It was retrofitted in 1980 as Wacky Soap Box Racers until removed in 1996; the Vekoma Motorbike Coaster consists of a train with nine cars, each consisting of two motorcycle seats. Each seat was designed to replicate the seating on a motorcycle, allows free upper body movement. After dispatching from the station, the train is hydraulically launched into a twisting layout; the first Motorbike coaster was the Booster Bike at Toverland in The Netherlands, opened in 2004.
A second, Velocity opened at Zoo in the United Kingdom. A third, identical to the Booster Bike, opened at Chimelong Paradise in China; the Vekoma Motorbike Coaster concept was demonstrated with the use of the No Limits roller coaster simulator, is included as a track style in the commercial version. Intamin was the second company to come up with a motorbike roller coaster design, their design utilises drive tires to launch its trains. Only four installations exist - two in Australia, one in Denmark, one will open soon in the United States The Zamperla Motocoaster consists of a train of six cars instead of nine, but they are set up two seats side by side per car. Zamperla's coaster uses a flywheel launch instead of a hyrdraulic launch system; the standard track layout is a 3-layered figure 8. In 2008 2 MotoCoasters were installed in the United States; the prototype is at Darien Lake near New York. The Pony Express at Knott's Berry Farm, Buena Park, California, in a twist on the once famous Motorcycle Chase of Indian Motorcycles on a Steeplechase roller coaster, now sports a Zamperla Motocoaster styled as horses.
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Flying roller coaster
A flying roller coaster is a type of roller coaster meant to simulate the sensations of flight by harnessing riders in a prone position during the duration of the ride. The roller coaster cars are suspended below the track, with riders secured such that their backs are parallel to the track; the flying roller coaster is a new concept. The world's first flying roller coaster was Skytrak, built in Manchester, United Kingdom at the Granada Studios Tour in 1997; the Skytrak used a single-passenger car. Riders would climb into the car in much the same fashion as climbing a ladder the car would be raised up to the track before being dispatched; the single-passenger design kept the ride's capacity low, at only 240 riders per hour. The park, Skytrak itself, were short-lived. Dutch roller coaster manufacturer Vekoma constructed the first large-scale flying roller coaster, for California's Great America in 2000. Nicknamed the'Flying Dutchman' by Vekoma, Stealth featured a higher-capacity train with four-across seating.
Riders load the trains in an upright sitting position, facing the rear of the train. After the train is loaded, a mechanism in the station lower the seats to the track, with the riders on their backs facing the ceiling. After cresting the lift hill, the track twists 180 degrees to flip the riders into the flying position for the rest of the ride. Just prior to reaching the roller coaster's final brake run, the track twists again, such that riders are lying on their backs facing upward. After reaching the station, the seats are raised back to loading position; the harness system for the Vekoma flying roller coaster consists of two main elements: the lap bar and the chest harness. After being seated, the operator pulls down the lap bar, hinged on the floor of the train; the bar secures the waist. Halfway up the bar is a pair of leg restraints; the rider fastens the buckles to close the chest harness and secure the upper body. Hand grips are placed at the ends of the arm rests of each seat. Vekoma would expand upon the'Flying Dutchman' prototype with two other installations in 2001, Batwing for Six Flags America and X-Flight for Geauga Lake.
Of the three Vekoma Flying Dutchmans, only Batwing still operates at its original location: Stealth was relocated to Carowinds and renamed BORG Assimilator from 2004 to 2007, now operates as Nighthawk, while X-Flight operated at Kings Island as Firehawk until October 28, 2018. Vekoma has designed a new, more compact flying roller coaster model nicknamed the'Stingray', its first installation is at theSuzhou Giant Wheel Park in Suzhou and opened on August 18, 2009. Vekoma's flying roller coasters have a 54-inch height restriction. Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard unveiled its Flying Coaster model in 2002 with Air at Alton Towers, followed in the year by Superman: Ultimate Flight at Six Flags Over Georgia. In this version, the rider takes a sitting position with their legs dangling in a similar fashion to B&M's inverted roller coaster. Mechanisms in the station lift the car up to the track, placing passengers in a flying position for the duration of the ride. Flying roller coasters from B&M use a combination chest/waist harness, hinged above the riders' heads.
Once seated, the rider pulls down the harness. This single mechanism locks the rider's waist in place with a large padded cushion and provides a rubberized padded vest to secure the chest; the vest includes seat-belt-style tensioners above the shoulders to support a wider range of body types. At the ankles, two flaps hold the legs in position, close as the harness is locked in place. Tatsu at Six Flags Magic Mountain was the world's longest flying coaster until The Flying Dinosaur at Universal Studios Japan surpassed it in March 2016. Bolliger & Mabillard holds the record for the longest and fastest flying roller coaster in the world, Flying Dinosaur, at Universal Studios Japan. Italy's Zamperla produces a flying roller coaster model dubbed'Volare'. Riders lie down in the cars; the car is lifted up into a flying position while holding the riders inside. This model is compact and affordable and comes with a unique spiral lift hill in which a tall spinning column with 2 vertical poles connected to it which push the cars up the spiral track.
The minimum rider height requirement is 50 inches tall
A roller coaster is a type of amusement ride that employs a form of elevated railroad track designed with tight turns, steep slopes, sometimes inversions. People ride along the track in open cars, the rides are found in amusement parks and theme parks around the world. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained one of the first known patents for a roller coaster design in 1885, related to the Switchback Railway that opened a year earlier at Coney Island; the track in a coaster design does not have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train; some roller coasters, notably wild mouse roller coasters, run with single cars. The oldest roller coasters are believed to have originated from the so-called "Russian Mountains", specially constructed hills of ice located in the area, now Saint Petersburg, Russia. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, had a 50-degree drop, were reinforced by wooden supports.
In 1784, Catherine the Great is said to have constructed a sledding hill in the gardens of her palace at Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg; the name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many languages, but the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which means "American mountains." The first modern roller coaster, the Promenades Aeriennes, opened in Parc Beaujon in Paris on July 8, 1817. It featured wheeled cars securely locked to the track, guide rails to keep them on course, higher speeds, it spawned half a dozen imitators. However, during the Belle Epoque they returned to fashion. In 1887 French entrepreneur Joseph Oller, co-founder of the Moulin Rouge music hall, constructed the Montagnes Russes de Belleville, "Russian Mountains of Belleville" with 656 feet of track laid out in a double-eight enlarged to four figure-eight-shaped loops. In 1827, a mining company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, a downhill gravity railroad used to deliver coal to Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania – now known as Jim Thorpe.
By the 1850s, the "Gravity Road" was selling rides to thrill seekers. Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, in 1884. Passengers climbed to the top of a platform and rode a bench-like car down the 600-foot track up to the top of another tower where the vehicle was switched to a return track and the passengers took the return trip; this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a lift hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road, which became the most popular attraction at Coney Island. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. "Scenic Railways" were soon found in amusement parks across the county. By 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world. The best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927; the Great Depression marked the end of the golden age of roller coasters, theme parks, in general, went into decline. This lasted until 1972 when the instant success of The Racer at Kings Island began a roller coaster renaissance which has continued to this day. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a design breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds, the first roller coaster to use a tubular steel track. Unlike wooden coaster rails, tubular steel can be bent in any direction, allowing designers to incorporate loops and many other maneuvers into their designs. Most modern roller coasters are made of steel, although wooden coasters and hybrids are still being built. There are several explanations of the name roller coaster, it is said to have originated from an early American design where slides or ramps were fitted with rollers over which a sled would coast. This design was abandoned in favor of fitting the wheels to the sled or other vehicles, but the name endured.
Another explanation is that it originated from a ride located in a roller skating rink in Haverhill, Massachusetts in 1887. A toboggan-like sled was raised to the top of a track; this Roller Toboggan took off down rolling hills to the floor. The inventors of this ride, Stephen E. Jackman and Byron B. Floyd, claim that they were the first to use the term "roller coaster"; the term jet coaster is used for roller coasters in Japan, where such amusement park rides are popular. In many languages, the name refers to "Russian mountains". Contrastingly, in Russian, they are called "American mountains". In the Scandinavian languages and German, the roller coaster is referred as "mountain-and-valley railway". German knows the word "Achterbahn", stemming from "Figur-8-Bahn", like Dutch "Achtbaan", relating to the form of the number 8; the cars on a typical roller coaster are not self-powered. Instead, a standard full circuit coaster is pulled up with a chain or cable along the lift hill to the first peak of the coaster track.
The potential energy accumulated by the rise in height is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars race down the first downward slope. Kinetic energy is converted back into potential energy as the train moves up again to the second peak; this hill is necessa