Interstate 10 in Texas
Interstate 10 is the major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. In the U. S. state of Texas, it runs east from Anthony, at the border with New Mexico, through El Paso, San Antonio and Houston to the border with Louisiana in Orange, Texas. At just under 880 miles, the Texas segment of I-10, maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation, is the longest continuous untolled freeway in North America, operated by a single authority, it is the longest stretch of highway with a single designation within a single state. Mile marker 880 and its corresponding exit number in Orange, are the highest numbered mile marker and exit on any freeway in North America. After widening was completed in 2008, a portion of the highway west of Houston is now believed to be the widest in the world, at 26 lanes. There is a wider section in China on the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway. More than a third of I-10's entire length is located in Texas alone. El Paso, near the Texas–New Mexico state line, is 785 miles from the western terminus of I-10 in Santa Monica, making it closer to Los Angeles than it is to Orange, Texas, 857 miles away at the Texas–Louisiana state line.
Orange is only 789 miles from the eastern terminus of I-10 in Jacksonville, Florida. I-10 replaced and runs concurrently with U. S. Highway 85 from the New Mexico border up until the two diverge at mile marker 13; the two highways parallel each other for several miles until US 85 continues to head south to the border with Mexico and I-10 turns east towards Downtown El Paso. Prior to the Interstate Highway system, US 85 ran concurrent with US 80 from the New Mexico border until the two diverged in Downtown El Paso; when I-10 was constructed in downtown El Paso, several blocks were demolished, a sub-grade trench was built for the freeway. A series of overpasses now carry the preexisting north-south surface streets over the east-west stretch of I-10 through downtown. I-10 replaced US 80 through El Paso and to the southeast and east to the present day junction of I-10 and I-20. US 80 along this route has been removed from the highway system in favor of I-10. At the junction with I-20, I-10 replaced US 290 eastward to the present day junction of I-10 and US 290 southeast of Junction.
This section of US 290 was deleted from the highway system. From this point to near Comfort, I-10 replaced State Highway 27. SH 27 still exists along this stretch paralleling I-10 to the south. From Comfort southeast to San Antonio, I-10 directly replaced US 87. I-10 follows the alignment of US 87 on the northwest side of San Antonio into downtown. A new alignment was built to the south of downtown for the freeway since it was impossible to upgrade the surface streets in downtown that US 87 and US 90 followed prior to the Interstate Highway System. Southeast of downtown, I-10 curves back to the northeast to connect with the pre-interstate alignment of US 90. Construction of portions of I-10 were well underway and completed prior to the commissioning of the highway in 1959; the section from Culebra Road to Woodlawn Avenue opened as the first freeway in San Antonio in 1949, but was signed as US 87. Expansion and construction continued in the 1950s, but the bulk of the construction occurred in the 1960s after the interstate was commissioned.
The current alignment was completed by 1968. Rapid growth in San Antonio has resulted in the original highway becoming inadequate, resulting in the highway being in perpetual construction and expansion. In the 1980s the portion just northwest of downtown was reconstructed to add a double deck feature to expand the freeway to five lanes in each direction. In 1990, the interstate had only two lanes in each direction from Loop 1604 to where the double-deck freeway begins near downtown. Recent construction has expanded the freeway to five lanes in each direction from just outside the I-410 loop all the way into downtown; the I-10/I-410 interchange was reconstructed into a four-level stack interchange. When constructed during the 1960s, the I-10 Katy from Houston, known as the Katy Freeway, was built with six to eight lanes wide barring side lanes, being modest by Houston standards because existing traffic demand to the farming area of West Houston was low; as the population and economic activity increased in the area vehicular traffic increased, reaching an annual average daily traffic of 238,000 vehicles just west of the West Loop in 2001.
In 2000 increased traffic levels and congestion led to plans being approved for widening of the freeway to 16 lanes with a capacity for 200,000 cars per day. An old railway running along the north side of the freeway was demolished in 2002 in preparation for construction which began in 2004; the interior two lanes in each direction between SH 6 and west I-610, the Katy Freeway Managed Lanes or Katy Tollway, were built as high-occupancy toll lanes and are managed by the Harris County Toll Road Authority. The section just west of SH 6 to the Fort Bend–Harris county line opened in late June 2006. Two intersections were rebuilt, toll booths were added, together with landscaping as part of Houston's Highway Beautification Project. Most of the section between Beltway 8 and SH 6 had been laid by September 2006 and work was completed in October 2008. Tolls on the managed lanes vary by axle count and time of day. High occupancy vehicles may travel for free at certain times. Severe flooding of the Sabine River occurred in March 2016.
Days of continuous heavy rains, coupled with the controversial opening of the Toledo Bend Dam and the release of 207,000 to 208,000 cubic feet per second into the river, caused th
Menard County, Texas
Menard County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,242, its seat is Menard. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871, it is named for the founder of Galveston, Texas. Around 8000, early Native American inhabitants arrived. Native Americans included Comanche and Lipan Apache. In 1757, Father Alonso Giraldo de Terreros founded Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas, as a support for Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission, for the Apache Indians. In the 1830s, James Bowie and Rezin P. Bowie, scoured the San Saba valley seeking a silver mine that the Spanish had believed to be in the area, they are unsuccessful, but the legend of the Lost Bowie Mine known as the Lost San Saba Mine or the Los Almagres Mine, fed the imagination of treasure-seekers for the next 150 years. Camp San Saba was established in 1852 to protect settlers from Indian attacks; the state legislature formed Menard County from Bexar County in 1858. The county was named for the founder of Galveston.
Menardville known as Menard, became the county seat. By 1870, the county population was 667: 295 were white, 372 were black due to the Buffalo Soldiers at Fort McKavett; the next year, county residents elected their own officials. The county had an immigrant influx from Mexico. In 1911, the Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railroad Company arrived. Gas deposits plugged for lack of a market; the local Parent-Teacher Association offered free lunches for needy children in 1931. In 1934, the Texas Relief Cannery was in operation; the Drought Relief Program bought cattle and sheep from area ranchers. A gas well is redrilled in 1941, produced about seven million cubic feet of gas. In 1946, aA small oilfield was discovered northeast of Fort McKavett, but was abandoned the following year. By the 1960s, oil and gas production had an average annual yield more than 270,000 barrels. In the 1980s, of the county's 40 oilfields, about 20 were still active, producing 132,000 to 185,000 barrels annually. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 902 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 83 U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 29 Concho County McCulloch County Mason County Kimble County Schleicher County Sutton County Tom Green County As of the census of 2000, 2,360 people, 990 households, 665 families resided in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. The 1,607 housing units averaged 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.54% White, 0.51% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 9.79% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. About 31.69% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 990 households, 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were not families. Around 30.40% of all households was made up of individuals and 17.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.20% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 21.90% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 21.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,762, for a family was $30,872. Males had a median income of $21,953 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,987. About 20.00% of families and 25.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.90% of those under age 18 and 19.10% of those age 65 or over. Menard Beyer Crossing Callan Erna Fivemile Crossing Hext Saline Fort McKavett Sunnyside List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Menard County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Menard County Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey Menard County from the Handbook of Texas Online Texas Beyond History, Mission San Saba
Hemphill County, Texas
Hemphill County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,807; the county seat and only incorporated community in the county is Canadian. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1887, it is named for a judge and Confederate congressman. Hemphill County is one of six prohibition, or dry, counties in the state of Texas. For the 200 years leading up to 1875, nomadic Indian tribes representing the Apache, Comanche and others roamed the Panhandle following the huge buffalo herds. In search for an alternate route to California through Santa Fe, New Mexico, Josiah Gregg, Captain Randolph B. Marcy surveyed trails; the 1874–75 Red River War was an effort by the United States Army to force the Indians of the Southern Plains to move to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. Two major battles took place in what would become Hemphill County: the Battle of Lyman’s Wagon Train and the Battle of Buffalo Wallow. On April 12, 1879, Wheeler County became the first organized county in the Panhandle, with 14 other unorganized counties attached to it, one of, Hemphill County.
Hemphill County was organized in July 1887. On July 4, 1888, the first rodeo in Texas and the world was held on the Main Street of Canadian, Texas, it began as a competition among some of the larger ranches in the area the annual Fourth of July Rodeo continues in present times. An emphasis on ecotourism, taking advantage of the landscape and habitat, has diversified the economy of Hemphill County. In 1886, the Southern Kansas Railway Company, a Santa Fe subsidiary, began to build a rail line into the Panhandle of Texas; the tracks entered Hemphill County during 1887 and further encouraged settlement in the area, creating three town sites: Mendota and Glazier. In 1907, Canadian was designated a division point by the Santa Fe, a factor which brought diversification to the ranching economy of the area; the Santa Fe influence would remain strong until the mid-1950s when the railway moved its employees to Amarillo. Meanwhile, Hemphill County was the midway point of two smaller lines, the Clinton and Western Railroad Company and the Clinton-Oklahoma-Western Railroad Company of Texas, which by the late 1920s, collectively linked Clinton, with Pampa, Texas.
During the 1970s, the county grew due to a rapid expansion of oil production. Though oil was discovered in the county in 1955, production remained small because the technology had not yet progressed to efficiently capture the deep reserves known to exist. By 1974, oil production had reached 999,000 barrels and more than 1,891,000 bbl in 1978. In 2000, about 505,000 bbl of oil and more than 8 billion cubic feet of natural gas were produced in the county, but the future looked bright. Nahim Abraham and his son, Tom Abraham, immigrants from Lebanon, operated for many years The Fair Store, a department store in Canadian which became regionally known for its high-quality merchandise. Tom Abraham worked to assist immigrants in becoming American citizens and in 1980 won a national award from Freedoms Foundation. Tom Abraham's younger brother, Malouf Abraham, Sr. was a wealthy oil and natural gas developer and philanthropist who served as mayor of Canadian from 1953 to 1957 and in the Texas House of Representatives from 1967 to 1971.
Malouf Abraham, Jr. is a patron of the arts. He has reconstructed a 14,000-square-foot former Baptist church in Canadian into an art museum known as "Citadel Garden." Malouf, Jr. and his wife, the former Therese Browne of Mount Airy, North Carolina, the mayor of Canadian from 1981 to 1991, have three sons, a part of the fourth generation of Abrahams in Canadian. Eddie Abraham is a cattle-calf rancher. Salem Abraham is a futures trader. Jason Abraham operates a large horse ranch. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 912 square miles, of which 906 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 83 State Highway 33 Lipscomb County Ellis County, Oklahoma Roger Mills County, Oklahoma Wheeler County Roberts County Gray County Black Kettle National Grassland As of the census of 2000, 3,351 people, 1,280 households, 948 families resided in the county; the population density was four people per square mile. The 1,548 housing units averaged two per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 87.65% White, 1.55% Black or African American, 0.72% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.48% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. About 15.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 1,280 households, 32.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.20% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.90% were not families. About 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.00% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,456, for a family was $42,036.
Males had a median income of $31,154 versus $19,423 for female
U.S. Route 59 in Texas
U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway; the stretch of the Southwest Freeway just west of The Loop was one of the busiest freeways in North America, with a peak AADT of 371,000 in 1998. US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90 percent of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75-mile-per-hour speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. The total length of the southernmost segment of US 59 that passes through Texas and terminates at the Mexico–US border is 615 miles.
The US 96 designation was applied in 1926 from Rosenberg, near Houston, to Pharr in the Rio Grande valley. This diagonal route, south of U. S. 90, did not violate the convention of numbers for east–west routes. The highway's east–west nature was boosted in 1934 when US 96 was rerouted from Alice to Laredo. US 59 begins at the Mexico–US border with Loop 20 on the World Trade International Bridge over the Rio Grande in Laredo; the portion of US 59, co-signed with Loop 20 is named the Bob Bullock Loop. At under 2 miles, the two highways run together concurrent with I-69W from the Mexico–US border until I-35 in Laredo, where I-69W temporarily ends. US 59 and Loop 20 continue to run together until just south of Lake Casa Blanca, where Loop 20 heads south to Mangana-Hein Road and US 59 heads towards Freer. In Duval County, the speed limit on US 59 is 75 miles per hour, the highest speed limit on the highway. US 59 shares a short congruency with SH 44 around Freer. From Freer, US 59 passes through the southeastern part of McMullen County, but does not intersect any highways.
The highway continues northeast, intersecting US 281 in George West, before intersecting I-37 about 55 miles north of Corpus Christi. Between Laredo and Interstate 37, US 59 passes through ranching sites. From I-37, US 59 heads northeast passing through Beeville. US 59 bypasses Victoria to the south, becomes a divided highway, has a series of interchanges, until it becomes a freeway south of Houston in Rosenberg and resumes the designation of I-69. Between Houston and Victoria, US 59 passes through Edna, Ganado, El Campo, Wharton. US 59 intersects many major Texas highways in Houston, including I-10 and I-45. Leaving Houston, US 59 intersects Beltway 8 again on the northside of town, passing by Bush Intercontinental Airport and heads into Humble. Between Houston and Livingston, most of US 59 is a limited-access freeway but the I-69 designation temporarily ends at the Montgomery-Liberty county line. US 59 bypasses the towns of Cleveland and Livingston. 46 miles north of Livingston, US 59 bypasses Lufkin, where it overlaps US 69.
10 miles north of Lufkin, US 59 bypasses Nacogdoches and heads in an entirely east-west direction. Drivers wishing to stay on US 59 must turn left in Tenaha, where the highway intersects US 96 and ends its overlap with US 84. US 59 passes through Carthage before intersecting I-20 south of Marshall. US 59 intersects US 80 in Marshall. US 59 passes through Jefferson, 15 miles west of Caddo Lake. US 59 passes through the towns of Atlanta before arriving in Bowie County. US 59 intersects SH 93 south of the old highway through the city. Shortly after, I-369 designation with US 59 when the freeway intersects Spur 151, where US 59 becomes a freeway on the westside of the city. Before US 59 intersects I-30, overlaps I-30 until exit 223B, at the state line, I-369 designation ends. After leaving I-30, US 59 joins US 71, where both highways run on the state line between Texas and Arkansas, where both highways continue north towards DeQueen, Arkansas. US 59 is in the process of being upgraded between Laredo & Victoria, to become I-69W.
Segments of I-69 are designated. I-69W runs between Mexico and I-35. I-69 runs through the Houston Metro, a segment of I-369 exists on the west side of Texarkana; the entire I-69 project in Texas does not have a completion date
Zavala County, Texas
Zavala County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,677, its county seat is Crystal City. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1884. Zavala is named for Lorenzo de Zavala, Mexican politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, first vice president of the Republic of Texas. Radiocarbon assays indicate the county’s Tortuga Flat Site was used in the 15th and 16th centuries by Pacuache. Archeologist T. C. Hill of Crystal City conducted excavations in 1972-1973 at uncovering artifacts. More than 100 archeological sites have been identified by researchers of the University of Texas at San Antonio at the Chaparrosa Ranch. Coahuiltecan, Lipan Apache and Mescalero Apache and Comanche have inhabited the area after the Pacuache; the area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River, which included Zavala County, became disputed territory known as the Wild Horse Desert, where neither the Republic of Texas nor the Mexican government had clear control.
Ownership was in dispute until the Mexican–American War. The area became filled with lawless characters. An agreement signed between Mexico and the United States in the 1930s put the liability of payments to the descendants of the original land grants on Mexico. According to a list of Spanish and Mexican grants in Texas, Pedro Aguirre owned 51,296 acres in Zavala County, while Antonio Aguirre had 34,552. Seven other people (including two women—Juana Fuentes and Maria Escolastica Diaz—each had 4,650 acres. Zavala County was established in 1858 and named for Lorenzo de Zavala, a Mexican colonist and one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the county was organized with an error putting an additional "L" in the county. The mistake was not corrected until 1929. Batesville became the county seat. Crystal City won a 1928 election to become the new county seat. Grey White and the Vivian family settled Cometa circa 1867, they were joined by the Ramón Sánchez and Galván families in 1870 and by J. Fisher in 1871.
Murlo community was settled about the same time. Ranching dominated the county until overgrazing destroyed the grasslands. Zavala became the first county in Texas to grow flax commercially. Ike T. La Pryor advertised the land for farming; the community that sprang up was named La Pryor. Developers E. J. Buckingham and Carl Groos purchased all 96,101 acres of the Cross S Ranch in 1905, platted the town of Crystal City, sold the rest as sections divided into 10-acre farms. Zavala, Frio and LaSalle counties are considered the Winter Garden Region of Texas. Irrigation and mild winter climate has made the area ideal for year-round vegetable farming. During the winter of 1917–18 spinach was introduced to Zavala; the first annual Spinach Festival was introduced in 1936, halted during World War II, but resumed in 1982. Cartoonist E. C. Segar who created the spinach-eating Popeye received a letter of appreciation from the Winter Garden Chamber of Commerce, thanking him for his support of Spinach in the American diet.
Segar's written response appeared in two newspapers exhorting children everywhere to enjoy Segar’s favorite vegetable. He approved a 1937 statue of Popeye to be erected in Crystal City, dedicated "To All The Children of the World". Bermuda onions became a major crop. Spinach and cotton were the three biggest crops; the principal crops grown in Zavala County in 1989 were spinach, pecans and onions. The Crystal City, Texas Family Internment Camp began as a migrant labor camp in the 1930s. By the time it closed, it had held German and Japanese combatants and their families, Latin Americans and at least one Italian Latin American family, as well as German- and Japanese-American families. There were 100 acres for security measures. An additional 190 acres were for farming and personnel residences; the first internees, of German ethnicity, arrived on December 12, 1942, were expected to work on construction, being paid 10 cents an hour. A 70-bed hospital was built in 1943. Internees ran nursery kindergartens.
From its inception through June 30, 1945, the Crystal City camp held 4,751 internees and saw 153 births. The camp closed in 1948; the Mexican Revolution that began in 1910 resulted in thousands of laborers flowing across the border to cultivate vegetable crops. By 1917 and 1918 Pancho Villa was sending banditos across the Rio Grande. Crystal City organized home guards for protection against Villa's associates. By 1930 Crystal City was overwhelmingly composed of Hispanic Americans; that year, Zavala County had the highest percentage of laborers and the lowest percentage of tenants of all counties in South Texas. Owner-operators were Anglo, whereas sharecroppers and farm laborers were Hispanic. By the late 1950s a majority of those graduating from high school in the county were Hispanic American. In 1990, 89.4 percent of the county population of 12,162 were Hispanic. Juan Cornejo of the Teamsters Union and The Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations organized the Hispanic population among cannery workers and farm laborers of Crystal City in 1962–63 and succeeded in electing an all Latino city council.
The feat became known as the Crystal City Revolts. The Raza Unida Party was established in 1970 in Crystal City and Zavala County to bring greater self-determination among Tejanos. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,302 square miles, of which 1,297 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 57
Interstate 35 in Texas
Interstate 35 in Texas is a major north–south Interstate Highway running from Laredo near the United States-Mexico border to the Red River north of Gainesville where it crosses into Oklahoma. Along its route, it passes through the cities of San Antonio and Waco before it splits into two auxiliary routes just north of Hillsboro. Interstate 35E heads northeast. Interstate 35W turns northwest to run through Fort Worth; the two branches meet up in Denton to again form Interstate 35, where it continues to the Oklahoma border. The exit numbers for Interstate 35E maintain the sequence of exit numbers from the southern segment of Interstate 35, the northern segment of Interstate 35 follows on from the sequence of exit numbers from Interstate 35E. Interstate 35W maintains its own sequence of exit numbers. In Texas, Interstate 35 runs for just over 407 miles, which does not include either the 85-mile segment of Interstate 35W or the 97-mile segment of Interstate 35E. Texas contains more miles of the overall length of Interstate 35 than any other state one-third of the entire length.
The Interstate is undergoing an extensive renovation and expansion project, known as'My35.' The project includes work on portions of the interstate from Dallas south to Laredo. Interstate 35 has been designated the Texas portion of the Purple Heart Trail. Signage noting this designation is being added along the route. In Laredo, Interstate 35 is between 6 and 8 main lanes in each direction, dropping to 4 near mile marker 13. After running concurrently with US 83 for 20 miles, the highway continues north-northeast across the South Texas Plains; the highway passes through the towns of Cotulla, Pearsall and Lytle before reaching San Antonio. In San Antonio, I-35 is listed as the PanAm Expressway, it starts out as four lanes from the south until it reaches the Poteet-Jourdanton Freeway, expanding to six to eight mainlanes of travel. Its southern point begins in the southwest corner of town and travels northeast, crossing I-410 near its southwest point. At the southwest corner of Downtown, it reaches an intersection with I-10, US 87 and US 90.
US 90 continues east and west from this junction, while I-10 westbound/US 87 northbound joins with I-35 northbound along the western side of Downtown. In this section, it splits lanes to form two levels, a lower one for local traffic and a higher one for express traffic, they rejoin near the northwest corner of Downtown to allow I-10/US 87 to split off and go northwest. I-35 continues, resplitting lanes again as it curves around the northwest corner of Downtown and turns east, it rejoins the lanes as it goes through an intersection at the northeast corner of Downtown, where I-37's northern terminus is located, while US 281 will continue on the north–south freeway. I-35 continues east for, it merges with I-410 on its eastern north–south leg from its northbound direction in a triangular interchange and continues north concurrently from there. A few miles I-410 will split off onto its northern west–east leg, while I-35 resumes its north-northeast course past the northeast corner of the city. Trucks are restricted from travel in the far left lane of I-35 in either direction throughout the San Antonio area.
The restriction covers Bexar and Comal Counties. In Austin, Interstate 35 is named Interregional Highway. Through most of the greater Austin area, I-35 is three to four lanes in each direction, dropping to three lanes north of Williamson County, it forms the eastern boundary of Downtown Austin and passes through the eastern side of the University of Texas campus. I-35 is co-located with U. S. Highway 290 through central Austin. Trucks are restricted from travel in the far left lane of I-35 in either direction throughout the Austin area; the restriction covers Hays and Travis counties and most of Williamson county and ends north of Jarrell, Texas where I-35 is reduced to three lanes in each direction. I-35 is split into two decks between Martin Luther King Boulevard and Airport Boulevard, north of Downtown Austin. Both the upper and lower decks are signed as I-35 and US 290, they use a common set of exit numbers, with some exit numbers duplicated between the two decks; the upper deck lanes are express lanes, with off-ramps.
Drivers wishing to exit between Martin Luther King Boulevard and Airport Boulevard must use the lower deck. The I-35 corridor between San Antonio and Austin is considered one of the most congested stretches of highway in the Interstate System. Much of this traffic is due to I-35 being considered one of the primary NAFTA corridors. Efforts to alleviate the congestion include State Highway 130, which forms an I-35 bypass loop to the east of Austin. Many local and regional governance organizations have on-going studies on other methods to improve mobility on I-35, which include such features as commuter rail lines and additional managed lanes. In Waco, Interstate 35 is known as the Jack Kultgen Freeway. I-35 has six to eight lanes through the city of Waco, it passes just to the west of the Baylor University campus and crosses the Brazos River adjacent to McLane Stadium, the new home of Baylor Bears football. Beginning in Waco and continuing up until just before the I-35E/I-35W split north of Hillsboro, I-35 is co-located with U.
S. Highway 77. Interstate 35 through Central Texas is undergoing major renovation; the project is known as'Main Street Texas', part of the larger scale'My35' expansion plan. The'Main Street' project focuses on expanding the number of main lanes from four to six through McLennan and Bell counties, it calls for complete replacement of the main lane bridges o
Harlingen is a city in Cameron County in the central region of the Rio Grande Valley of the southern part of the U. S. state of Texas, about 30 miles from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The city covers more than 40 square miles and is the second-largest city in Cameron County, as well as the fourth-largest in the Rio Grande Valley; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 64,849, for a growth rate of 12.5% since the 2000 census. It is the city with the lowest cost of living in the United States. Harlingen is a principal city of the Brownsville–Harlingen metropolitan area, part of the larger Brownsville-Harlingen-Raymondville combined statistical area, included in the Matamoros–Brownsville metropolitan area. Harlingen's strategic location at the intersection of U. S. Route 77 and U. S. Route 83, co-designated as Interstate 69 East and Interstate 2 in northwestern Cameron County, fostered its development as a distribution and industrial center. In 1904, Lon C. Hill envisioned the Arroyo Colorado as a commercial waterway.
He named the town he founded on the north bank after the Frisian city of Harlingen, in the Netherlands. The town's post office was established that year; the first school opened with 15 pupils in 1905 near the Hill home, the first residence built in Harlingen. Harlingen incorporated on April 15, 1910, when the population totaled 1,126. In 1920, the census listed 1,748; the local economy at first was entirely agricultural. Major crops were vegetables and cotton. World War II military installations in Harlingen caused a jump in population from 23,000 in 1950 to 41,000 by 1960. Harlingen Army Air Field preceded Harlingen Air Force Base, which closed in 1962; the city's population fell to 33,603 by 1972 climbed to 40,824 by 1980. Local enterprise, focused on the purchase and use of the abandoned base and related housing, laid the groundwork for continuing progress through a diversified economy; the estimated population in July 1985 was 49,000. In the late 1980s, income from tourism ranked second only to citrus fruit production, with grain and cotton next in order.
The addition of wholesale and retail trade and medium manufacturing, an array of service industries has broadened the economic base. Large-scale construction for multifaceted retirement communities is a new phase of industrial development; the City of Harlingen operates a busy industrial airpark. At Valley International Airport, the Confederate Air Force occupied hangar and apron space until 1991; the first hospital in Harlingen opened in 1923, consisted of little more than two barracks as wings. The Valley Baptist Hospital was built nearby a few years and the older hospital closed; the Valley Baptist Hospital has grown into the Valley Baptist Medical Center. The city's outstanding network of health-care specialists and facilities parallels the growth of the still-expanding center. Serving regional health needs are the South Texas State Chest Hospital, the State Hospital for Children, the Rio Grande State Mental Health and Mental Retardation Center. Besides public and church-affiliated schools, Harlingen students attend the University Preparatory School, the Marine Military Academy, Texas State Technical College, or Rio Grande Vocational and Rehabilitation classes.
Civic and cultural development in Harlingen has kept pace with the growth of the community. Fraternal orders and civic organizations operating in the community include Rotary, Lions, Optimist, 20-30, VFW, American Legion, the Lower Valley Cotillion Club. Development and appreciation of the fine arts are encouraged by organizations such as the Rio Grande Valley Art League, the Art Forum, the Rio Grande Valley Civic Association, which stages its winter concert series at the 2,300-seat Harlingen Municipal Auditorium; each March, Harlingen is the site of the Rio Grande Valley International Music Festival. The city has two newspapers—the Harlingen Press, a weekly paper established in 1951, the Valley Morning Star, a daily established in 1911. In 1990, the population was 48,735. In 1992, the city was named an All-America City, cited for its volunteer spirit and self-help programs. In 2000, the community had 2,549 businesses; the famous Tejano music singer Selena performed here with her band Selena and the Dinos.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.3 square miles, of which 39.8 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles, or 1.22%, is covered by water. Soils in Harlingen range in texture from fine sandy loam to clay, they are neutral to moderately alkaline with pH of 7.2 to 8.5, are moderately well drained or well drained in most cases, with small areas of poorly drained, saline clays. As of the census of 2000, 57,564 people, 19,021 households, 14,360 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,689.6 people per square mile. The 23,008 housing units averaged 675.3/mi2. The racial makeup of the city was 78.68% White, 0.92% Black, 0.52% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 16.39% from other races, 2.58% from two or more races. About 72.76 % of the population was Latino of any race. As in other cities in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, a significant part of Harlingen's transient population and a significant contributor to its economy consists of "Winter Texans" retirees from the no