The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris, France. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children and adults
Ricardo "Ricky" Garbanzo is a Costa Rican-American soccer player who last played for Charleston Battery in the USL. Garbanzo grew up in Rock Hill, South Carolina. Garbanzo played soccer at Northwestern High School with future Battery teammate Shawn Ferguson. Garbanzo played college soccer at Coastal Carolina University, making a total of 94 appearances for the Chanticleers and tallying 40 goals and 21 assists. Garbanzo played for K-W United FC in the Premier Development League. On December 31, 2014, it was announced that Garbanzo would take part in Major League Soccer's player combine. However, he went undrafted in the 2015 MLS SuperDraft. Following the draft he joined his hometown club Charleston Battery for training camp and earned a professional contract in March. On March 21, 2015, he made his professional debut for the Battery in a 3–2 victory over Toronto FC II. During his rookie season Garbanzo became a first choice starter as a second striker behind teammate Dane Kelly, tallying 5 goals and 5 assists in 27 league appearances.
Garbanzo plays as a defensive forward and is known for his hard-working and aggressive style of play, with manager Mike Anhaeuser nicknaming Garbanzo "Tricky Ricky" for his clever running and ability to provoke opponents. Following the season he was voted the club's newcomer of the year by fans, his contract was not renewed following the 2017 season. Coastal Carolina Chanticleers bio
Sarah Oppenheimer is a visual artist based in New York City. Oppenheimer's work extends the disciplinary boundaries between architecture, her calculated manipulation of standardized spaces disrupts the experience of built space, through the use of mirrors, misshapen architectural elements that can distort perspective. Describing Oppenheimer’s work in Artforum in 2012, Julian Rose wrote, "Oppenheimer working inside architecture, has found a new place for a new kind of subject, she offers a welcome reminder that architecture—and by extension the space of today—need not be experienced in a state of distraction, or worse, an induced fog of affect, but can instead be explored in a condition of uncertainty and attention." In Automatic Cities: The Architectural Imaginary in Contemporary Art, Giuliana Bruno wrote, "Oppenheimer subjects the practice of architecture to inventive, analytic operations that question the inner structure of our forms of dwelling." Reviewing Oppenheimer's work in The New York Times, Roberta Smith in 2012 wrote: "Difference prevails.
2002 - The Drawing Center. Hallway. New York, NY, USA. 2003 - Queens Museum of Art. Lid. Queens, NY, USA. 2008 - Saint Louis Art Museum. Currents: Sarah Oppenheimer. St. Louis, MO. USA. 2009 - Art Unlimited at Art Basel. VP-41. Basel, Switzerland. 2012 - Baltimore Museum of Art, W-120301. Baltimore, MD. USA. 2016 - Mudam, Luxembourg. S-3399390. Luxembourg. 2016 - Pérez Art Museum Miami, S-281913. Miami, FL, USA. 2019 - Artspace. Strange Loops. New Haven, CT, USA. Artist's website