The United Nations Children's Fund is a United Nations agency responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide. Operating out of U. N. headquarters in New York City, it is among the most widespread and recognizable social welfare organizations in the world, with a presence in 192 countries and territories. UNICEF's activities include immunizations and disease prevention, administering treatment for children and mothers with HIV, enhancing childhood and maternal nutrition, improving sanitation, promoting education, providing emergency relief in response to disasters. UNICEF has its origins in the International Children’s Emergency Fund, created in 1946 by the U. N. Relief Rehabilitation Administration to provide immediate relief and healthcare to children and mothers affected by World War II; the same year, at the urging of Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman, the U. N. General Assembly established the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund to further institutionalize its post-war relief work.
In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries, in 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System. The agency's name was subsequently changed to its current form, though it retains the original acronym. UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors, its total income as of 2018 was $5.2 billion. It is governed by a 36-member executive board that establishes policies, approves programs, oversees administrative and financial plans; the board is made up of government representatives elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for three-year terms. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. Most of its work is in the field, with a network that includes 150 country offices and other facilities and 34 "national committees" that carry out its mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed, while its Supply Division—based in Copenhagen and New York—helps provide over $3 billion in critical aid and services.
In 2018, UNICEF assisted in the birth of 27 million babies, administered Pentavalent vaccines to an estimated 65.5 million children, provided education for 12 million children, treated four million children with severe acute malnutrition, responded to 285 humanitarian emergencies in 90 countries. UNICEF had received recognition for its work, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965, the Indira Gandhi Prize in 1989 and the Princess of Asturias Award in 2006. UNICEF relies on country offices to help carry out its work through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government; the programs last five years and seek to develop practical strategies for fulfilling and protecting the rights of children and women. Regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place its New York headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives.
The Board establishes policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Its work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups; these five officers are elected by the Executive Board annually from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis. As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board; the Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board helps maintain an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, organizes field visits by board members. The following countries are home to UNICEF Regional Offices; the Americas and Caribbean Regional Office, Panama City, Panama Europe and Central Asia Regional Office, Switzerland East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office, Thailand Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office, Kenya Middle East and North Africa Regional Office, Jordan South Asia Regional Office, Nepal West and Central Africa Regional Office, Senegal There are national committees in 36 developed countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization.
Their primary function is to raise funds from the public sector, as UNICEF is dependent on voluntary contributions. National Committees collectively account for about one-third of the agency's annual income, including from corporations, civil society organizations, around six million individual donors worldwide. In the United States and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy. UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF; these non-governmental organizations are responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, providing other support. The
The Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons was a declaration of the General Assembly of the United Nations, made on 9 December 1975. It is the 3447th resolution made by the Assembly; as a resolution of the Assembly, it is not binding on member nations, but it forms a framework that may be drawn on for the purposes of international and domestic law. It consists of a lengthy preamble, thirteen proclamations that broadly promote the rights of those with disabilities. In 2007 the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted; the Declaration makes thirteen distinct proclamations: Definition of the term "disabled person" as "any person unable to ensure by himself or herself, wholly or the necessities of a normal individual and/or social life, as a result of deficiency, either congenital or not, in his or her physical or mental capabilities". Assertion that these rights apply to all disabled persons "without any exception whatsoever and without distinction or discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, state of wealth, birth or any other situation applying either to the disabled person himself or herself or to his or her family".
Right to respect for human dignity. Right to same civil and political rights as other human beings. Right to measures designed to enable self-reliance. Right to medical and functional treatment as necessary. Right to economic and social security, including the right to employment. Right to have consideration of special needs at all stages of social planning. Right to live with their families or with foster parents and to participate in all social, creative or recreational activities. Right to protection against exploitation and abuse. Right to qualified legal aid. Right to consult organizations of disabled persons for in matters of concern. Right to be informed of the rights proclaimed in the Declaration; the United Nations and Persons with Disabilities Chronology, 1945 - 1980 The United Nations and Persons with Disabilities Chronology: 1980’s – present
Reign of Fire is an action-adventure video game released in 2002 by Kuju Entertainment. The game is based on the movie of the same name, in which dragons have annihilated the majority of the human race, the survivors attempt to fight back using scavenged military hardware. However, the plot differs from the film; the game allows the player to play as a human. As a human, the player takes the role of a survivor, in a third-person vehicle-based shooter - tanks and jeeps most notably, which can all carry rockets and machine gun turrets; as a dragon, the player takes the role of a maturing dragon able to use fireballs to engage targets at range, napalm breath to set targets alight and using their talons to pick up items and use them as makeshift bombs to attack ground targets. The game's story is divided into two campaigns; the human campaign loosely follows the plot of the film, with significant differences. Meanwhile, the dragon campaign chronicles the early years of the human/dragon war up to the game's present timeline.
The dragon campaign features an alternative ending in the final mission. The human campaign begins with the player taking the role of'The Kid', a new recruit to the Kentucky Irregulars. Hailing from the former United States, The Irregulars are a group of paramilitary dragon slayers and are led by Denton Van Zan; the Irregulars defend The Fort, an old castle in Northumberland that houses a population of survivors led by Quinn Abercromby. The Irregulars are tasked with warding off attacks and rescuing civilians. Like in the film, Van Zan concludes that all dragons thus far have been female, that there must be a single male, key to reproduction. To prove his theory, Van Zan leads the Irregulars to the ruins of a coastal military base in Dover, now used by the dragons as a nesting ground. Upon arrival, Van Zan sends The Kid alone to retrieve dragon eggs while the majority of the brood is away; the Kid manages to retrieve enough eggs before escaping the returning dragons with the Irregulars. Van Zan confirms his theory and leads the Irregulars to London, intending to kill the sole male dragon, known as The Bull.
Once in London, the Irregulars face heavy resistance from the dragons. Van Zan devises a plan to lure out The Bull by destroying several dragon nests; the plan is successful and The Bull arrives. Quinn distracts The Bull while The Kid, Van Zan, the remaining Irregulars concentrate fire on The Bull critically injuring The Bull's wings. Van Zan sends The Kid to finish off The Bull deep in dragon territory. After a long and difficult battle, The Kid kills The Bull. In the dragon campaign, the player assumes the role of a young dragon with higher than normal intelligence, evident by her ability to adapt and exploit situations tactically and strategically; the campaign begins during the early years of the human-dragon war, in which organized human resistance is still significant, but waning. The player dragon assists her sisters in assaulting the Tower of London, the last human stronghold in the city; the dragons are victorious, obliterating the Tower and a nearby warship, pushing the humans out of London.
Some time the player dragon attempts to rescue captured dragons from an armoured train heading to a large coastal military base in Dover. The player dragon rescues her sisters and destroys the train, before following the tracks to the base; the base is defended, with the base's array of large-calibre artillery posing a significant threat to the dragons. The player dragon sneaks into the base from the ocean port, annihilating coastal guns, anti-air defences and the superguns. With their last line of defence destroyed, the human military presence in England is broken and the remaining survivors scattered; the game jumps forward to the year 2020. The player dragon, now mature clashes with the Kentucky Irregulars and the survivors in The Fort; the player dragon causes chaos by disrupting Irregular operations and destroying The Fort's food supply. The final mission presents an alternative ending, in which the dragons assault The Fort with the assistance of The Bull. Despite heavy resistance, the dragons wipe out the defenders and destroy The Fort, permanently establishing dragons as the dominant species.