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UPS Airlines

UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline based in Louisville, Kentucky. The third-largest cargo airline worldwide, UPS Airlines flies to 815 destinations worldwide, the most of any airline. A wholly owned subsidiary of UPS since its launch in 1988, the airline marked its 30th year of operation in 2018. In line with passenger airlines, UPS Airlines operates under the hub-and-spoke model. Headquartered at Worldport at Louisville International Airport, the airline has several secondary hubs across the United States and international hubs in Germany and Hong Kong; the pilots of UPS Airlines are represented by the Independent Pilots Association. The origin of transporting packages by air for UPS dates to 1929. Many packages were shipped by the Ford Trimotors of United Airlines. After Black Tuesday and the beginning of the Great Depression, the air service would be discontinued by the end of 1931. However, the air service would lead to the expansion beyond the West Coast. After World War II, UPS revisited the idea of shipping packages by air.

Starting in 1953, 2-day delivery was offered on coast-to-coast packages. As before, UPS package volume was transported on commercial airline flights. Unprofitable, Blue Label Air became popular as its speed created enough demand to maintain a profit. In 1975, UPS started its first international operations as it expanded into Canada, with an additional expansion into West Germany a year later; as UPS had become a international company, access to its own cargo aircraft had become a more apparent issue. In 1976, competitor Federal Express had turned a profit, showcasing that package delivery companies did not have to rely on commercial aircraft to transport their volume. In 1978, the Airline Deregulation Act gave UPS a significant opportunity: the company could now establish its own airline and flying from city to city would require far fewer legislative hurdles as the federal government now encouraged competition between airlines. In 1980, UPS opened its first major hub for sorting packages transported by aircraft, located in Louisville, Kentucky.

Located at the westernmost point of the Eastern time zone, Louisville is accessible across the majority of the contiguous United States in less than three hours. In contrast to chief competitor Federal Express, in the early 1980s, air operations of UPS were undertaken by several contractors, including Evergreen International Airlines, Interstate Airlines, Ryan Air, Orion Air. Through its contractors, UPS flew its packages using a fleet of commercial aircraft converted to freighters, including Boeing 727-100s, 727-200s, Douglas DC-8s, Boeing 747-100s. In 1982, UPS introduced its Next-Day Air service, guaranteeing overnight delivery on certain packages. To expand its flight network, UPS opened a distribution facility in Anchorage in 1985. Similar to Louisville, Anchorage was chosen for its strategic geographical position, accessible to 90% of the industrialized world in less than 9½ hours flying distance. In 1986, in an effort to obtain service rights to Japan, UPS entered into a joint venture with DHL, named International Parcel Express.

IPX was rejected for use in Japan, leading UPS to purchase the DHL share of the joint venture in 1987. At the end of 1987, UPS ended the use of contract flights by Evergreen and Orion. Using the flight certificate intended for the IPX joint venture, the renamed UPS Airlines commenced operations in January 1988, adopting many flight crews from Orion Air. At the 1988 founding of UPS Airlines, the company operated a route network serving 41 countries connecting the United States and Canada to Asia and Europe. To expand and modernize its jet fleet, at the end of 1987, UPS purchased dedicated freighter variants of the Boeing 757. In 1995, UPS purchased a second aircraft type from the Boeing 767 freighter; the launch customer of both aircraft, UPS Airlines would purchase 75 757s and 32 767s, more than doubling the size of its aircraft fleet. To update the oldest aircraft in its fleet, the 727-100QF conversion was introduced. In place of a hush kit, the QF conversion changed the aircraft from Pratt & Whitney JT8D to Rolls-Royce Tay turbofans.

In 1991, to gain the ability to fly domestic cargo flights within Europe, UPS entered into a partnership with Danish airline Star Air, leasing several 727 freighters to the airline. In the early 1990s, to add capacity to its network, UPS Airlines opened additional hubs, with primary hubs in Rockford and Philadelphia. With most of its aircraft flying on weeknights, the airline was eager to find other ways to produce income from its fleet. In the 1990s, eight 727 freighters were converted into 727-100QC freighters with the ability to be re-converted into passenger aircraft for the purpose of chartered flights. After disappointing results, in 2001, UPS ended charter service with quick-change freighters, with the aircraft returned to cargo service. Following the addition of primary and secondary hubs to the airline network during the 1990s, for much

Steve Mizerany

Steve Mizerany was an American business owner and media personality. Mizerany was known in St. Louis, Missouri for the outsized personality he displayed as the star of his own advertisements. Mizerany grew up in the LaSalle Park neighborhood of St. Louis and was graduated from McKinley High School, he was the youngest of seven children. His father taught English to other Lebanese immigrants at St. Raymond’s Maronite Church. In 1946 Steve’s two oldest brothers opened the Mizerany Brothers appliance store on Broadway. Steve Mizerany handled the store's television advertisements. All television was live at that time, Mizerany ad-libbed the commercials as the cameras were rolling. Here he developed his zany persona which attracted some complaints. In 1972, Mizerany opened the Mizerany-Farhatt New Deal Appliance Company next to Bevo Mill on Gravois Road in St. Louis with his childhood friend Joe Farhatt. Here he perfected his advertising style, an admixture of his distinct voice, enthusiastic persona, outlandish attire, slapstick humor, stunts such as roller-skating in the store's aisles.

Taglines included the assertion that the store was home of the "decent boys". Mizerany guest-starred in other ads for other businesses. After his death, Mizerany was honored by the St. Louis Board of Aldermen for his charitable activities which included organizing the annual St. Louis police relief celebrity ballgame. Mizerany married Sue Grant in 1947, they had five children: Catherine Mizerany, Stephanie Dorris, Veronica Miller, Steve Mizerany, Jr. and Vincent Mizerany. In the late 1970's, Mizerany became the center of a litigation scandal for selling used appliances in new packaging. Amidst the scandal, several women whom worked stepped up and accused Mizerany of sexual harassment and child abandonment; the issues were settled out of court with a suspected settlement

Oregon spotted frog

The Oregon spotted frog is a member of the frog family Ranidae of order Anura. It is a medium-sized aquatic frog endemic to the Pacific Northwest and well distributed in the Puget Trough/Willamette Valley province and the Cascade Mountains of south-central Washington and Oregon, it is rare within its range and is listed globally as vulnerable. Oregon spotted frogs can be found in south-western British Columbia, south through the Puget/Willamette Valley through and the Columbia River gorge in south-central Washington to the Cascade Range at least to the Klamath Valley in Oregon, USA, they were found in California but have been extirpated there and have been extirpated from much of western Oregon and Washington. They can occur at an elevation of 20–1,570m asl. In Oregon, the Oregon spotted frog's current range is Deschutes and Klamath counties. In Washington, Oregon spotted; as adults, the Oregon spotted frogs can range from about 4.4–10.2 cm in snout-vent length, the distance from the snout of the frog to the hide end/vent of the frog.

Similar to most amphibians, the females tend to be larger than the males for reproductive reasons. The coloration of this species varies with age; as tadpoles, their back and tail musculature are brown and lack dark spotting, while the belly is a creamy white or aluminum color. Juveniles are some shade of brown, but may sometimes be olive green. Adult Oregon spotted frogs can be brown or reddish brown and tend to become red with age. Both juvenile and adult Oregon spotted frogs have black spots with light centers present on their heads and backs which tend to become larger and get an ragged-edged appearance with age. Older frogs tend to become brick red over most of their dorsal surfaces and are red on their entire abdomen forward to their chest. Juveniles are white or cream in color with reddish pigments on their underlegs and abdomen while adults show a vivid orange-red color on their underlegs and red surface pigments on their abdomen; the dorsal lateral folds tend to be lighter in color ranging from tan to orange.

The hind legs of the Oregon spotted frog are short relative to its body length and their groin tends to be uniformly gray but can sometimes be faintly mottled with gray markings and red-orange flecks. Their hind feet are webbed and the webbing extends onto the last segment of the longest toe; the Oregon spotted frog has eyes that are upturned and uncovered by the eyelids when viewed from above. The Oregon spotted frog is a aquatic frog that strays from areas of standing water. Bodies of water that included zones of shallow water with abundant emergent or floating aquatic plants are suitable for the Oregon spotted frogs. Mats of aquatic vegetation are used for basking on and escaping danger by diving beneath the cover of the vegetation; these habitats provide a thin layer of unusually warm water which the frogs appear to prefer. Adult Oregon spotted frogs feed on a variety of live animal prey, including insects, while Oregon spotted frog tadpoles feed on algae, rotting vegetation, detritus; the Oregon spotted frog's reproduction is aquatic and their late winter breeding season is brief, less than four weeks in duration.

Males call during the day or night from the vicinity of traditional oviposition sites, places where females lay their eggs in communal piles. Ovipostition at selected sites is initiated when water temperatures reach 8 °C, but the timing of oviposition varies from late February-early March at lowland sites to late May-late June at montane sites in Oregon, they breed in warm shallow water 5.1–30.5 cm deep in areas where grasses and rushes are present. Adult females breed every year and produce a single egg mass each year. Though egg masses are laid singly, communal oviposition sites comprise the majority of the annual reproductive output; these communal clusters of egg masses are composed of between 10 and 75 individual egg masses and in British Columbia it has been recorded that each egg mass contained an average of 643 eggs. They lay their eggs in exposed, shallow waters that are warmed by the sun so that development to hatching is hastened by warm conditions; however this increases the vulnerability of the eggs to desiccation and/or freezing.

Once fertilized, the eggs of the Oregon spotted frog begin to enter the larval stage of their development quickly. The larvae hatch into tadpoles in 18–30 days and do not metamorphosize until 110–130 days after hatching in British Columbia, as short as 95 days in Oregon. After the transformation from a tadpole into a juvenile frog, the juveniles may remain around the breeding ponds for a period of time, although their emigration patterns are unknown. Once the Oregon spotted frog has reached adulthood, in British Columbia the males can become sexually mature within their second year and females are thought to become sexually mature in either their second or third year. In central Washington on the other hand, most males are sexually mature by the end of their first year and females become sexually mature by the middle of their second year; the longevity of the Oregon spotted frog is not well studied, but it is thought that these frogs have a short life living between two and five years. Columbia spotted frog Rana pretiosa luteiventris was described as subspecies of Rana pretiosa but has since been elevated to full species status.

The Oregon spotted frog is listed internationally on the IUCN Red List

Clematis lanuginosa

Clematis lanuginosa is a flowering vine of the genus Clematis. Like many members of that genus, its hybrids are prized by gardeners for their showy flowers, it is endemic to Zhejiang province in eastern China and was first discovered near Ningbo by the plant hunter Robert Fortune in 1850 who sent plants back to England. It was lost to cultivation at about the time of the first world war and thought to be extinct but was rediscovered growing in the same area in 2008. Clematis lanuginosa is a twice-bearing clematis that blooms once again in summer. In the USA it grows best in American Horticultural Society zones 9 to 1, which covers much of the USA, it is best known as a parent species for many of the large-flowered varieties of Clematis. One example of these would be Jackman's Clematis C. jackmanii. The cultivar'Candida' has 8-inch white blossoms. Clematis lanuginosa is one of the species of Clematis, susceptible to the fungal plant pathogen Phoma clematidina, which produces the sometimes fatal disease known as "clematis wilt".

As C. lanuginosa and hybrids derived from it have been used extensively in the breeding of new large flowered Clematis cultivars, this susceptibility to the disease has been passed to many Clematis grown in gardens


The Taensa were a Native American people whose settlements at the time of European contact in the late 17th century were located in present-day Tensas Parish, Louisiana. The meaning of the name, which has the further spelling variants of Taenso, Tenza or Tinza, Tahensa or Takensa, Tenisaw, is unknown, it is believed to be an autonym. The Taensa should not be confused with the Avoyel, known by the French as the petits Taensas, who were mentioned in writings by explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in 1699; the Taensa are more related to the Natchez people and both are considered descendants of the late prehistoric Plaquemine culture. The Taensa migrated as a result of Chickasaw and Yazoo hostilities, first lower down the Mississippi River. In 1715, protected by the French, they migrated to lands near the now eponymously named Tensas River near Mobile, Alabama; when the French ceded Mobile and their other territory east of the Mississippi River to the English in 1763, following their defeat in the Seven Years' War, the Taensa and other small tribes returned to Louisiana, settling near the Red River.

They numbered about 100 persons in 1805. They moved south to Bayou Boeuf and still to Grand Lake, "after which the remnant disappear from history." The Taensa and the related Natchez are descendants of the late prehistoric Plaquemine culture. The Plaquemine culture was a Mississippian culture variant centered on the Lower Mississippi River valley, they had complex political and religious institutions and lived in large villages centered on ceremonial platform mounds. They were agriculturists who grew maize, squash and tobacco, they had a deep history in the area stretching back through the earlier Coles Creek and Troyville cultures to the Marksville culture, contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of present-day Ohio and Illinois. The Tensas Basin region where their villages were found has several Coles Creek and Plaquemine era ceremonial sites with platform mounds located nearby, including the Coles Creek era Balmoral Mounds, the Plaquemine era Routh Mounds and Flowery Mound sites.. The post-Hernando de Soto entrada Transylvania Phase of the Tensas Basin saw the increasing spread of Mississippian influences diffusing southward from Arkansas and northwestern Mississippi.

The Jordan Mounds site on a relict channel of the Arkansas River in northeastern Louisianas Morehouse Parish was constructed during the protohistoric period between 1540 and 1685. The builders were an intrusive group in the area, Mississippianized peoples who were refugees from the Mississippi River area to the east and were escaping the collapse of their society brought about by the aftereffects of European contact. By the late 1600s the site was abandoned. Historians and archaeologists such as Marvin Jeter have theorized that the Plaquemine "Northern Natchezan" ancestors of the Taensa were in part some of the peoples documented in the early 1540s by the de Soto expedition in southeastern Arkansas and northwestern Mississippi. After the disastrous encounter and subsequent population crash due to the introduction of European diseases and political upheaval left in de Soto's wake, remnant populations of Northern Natchezans migrated down the Mississippi toward their Southern Natchezan cousins.

The first securely documented European contact with the Taensa was by the French La Salle expedition of 1682. They were described as having a village on Lake St. Joseph, a narrow crescent shaped oxbow lake located west of the Mississippi, between the Yazoo River and Saint Catherine Creek. La Salles associate Henri de Tonti visited the Taensa again in 1686 and 1690, they numbered 1,200 people scattered throughout seven or eight villages on the western end of the lake and another on the Tensas River near present-day Clayton in Concordia Parish. In 1698 French Catholic missionary priests Antoine Davion and François de Montigny and J. B. La Source visited the Taensa. De Montigny at that time records their population as being 700 people. In 1699 French explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville recorded the Taensa as having 300 warriors and living in seven villages named as Taensas, Conchayon, Nyhougoula and Talaspa; the majority of these names are in the Muskogean Mobilian trade language and not the Natchezan Taensa language.

During his time with the Taensa, de Montigny prevented them from performing acts of ritual human sacrifice as part of the funeral rites for a deceased chief. Because of this, the Taensa blamed de Montigny when lightning struck their wattle and daub temple and burned it down, he left to join the Natchez in 1790, his mission to the Taensa was taken over by Jean-François Buisson de Saint-Cosme. Along with other native peoples of the lower Mississippi River, the Taensa were subject to slave raids and epidemics of European diseases such as smallpox during this time period; as the population of the Taensa decreased, de Saint-Cosme in 1700 endeavored in vain to have them join with the much larger Natchez and consolidate the two missions. De Saint-Cosme settled among the Natchez for less than a year before leaving; the English and French colonies in the American southeast struggled for domination. The English colony of South Carolina had established a large trading network among the southeastern Native Americans, which by 1700 str

The Little Mermaid Jr.

The Little Mermaid Jr. is a stage musical produced by Disney Theatrical, based on the animated 1989 Disney film of the same name and the classic story of the same name by Hans Christian Andersen about a mermaid who dreams of the world above the sea and gives up her voice to find love. Its book is by Doug Wright, music by Alan Menken and lyrics by Howard Ashman, with additional lyrics by Glenn Slater, its underwater setting and story about aquatic characters requires unusual technical designs and strategies to create gliding movements for the actors. The Little Mermaid Jr. first became available to license by the company Music Theater International and Disney Theatrical Productions Prince Eric, his adviser and sailors are aboard a ship at sea, discussing the "mythical" merfolk that live under the sea. Grimsby wants Eric to return to court to fulfill his birthright as king. However, Eric commands it to be followed. Deep on the ocean floor in the merfolk kingdom, a concert in honor of a thwarted coup d'état by Ursula is underway, being performed by the daughters of Triton the sea king.

King Triton's court composer, Sebastian the crab, has composed a song for girls to perform. However, the youngest daughter, Ariel, is not there for her solo, bringing the concert to a halt. Ariel has forgotten about the concert and is swimming around the surface, admiring a new item for her collection, a fork, she reveals. Together with her best friend Flounder, Ariel visits Scuttle and his fellow seagulls to ask about the human things she's collected, he explains them somewhat erroneously. Elsewhere, the sea witch Ursula is planning King Triton, she was banished from the palace for using black magic, tells her minions Flotsam and Jetsam to keep an eye on Ariel, whom she thinks will be the key to getting the crown and trident. When Ariel returns home, she is berated by King Triton, angered to learn that she has been on the surface, since contact between the merfolk and human world is forbidden. Ariel rushes off upset, King Triton assigns Sebastian to watch over Ariel to make sure she doesn't get into trouble.

Ariel sits alone in her grotto, which contains her collection of human things, imagines living in the human world. Ariel and Flounder meet Scuttle at the surface to see Prince Eric's ship up close. On board, Grimsby tells Eric that he must take his place as king. A storm hits, Eric is tossed overboard. Ariel drags him to shore, she realizes that she is falling in love with him, vows to find a way to be with him. After Ariel returns home, her behavior makes her sisters and Flounder suspect that she has fallen in love. Sebastian reveals to King Triton. Triton angrily uses his trident to destroy Ariel's human collection. After the king leaves, Sebastian tries to comfort Ariel by pointing out the wonders of the undersea world, but she is furious with him for reporting to her father and sneaks off with Flounder during the song. Once she's away, she's stopped by Flotsam and Jetsam, who sweet talk her into seeking help from Ursula. Ariel goes to meet Ursula, who presents a deal: Ariel will be turned into a human for three days, during which she has to win the kiss of true love from Eric.

If she does, she will be human permanently. In exchange, Ariel must give up her voice. Ariel signs the agreement and sings into the shell, after which she is transformed into a human and swims up to the surface. Sebastian and Flounder bring Ariel, newly human, to shore. Scuttle and the seagulls give her a pep talk to raise her spirits and help her get used to her new legs. Eric arrives. Eric brings Ariel back to his palace, where Carlotta, the head mistress, the maids bathe and dress Ariel. Ariel is fascinated by the human world, while the maids wonder why Eric has brought such a girl to the palace; that night Chef Louis cooks dinner for Ariel and Eric, cooks Sebastian for the grand finale. Eric and Ariel spend time together. After a tour of the kingdom, Eric takes Ariel on a quiet boat ride through a lagoon. Sebastian and Scuttle watch anxiously and try to create a romantic atmosphere for Eric to kiss Ariel. Just before they kiss and Jetsam give the boat an "electric shock" and swim away; as the second day ends, Ariel wishes she had more time and could tell Eric everything, Triton worries about where his daughter has gone, Sebastian is concerned that Ariel's time as a human is up, Eric still dreams of finding the girl who saved him though he does not want to lose Ariel.

Sebastian tells an angry King Triton about Ariel's deal with Ursula. On Ariel's last day as a human, Grimsby has arranged a contest for all foreign princesses to sing for Eric, so he may choose one for his bride. Eric isn't interested in any of them, Ariel asks to participate, dancing for him. Eric picks her, but before they can embrace, Ursula appears, declaring that the sun has set and Ariel now belongs to her. Flotsam and Jetsam grab Ariel to take her back to the sea. King Triton arrives agreeing to take Ariel's place. Ursula declares herself queen, she banishes Triton with a wave of the trident. Durin