SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

USS Constitution

USS Constitution known as Old Ironsides, is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. She is the world's oldest commissioned naval vessel still afloat, she was launched in 1797, one of six original frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794 and the third constructed. The name "Constitution" was among ten names submitted to President George Washington by Secretary of War Timothy Pickering in March of 1795 for the frigates that were to be constructed. Joshua Humphreys designed the frigates to be the young Navy's capital ships, so Constitution and her sister ships were larger and more armed and built than standard frigates of the period, she was built at Edmund Hartt's shipyard in the North End of Massachusetts. Her first duties were to provide protection for American merchant shipping during the Quasi-War with France and to defeat the Barbary pirates in the First Barbary War. Constitution is most noted for her actions during the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom, when she captured numerous merchant ships and defeated five British warships: HMS Guerriere, Pictou and Levant.

The battle with Guerriere earned her the nickname "Old Ironsides" and public adoration that has saved her from scrapping. She continued to serve as flagship in the Mediterranean and African squadrons, she circled the world in the 1840s. During the American Civil War, she served as a training ship for the United States Naval Academy, she carried American artwork and industrial displays to the Paris Exposition of 1878. Constitution was retired from active service in 1881 and served as a receiving ship until being designated a museum ship in 1907. In 1934, she completed a 90-port tour of the nation, she sailed under her own power for her 200th birthday in 1997, again in August 2012 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of her victory over Guerriere. Constitution's stated mission today is to promote understanding of the Navy's role in war and peace through educational outreach, historical demonstration, active participation in public events as part of the Naval History & Heritage Command; as a commissioned Navy ship, her crew of 60 officers and sailors participate in ceremonies, educational programs, special events while keeping her open to visitors year round and providing free tours.

The officers and crew are all active-duty Navy personnel, the assignment is considered to be special duty. She is berthed at Pier 1 of the former Charlestown Navy Yard at one end of Boston's Freedom Trail. In 1785, Barbary pirates began to seize American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea, most notably from Algiers. In 1793 alone, 11 American ships were captured and their crews and stores held for ransom. To combat this problem, proposals were made for warships to protect American shipping, resulting in the Naval Act of 1794; the act provided funds to construct six frigates, but it included a clause that the construction of the ships would be halted if peace terms were agreed to with Algiers. Joshua Humphreys' design was unusual for the time, being deep, long on keel, narrow of beam, mounting heavy guns; the design called for a diagonal riders intended to restrict hogging and sagging while giving the ships heavy planking. This design gave the hull a greater strength than a more built frigate.

It was based on Humphrey's realization that the fledgling United States could not match the European states in the size of their navies, so they were designed to overpower any other frigate while escaping from a ship of the line. Her keel was laid down on 1 November 1794 at Edmund Hartt's shipyard in Boston, Massachusetts under the supervision of Captain Samuel Nicholson and master shipwright Colonel George Claghorn. Constitution's hull was built 21 inches thick and her length between perpendiculars was 175 ft, with a 204 ft length overall and a width of 43 ft 6 in. In total, 60 acres of trees were needed for her construction. Primary materials consisted of pine and oak, including southern live oak, cut from Gascoigne Bluff and milled near St. Simons, Georgia. A peace accord was announced between the United States and Algiers in March 1796, construction was halted in accordance with the Naval Act of 1794. After some debate and prompting by President Washington, Congress agreed to continue funding the construction of the three ships nearest to completion: United States and Constitution.

Constitution's launching ceremony on 20 September 1797 was attended by President John Adams and Massachusetts Governor Increase Sumner. Upon launch, she slid down the ways only 27 feet before stopping. An attempt two days resulted in only an additional 31 feet of travel before the ship again stopped. After a month of rebuilding the ways, Constitution slipped into Boston Harbor on 21 October 1797, with Captain James Sever breaking a bottle of Madeira wine on her bowsprit. Constitution was rated as a 44-gun frigate, but she carried more than 50 guns at a time. Ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns such as those of modern Navy ships; the guns and cannons were designed to be portable and were exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer outfitted armaments to his liking, taking into consideration factors such as the overall tonnage of cargo, complement of personnel aboard, planned routes to be sailed; the armaments on ships changed during their careers, records of the changes were not kept.

During the War of 1812, Constitution's battery of guns consisted of 30 long 24-pounder cannons, with 15

CS Dinamo București (basketball)

BC Dinamo București or Dinamo Știința București known as Dinamo-Erbașu or Dinamo Gealan, is a Romanian professional basketball club, based in Bucharest, Romania. Part of one of the biggest sports organizations in Romania, BC Dinamo enjoyed plenty of success over the years. Dinamo's basketball club won the Romanian championship 22 times obtaining notable results in European competitions. However, in recent years, lack of support from the parent club and the emergence of strong teams in Ploiești and some Transylvanian cities made it difficult for BC Dinamo to win any championships. At the end of 2009/10 season, The team relegated to Division B. after one season, they returned to Division A. As of 2014 the team activates in the Romanian Liga I. In the 2014–15 season, Dinamo was the runner-up in the Liga I and promoted back to the [ In 2018, the team started a collaboration with CSU Știința București, forming a new team: Dinamo Știința București; the project is based on the idea of a team formed by young Romanian basketball players, helped by experienced foreigners.

In the first season, the team finished 8th, the best ranking in the recent years for the club and managed to reach the Romanian Cup Final Four. Romanian Champions 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1988, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2003 Romanian Cup 1967, 1968, 1969, 1980 - Set a club record or won an individual award as a professional player. - Played at least one official international match for his senior national team at any time. Modestas Kumpys Justin Baker Willie Kemp Michael Deloac

Chiaming Lake

The Chiaming Lake is a lake in Haiduan Township, Taitung County, Taiwan. It is the second highest lake area in Taiwan. In Bunun language, Chiaming Lake is called "cidanumas buan", meaning "Mirror of the moon"; the forest authority closed the mountain area for maintenance and restoration works on 10 December 2014 until 31 March 2015. On 5 January 2018, the lake was closed for visitors and will be opened again on 1 April 2018 to allow the natural vegetation restoration of the area around the lake; this oval-shaped lake is located along the Southern Cross-Island Highway. The lake surface is 80 meters wide at an elevation of 3,310 meters, it is surrounded by wildlife. The area surrounds; the lake and surrounding areas attracts more than 10,000 visitors every year for visit. Geography of Taiwan List of lakes of Taiwan List of tourist attractions in Taiwan