Udaipur known as the "City of Lakes", is a city in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency, it was founded in 1558 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he shifted his capital from the city of Chittorgarh to Udaipur after Chittorgarh was besieged by Akbar. It remained as the capital city till 1818 when it became a British princely state, thereafter the Mewar province became a part of Rajasthan when India gained independence in 1947; the city is located in the southernmost part near the Gujarat border. It is surrounded by the Aravali Range, it is around 660 km from Delhi and 800 km from Mumbai, placed in the middle of two major Indian metro cities. Besides, connectivity with Gujarat ports provide Udaipur a strategic geographical advantage. Udaipur is well connected with nearby cities and states by means of road and air transportation facilities, including Maharana Pratap Airport. Common languages spoken include Hindi and Rajasthani.
Dubbed "the most romantic spot on the continent of India" by British administrator James Tod, Udaipur is a tourist destination and is known for its history, scenic locations and the Rajput-era palaces. It is popularly known as the "City of Lakes" because of its sophisticated lake system, it has seven lakes surrounding the city. Five of the major lakes, namely Fateh Sagar Lake, Lake Pichola, Swaroop Sagar Lake and Doodh Talai Lake have been included under the restoration project of the National Lake Conservation Plan of the Government of India. Besides lakes, Udaipur is known for its historic forts and palaces, galleries, natural locations and gardens, architectural temples, as well as traditional fairs and structures; the Udaipur economy is driven by tourism, though minerals, marble processing, chemical manufacturing and development, electronic manufacturing and the handicraft industry are contributors. Udaipur hosts several state and regional public offices, including offices of Director of Mines and Geology, Commissioner of Excise, Commissioner of Tribal Area Development, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Rajasthan State Mines and Mineral Corporation Limited.
Besides, Udaipur is rising as educational hub as well, with 5 Universities, 14 colleges and more than 160 high schools. Udaipur is home to IIM Udaipur, the fifth best management institution in the country according to NIRF ranking released by MHRD; the Ahar River bank was inhabited by men in about 2000 B. C. There are footprints of two different civilizations, which provides claims about earliest inhabitants of the Ahar culture: the first ones are the Bhil/Bheels, the indigenous tribes originated at this place, are still residing in the area in large numbers; the second footprints were of Rajputs, who once entered the enclosed valley, continued to live in this place for centuries. Udaipur was founded in 1559, by Maharana Udai Singh II in the fertile circular Girwa Valley to the southwest of Nagda, on the Banas River; the city was established as the new capital of the Mewar kingdom. This area had a thriving trading town, which had served as the capital of Mewar in the 10th through 12th centuries.
The Girwa region was thus well known to Chittaud rulers who moved to it whenever the vulnerable tableland Chittaurgarh was threatened with enemy attacks. Maharana Udai Singh II, in the wake of 16th-century emergence of artillery warfare, decided during his exile at Kumbhalgarh to move his capital to a more secure location. Ayad was flood-prone, hence he chose the ridge east of Pichola Lake to start his new capital city, where he came upon a hermit while hunting in the foothills of the Aravalli Range; the hermit blessed the king and guided him to build a palace on the spot, assuring him it would be well protected. Udai Singh II established a residence on the site. In November 1567, the Mughal emperor Akbar laid siege to the venerated fort of Chittor. To protect Udaipur from external attacks, Maharana Udai Singh built a six kilometre long city wall, with seven gates, namely Surajpole, Udiapole, Ambapole, Brahmpole and so on; the area within these walls and gates is still known as the walled city.
As the Mughal empire weakened, the Sisodia rulers, reasserted their independence and recaptured most of Mewar except for Chittor. Udaipur remained the capital of the state, which became a princely state of British India in 1818. Being a mountainous region and unsuitable for armoured Mughal horses, Udaipur remained safe from Mughal influence despite much pressure. At present, Maharana Mahendra Singh Mewar is the 76th custodian of the Mewar dynasty. Jharmar Kotra Stromatolite Fossil Park at Jharmar Kotra south-east of Udiapur has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism. Gossan in Rajpura-Dariba Mineralised belt nearby, consisting of gossan, has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism. Udaipur is located at 24.525049°N 73.677116°E / 24.525049. The city lies at an altitude of 598.00 m above sea level.
It is located in the southern region near the Gujarat border. The city lies 403 km southwest of Jaipur and 250 km northeast from Ahmedabad. Udaipur with its lakes lies on the south slope of the Aravalli Range in Rajasthan; the northern part of the district consists of elevated plateaus, whil
Leslie N. Silverman is a partner with the international law firm of Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP Silverman serves as a member of the Committee on Capital Markets Regulation, his specialization is domestic and international capital markets cross-border offerings and development of new financial products, counseling regarding compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and related corporate governance matters. He is a member of the bars in New York and the District of Columbia, is admitted to practice before the U. S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Silverman joined the firm in 1974 and became a partner in 1982. From 1985 to 1989, he was resident in the London office, he served as law clerk to Chief Judge Irving R. Kaufman of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Silverman is a published author, having had a hand in works including "Raising Capital Through OTC Equity Derivatives: The Goldman, Sachs & Co. Interpretive Letter."
U. S. Regulation of the International Securities and Derivatives Markets - ISBN 978-0-7355-4218-1 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Analysis and Practice - ISBN 978-0-7355-4492-5Silverman received a J. D. degree from Yale Law School in 1973. He received an undergraduate degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
Several past and present states have declared themselves socialist states or in the process of building socialism. The majority of self-declared socialist countries have been Marxist–Leninist or inspired by it, following the model of the Soviet Union or some form of people's or national democracy, they share a common definition of socialism and they refer to themselves as socialist states on the road to communism with a leading vanguard party structure, hence they are called communist states. Meanwhile, the countries in the non-Marxist–Leninist category represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the term socialism and in many cases the countries do not define what they mean by it. Modern uses of the term socialism are wide in interpretation; as a sovereign state is a different entity from the political party that rules that state at any given time, a country may be ruled by a socialist party without the country itself claiming to be socialist, occurring in both one-party and multi-party political systems.
In particular, there are numerous cases of social democratic and democratic socialist parties winning elections in liberal democratic states and ruling for a number of terms until a different party wins the elections. While socialist parties won many elections around the world and most elections in the Nordic countries, they did not adopt socialism as the state ideology. Several countries with liberal democratic constitutions mention socialism. India is a liberal democracy, ruled by non-socialist parties on many occasions, but its constitution makes references to socialism. Certain other countries such as Croatia, Hungary and Poland have constitutions that make references to their communist and socialist past by recognizing or condemning it, but without claiming to be socialist in the present. Self-identification is the only criterion used by the list, therefore it includes all countries that have claimed to be socialist if their claims are disputed. All countries that have not claimed to be socialist are excluded in cases where certain outside observers regarded those countries as socialist.
This list includes countries that assert in their constitutions that they are based on socialism, regardless of their economic or political system. It does not list countries that do not have constitutional references to socialism as socialist states in cases where the government is run by a socialist party or other left-wing parties. On the other hand, countries that do maintain constitutional references to socialism are listed when those countries are ruled by non-socialist parties; as a result, this list is best understood as a list of countries that explicitly claim to be socialist and it does not reflect the actual economic systems themselves. The following images are a combined map of all countries that declared themselves socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were socialist and by Soviet sources: These are territories that have claimed independence or autonomy and have declared themselves socialist under some interpretation of the term.
While these territories have created stable institutions of governance that have existed for a considerable period of time, they are not recognized as states by the international community and belong to other sovereign states under international law. Freetown Christiania Wa State Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria There are multi-party states with communist or socialist parties leading the government, sometimes together; such states are not considered to be communist or socialist states because the countries themselves allow for multiple parties and do not provide a constitutional role for their communist parties or socialism. This list does not include socialist parties following social democracy which governed most of the Western world as part of the mainstream centre-left, it includes democratic socialist parties positioned to their left. Examples of direct communist party rule in multi-party democracies as well as democratic, constitutionally socialist states include: Republic of Cyprus Co-operative Republic of Guyana Republic of Moldova Republic of Nepal Republic of Nicaragua Republic of San Marino Communist parties have won elections and governed in the context of multi-party liberal democracies without seeking to establish a one-party state and therefore these entities do not fall under the definition of communist state.
In most of Europe, communist parties were popular and served in several coalition governments during the 20th century. They have governed several Brazilian and Russian states, among other regions and municipalities, being represented in several national and regional parliaments; these are short-lived political entities that emerged during wars or revolutions and declared themselves socialist under some interpretation of the term, but which did not survive long enough to create a stable government or achieve international recognition. Paris Commune Strandzha Commune Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Naissaar Finnish Socia