Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Matilda. Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936, he continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies; this reduced the various dukes, co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen royal authority and subjected its clergy to his personal control. After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe; the victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto a reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom.
By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. The patronage of Otto and his immediate successors facilitated a so-called "Ottonian Renaissance" of arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome. Otto's years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son Otto II in April 972. Otto returned to Germany in August 972 and died at Memleben in May 973. Otto II succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda, the daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, a Saxon count in Westphalia. Henry had married Hatheburg of Merseburg a daughter of a Saxon count, in 906, but this marriage was annulled in 909 after she had given birth to Henry's first son and Otto's half-brother Thankmar.
Otto had four full siblings: Hedwig, Gerberga and Bruno. On 23 December 918, King of East Francia and Duke of Franconia, died. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia, the presumptive heir, to offer the crown of East Francia to Otto's father Henry. Although Conrad and Henry had been at odds with one another since 912, Henry had not opposed the king since 915. Furthermore, Conrad's repeated battles with German dukes, most with Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, had weakened the position and resources of the Conradines. After several months of hesitation and the other Frankish and Saxon nobles elected Henry as king at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in May 919. For the first time, a Saxon instead of a Frank reigned over the kingdom. Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new king, but Arnulf of Bavaria did not recognize Henry's position. According to the Annales iuvavenses, Arnulf was elected king by the Bavarians in opposition to Henry, but his "reign" was short-lived.
In 921, Henry forced him into submission. Arnulf had to accept Henry's sovereignty. Otto first gained experience as a military commander when the German kingdom fought against Wendish tribes on its eastern border. While campaigning against the Wends/West Slavs in 929, Otto's illegitimate son William, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was born to a captive Wendish noblewoman. With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, the king began to prepare his succession over the kingdom. No written evidence for his arrangements is extant, but during this time Otto is first called king in a document of the Abbey of Reichenau. While Henry consolidated power within Germany, he prepared for an alliance with Anglo-Saxon England by finding a bride for Otto. Association with another royal house would give Henry additional legitimacy and strengthen the bonds between the two Saxon kingdoms. To seal the alliance, King Æthelstan of England sent Henry two of his half-sisters, so he could choose the one which best pleased him.
Henry selected Eadgyth as Otto's bride and the two were married in 930. Several years shortly before Henry's death, an Imperial Diet at Erfurt formally ratified the king's succession arrangements; some of his estates and treasures were to be distributed among Thankmar and Bruno. But departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the king designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes. Henry died from the effects of a cerebral stroke on 2 July 936 at his palace, the Kaiserpfalz in Memleben, was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey. At the time of his death, all of the various German tribes were united in a single realm. At the age of 24, Otto assumed his father's position as Duke of Saxony and King of Germany, his coronation was held on 7 August 936 in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, where Otto was anointed and crowned by Hildebert, the Archbishop of Mainz. Though he was a Saxon by birth, Otto appeared at the coronation in Frankish dress in an attempt to demonstrate his sovereignty over the Duchy of Lotharingia and his role as true successor to Charlemagne
Bürkliplatz is a town square in Zürich, Switzerland. It is named after Arnold Bürkli, is one of nodal points of the road and public transportation, of the lake shore promenades that were built between 1881 and 1887; the tree-shaded square between Bahnhofstrasse and Fraumünsterstrasse is called Stadthausanlage. Bürkliplatz is situated in the historic Alpenquai area near Lake Zurich, it is to the west of the Quaibrücke which crosses the river Limmat at the outflow of the lake known as the lake shore promenades or Quaianlagen. The Bürkliplatz is the only square between the General-Guisan-Quai and the Quaibrücke with a tram stop of the same name; the tree-shaded square between the Bahnhofstrasse on the west and the Fraumünsterstrasse on the east and the Bürklilatz in the south is called Stadthausanlage. The square is one of the nodal points of the Zürich tram system, with lines 2, 5, 8, 9 and 11 passing through it, as well as regional bus lines 161 and 165, on the boundary between Lindenhof and Enge quarters.
The Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft has the terminus of its route to Rapperswil here, there is a stop for the Limmat tour boats towards Zürichhorn. In addition to the Seeuferanlage and the neighbouring Uto and General Guisan quays, there is nearby the Arboretum Zürich which houses Voliere an aviary and veterinary hospital, the so-called Vogelpflegestation, a sanctuary for birds. Among other points of interest is the floral clock at the outflow of the Schanzengraben moat, a corner where waterfowl look for food at the east of the Bürkliterrasse, the Geiser monumental fountain. On Fridays, one of the best-known markets is held there, on Saturdays the Flohmärt, a Swiss German term for hochdeutsch Flohmarkt. There is a kiosk and the historical Musikpavillon, where public concerts are still sometimes held, the Swiss National Bank building, the Bauschänzli at the Stadthausquai; the monumental fountain bears the name of the former city architect, Arnold Geiser, whose legacy of 40,000 Swiss francs financed the erection of a "monumental fountain to beautify the city".
On the occasion of an art competition held by the city government, Jakob Brüllmann sculpted the war memorial-like Stierbändiger Brunnen, better known as Geiserbrunnen, inaugurated on 20 October 1911. Bürkliterrasse named after Arnold Bürkli, is situated on the lake front, it was designed as a culmination of the lakeshore promenades. At its inauguration in 1887, the terrace was crowned by two huge plaster lions by Urs Eggenschwyler. Since 1952, the sculpture by Hermann Hubacher adorns the trees, showing the Abduction from Olympus, Zeus in the form of an eagle and his beautiful lover Ganymede; the original elm trees were replaced by ball maples. The Bürkliterrasse is listed in the inventory of notable gardens and grounds of local importance, established in 1989 as Inventar der schützenswerten Gärten und Anlagen von kommunaler Bedeutung; the upper end of the Bahnhofstrasse is today's most popular place for market events. This popular, rather small, urban facility, became important at the time of the construction of the Bahnhofstrasse and the quay promenades, became the elegant meeting point of Zürich's bourgeoisie.
The still existing Musikpavillon was built by the Robert Maillard in 1908, has excellent acoustics. The site's increasing use and the ageing of the trees forced the city government to develop a new design concept, based on the idea of redesigning this important market and venue area as a single tree-lined square. A Cedrus libani, planted in the 1900s is one of the few remaining trees of that era. Located in Zurich on what was swampland between the Limmat and Lake Zurich around Sechseläutzenplatz on small islands and peninsulas, dwellings were set on piles to protect against occasional flooding by the Linth and Jona tivers. Zürich–Enge Alpenquai is located on the Lake Zurich lakeshore in Enge, a locality in the municipality of Zürich. There were neighbouring settlements at Kleiner Hafner and Grosser Hafner on what were a peninsula and an island at the outflow of the lake to the Limmat, within an area of about 0.2 square kilometres within the city of Zürich. As well as being one of the fifty-six Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the settlements are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a "Class Object".
Despite the dredging for the construction of the Seequai between 1916 and 1919, an area of as much as 2.8 hectares with two cultural layers was preserved. Pile shoes were found at different levels in the cultural layers. A rich bar decoration of ceramics was found only in the lower layer, while the decoration on cannelure groups was limited to the upper layer, as well as some graphite-decorated fragments. So-called Potin lumps, the largest weighing 59.2 kilograms, were found at Alpenquai in 1890. They consist of about 18,000 coins originating from the Celtic Eastern Gaul, others are of the Zürich type, that were identified with the local Helvetii tribe, date to around 100 BC; the find is unique so far, from the scientific research, it appears that the melting down of the lumps was not completed, therefore the aim was to form cultic offerings. The site of the find was at that time at least 50 metres from the lake shore, in water at a depth of 1 metre to 3 metres. Stadthausanlage, the site of the forme
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context; the well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. Interpretatio romana offered Roman names for Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus, but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul; the barbarian invasions beginning in the early fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization. The Gothic settlement of 418 offered a double loyalty, as Western Roman authority disintegrated at Rome; the plight of the Romanized governing class is examined by R. W. Mathisen, the struggles of bishop Hilary of Arles by M. Heinzelmann.
Into the seventh century, Gallo-Roman culture would persist in the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Cisalpine Gaul, Orléanais, to a lesser degree, Gallia Aquitania. The Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead. Roman life, centered on the public events and cultural responsibilities of urban life in the res publica and the sometimes luxurious life of the self-sufficient rural villa system, took longer to collapse in the Gallo-Roman regions, where the Visigoths inherited the status quo in 418. Gallo-Roman language persisted in the northeast into the Silva Carbonaria that formed an effective cultural barrier with the Franks to the north and east, in the northwest to the lower valley of the Loire, where Gallo-Roman culture interfaced with Frankish culture in a city like Tours and in the person of that Gallo-Roman bishop confronted with Merovingian royals, Gregory of Tours. Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages descended from Gallo-Romance: Gallo-Wallon, Franco-Provençal, Ladin and Lombard.
However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Rhaeto-Romance languages, Occitano-Romance languages, Gallo-Italic languages. Gaul was divided by Roman administration into three provinces, which were sub-divided in the third century reorganization under Diocletian, divided between two dioceses and Viennensis, under the Praetorian prefecture of Galliae. On the local level, it was composed of civitates which preserved, broadly speaking, the boundaries of the independent Gaulish tribes, organised in large part on village structures that retained some features in the Roman civic formulas that overlaid them. Over the course of the Roman period, an ever-increasing proportion of Gauls gained Roman citizenship. In 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana extended citizenship to all free-born men in the Roman Empire. During the Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274, Gaul was subject to Alamanni raids because of the civil war. In reaction to local problems the Gallo-Romans appointed their own emperor Postumus.
The rule over Gaul and Hispania by Postumus and his successors is called The Gallic Empire although it was just one set of many usurpers who took over parts of the Roman Empire and tried to become emperor. The capital was Trier, used as the northern capital of the Roman Empire by many emperors; the Gallic Empire ended. The pre-Christian religious practices of Roman Gaul were characterized by syncretism of Graeco-Roman deities with their native Celtic, Basque or Germanic counterparts, many of which were of local significance. Assimilation was eased by interpreting indigenous gods in Roman terms, such as with Lenus Mars or Apollo Grannus. Otherwise, a Roman god might be paired with a native goddess, as with Rosmerta. In at least one case – that of the equine goddess Epona – a native Gallic goddess was adopted by Rome. Eastern mystery religions penetrated Gaul early on; these included the cults of Orpheus, Mithras and Isis. The imperial cult, centred on the numen of Augustus, came to play a prominent role in public religion in Gaul, most at the pan-Gaulish ceremony venerating Rome and Augustus at the Condate Altar near Lugdunum annually on 1 August.
Gregory of Tours recorded the tradition that after the persecution under the co-emperors Decius and Gratus, future pope Felix I sent seven missionaries to re-establish the broken and scattered Christian communities, Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturninus to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Martial to Limoges, Austromoine to Clermont. In the fifth and sixth centuries, Gallo-Roman Christian communities still consisted of independent churches in urban sites, each governed by a bishop; some of the communities had origins. The personal charisma of the bishop set the tone, as fifth-century allegiances, for pagans as well as Christians, switched from institutions to individuals: most Gallo-Roman bishops were drawn from the highest levels of society as appropriate non-military civil roads to advancement dwindled, they represented themselves as bulwarks of high literary standards and Roman traditions against the Vandal and Gothic interlopers. Bishops took on the duties of civil administrator after the contraction of the Roman imperial administration d
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. A person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion; the first persons honored as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ; the Roman Rite's Canon of the Mass contains only the names of martyrs, along with that of the Blessed Virgin Mary and, since 1962, that of St. Joseph her spouse. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly. Examples of such people are Saint Hilarion and Saint Ephrem the Syrian in the East, Saint Martin of Tours and Saint Hilary of Poitiers in the West.
Their names were inserted in the diptychs, the lists of saints explicitly venerated in the liturgy, their tombs were honoured in like manner as those of the martyrs. Since the witness of their lives was not as unequivocal as that of the martyrs, they were venerated publicly only with the approval by the local bishop; this process is referred to as "local canonization". This approval was required for veneration of a reputed martyr. In his history of the Donatist heresy, Saint Optatus recounts that at Carthage a Catholic matron, named Lucilla, incurred the censures of the Church for having kissed the relics of a reputed martyr whose claims to martyrdom had not been juridically proved, and Saint Cyprian recommended that the utmost diligence be observed in investigating the claims of those who were said to have died for the faith. All the circumstances accompanying the martyrdom were to be inquired into. Evidence was sought from the court records of the trials or from people, present at the trials.
Saint Augustine of Hippo tells of the procedure, followed in his day for the recognition of a martyr. The bishop of the diocese in which the martyrdom took place set up a canonical process for conducting the inquiry with the utmost severity; the acts of the process were sent either to the metropolitan or primate, who examined the cause, after consultation with the suffragan bishops, declared whether the deceased was worthy of the name of'martyr' and public veneration. Acts of formal recognition, such as the erection of an altar over the saint's tomb or transferring the saint's relics to a church, were preceded by formal inquiries into the sanctity of the person's life and the miracles attributed to that person's intercession; such acts of recognition of a saint were authoritative, in the strict sense, only for the diocese or ecclesiastical province for which they were issued, but with the spread of the fame of a saint, were accepted elsewhere also. The Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, canonized Charles I as a saint, in the Convocations of Canterbury and York of 1660.
In the Roman Catholic Church, both Latin and constituent Eastern churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that they are worthy to be recognized as a saint. The Church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that they may be publicly invoked and mentioned in the liturgy of the Church, including in the Litany of the Saints. In the Roman Catholic Church, canonization is a decree that allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite. For permission to venerate locally, only beatification is needed. For several centuries the Bishops, or in some places only the Primates and Patriarchs, could grant martyrs and confessors public ecclesiastical honor. Only acceptance of the cultus by the Pope made the cultus universal, because he alone can rule the universal Catholic Church.
Abuses, crept into this discipline, due as well to indiscretions of popular fervor as to the negligence of some bishops in inquiring into the lives of those whom they permitted to be honoured as saints. In the Medieval West, the Apostolic See was asked to intervene in the question of canonizations so as to ensure more authoritative decisions; the canonization of Saint Udalric, Bishop of Augsburg by Pope John XV in 993 was the first undoubted example of Papal canonization of a saint from outside of Rome. Thereafter, recourse to the judgment of the Pope was had more frequently. Toward the end of the eleventh century the Popes judged it necessary to restrict episcopal authority regarding canonization, therefore decreed that the virtues and miracles of persons proposed for public veneration should be examined in councils, more in general councils. Pope Urban II, Pope Calixtus II, Pope Eugene III conformed to this discipline. Hugh de Boves, Archbishop of Rouen, canonized Walter of Pontoise, or St. Gaultier, in 1153, the final saint in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: "The last case of canonization by a metropolitan is said to have been that of St. Gaultier, or Gaucher, bbot of Pontoise, by the Archbishop of Rouen.
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Conrad Ferdinand Meyer
Conrad Ferdinand Meyer was a Swiss poet and historical novelist, a master of realism chiefly remembered for stirring narrative ballads like "Die Füße im Feuer". Meyer was born in Zürich, he was of patrician descent. His father, who died early, was a statesman and historian, while his mother was a cultured woman. Throughout his childhood two traits were observed that characterized the man and the poet: he had a most scrupulous regard for neatness and cleanliness, he lived and experienced more in memory than in the immediate present, he suffered from bouts of mental illness. Having finished the gymnasium, he took up the study of law, but history and the humanities were of greater interest to him, he went for considerable periods to Lausanne and Paris, in Italy, where he interested himself in historical research. The two historians who influenced Meyer were Louis Vulliemin at Lausanne and Jacob Burckhardt at Bâsle whose book on the Culture of the Renaissance stimulated his imagination and interest.
From his travels in France and Italy Meyer derived much inspiration for the settings and characters of his historical novels. In 1875, he settled above Zürich. Meyer found his calling only late in life; the Franco-Prussian War brought the final decision. In Meyer's novels, a great crisis releases latent energies and precipitates a catastrophe. In the same manner, his own life which before the war had been one of dreaming and experimenting, was stirred to the depths by the events of 1870. Meyer identified himself with the German cause, as a manifesto of his sympathies published the little epic Hutten's Last Days in 1871. After that his works appeared in rapid succession. In 1880, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Zurich, he died in his home in Kilchberg on 28 November 1898. His works were collected into 8 volumes in 1912; the periods of the Renaissance and Counter Reformation furnished the subjects for most of his novels. Most of his plots spring from the deeper conflict between freedom and fate and culminate in a dramatic crisis in which the hero, in the face of a great temptation, loses his moral freedom and is forced to fulfill the higher law of destiny.
1876 Jürg Jenatsch - Graubünden, Thirty Years War, a story of Switzerland in the 17th century through the conflict between Spain-Austria and France. The hero is a Protestant minister and fanatic patriot who, in his determination to preserve the independence of his little country, does not shrink from murder and treason and in whom noble and base motives are strangely blended. 1891 Angela Borgia - Italian Renaissance Meyer's main works are historical novellas: 1873 Das Amulett - France during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1878 Der Schuss von der Kanzel - Switzerland 1879 Der Heilige - Thomas Becket, Middle Ages, England 1881 Plautus im Nonnenkloster - Renaissance, Switzerland 1882 Gustav Adolfs Page - Thirty Years War 1883 Das Leiden eines Knaben - France during reign of Louis XIV 1884 Die Hochzeit des Mönchs - Italy, Dante himself is introduced at the court of Cangrande in Verona as narrator of the strange adventure of a monk who, after the death of his brother, is forced by his father to break his vows but who, instead of marrying the widow, falls in love with another young girl and runs blindly to his fate.
1885 Die Richterin - Carolingian time, introduces Charlemagne and his palace school 1887 Die Versuchung des Pescara - Renaissance, Italy - tells of the great crisis in the life of Fernando d'Ávalos, general of Charles V and husband of Victoria Colonna 1867 Balladen 1870 Romanzen und Bilder 1872 Huttens letzte Tage - a short epic poem 1873 Engelberg 1882 Gedichte It is as a master of narrative ballads on historical themes, that Meyer is remembered. His fiction typically focuses on key historical moments from the Middle Ages, the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Meyer's lyric verse is entirely the product of his years, he celebrated human handiwork works of art. Rome and the monumental work of Michelangelo were among decisive experiences in his life. Family romance Friedrich Burns, ed. "A Book of German Lyrics" Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Meyer, Konrad Ferdinand". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Reynolds, Francis J. ed.. "Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.
F. Collier & Son Company. D'Harcourt, R. C. F. Meyer: Sa vie son œuvre Langmesser, A. Conrad Ferdinand Meyer: sein Leben, seine Werke und sein Nachlass Frey, A. Conrad Ferdinand Meyer: sein Leben und seine Werke Taylor, M. L. A Study of the Technique of C. F. Meyer's Novellen Blaser, O. C. F. Meyer's Renaissance novellen Korrodi, E. C. F. Meyer: Studien Works by Conrad Ferdinand Meyer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Conrad Ferdinand Meyer at Internet Archive Works by Conrad Ferdinand Meyer at LibriVox English translation of Meyer's Roman Fountain
Lindenhof in Rapperswil is a moraine hill and a public square being the historic center of Rapperswil, Switzerland. Lindenhof hill dominates the old city of Rapperswil, a locality of the municipality of Rapperswil-Jona in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Being a moraine remain of the last Glacial period in Switzerland, the area was created as a rocky conglomerate about 20,000 years ago, its northwestern slope towards the bay of Kempraten on Zürichsee lakeshore is named Schlosshalde, Schlosshügel, the opposite side of the longish hill, is dominated by the vineyard of that name and Rapperswil's'official' rose garden towards the harbour area Seedamm and Obersee lakeshore. In all, the around 590 metres long and about 150 metres wide hill, is surrounded on three sides by water, rises about 30 metres above lakeshore level. Endingerhorn is the name of the western side of the longish mountain where the monastery is situated. In the south, just a few dozens meters away, at the landing gate of the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft operate passenger vessels on the lake towards Zürich, the nearby situated Rapperswil railway station is a nodal point of the Südostbahn and S-Bahn Zürich railway operators.
Lindenhof is named after the Tilia trees planted there in the 13th century AD by the House of Rapperswil. As of today, it's a public square, a park an arboretum and a playground, known for its remarkable view over both parts of the lake: Zürichsee, Lützelau and Ufnau island, Zimmerberg–Albis–Felsenegg–Uetliberg and Pfannenstiel towards Zürich, as well as Obersee and Buechberg, Speer–Chüemettler–Federispitz mountains towards the Glarus Alps, the Seedamm area and the reconstruction of the lake bridge towards Hurden–Frauenwinkel–Etzel. Around the hill, there leads the so-called Bühler-Allee and some small pathways on lakeshore, where the Rapperswil lido is located. At Schlosshügel the Deer park towards Kempratnerbucht is located, established in 1871. Endingen houses the early 17th-century Capuchine monastery, the medieval fortifications. At the Schlossberg vineyard and at the Einsiedlerhaus there are the rose gardens situated. Hintergasse at the southernly base of the hill, is the oldest street in Rapperswil, is flanked by medieval houses and estates, further small private Rose gardens.
Among other traditions, Eis-zwei-Geissebei is celebrated on Lindenhof, at the Rathaus and Castle when in the evening all regional Guggenmusik gather to celebrate a roaring concert. The Rapperswil Castle, built in the early 13th century by Rudolf II and Rudolf II von Rapperswil, houses the Polenmuseum and the Poland memorial column. Inside the castle's palais, there is located the Schloss Restaurant having a rather expensive cuisine, but there's yet no tourist shop, kiosk or snack bar. Just a few meters easternly of the three-cornered castle, the about 800 years old Stadtpfarrkirche and its cemetery chapel named Liebfrauenkapelle are situated at the Herrenberg street, as well as the Stadtmuseum Rapperswil-Jona, a former small castle, part of the 15th-century northeasternly town wall towards Engelplatz. Latter is the former late medieval bastion and the easternly end of the Lindenhof hill and Rapperswil's historical core; the hillside area is as part of the castle and the museum listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as Class A object of national importance.
In June 2012 the citizens of Rapperswil voted to re-design the tophill Lindenhof area, but the proposal was too extensive, so a stripped-down variant was accepted in December, reducing the costs down from 1 million to 380,000 Swiss Francs. Some of the old trees had been cut down in winter 2010/2011. Lindenhof remained an open area, the slopes got shady promenades thanks to new plantings; the historic metal railing at the viewing platforms were retained and supplemented with fall protection as they no longer met the safety requirements. The Deer park was remodeled, the mammals got a rebuilt stable and more space for retreats. Peter Röllin: Kulturbaukasten Rapperswil-Jona: 36 Museen ohne Dach. Rapperswil-Jona 2005, ISBN 3-033-00478-4. Gerold Späth: Stilles Gelände am See. Suhrkamp, Berlin 1991. Lindenhof and Deer park on the website of Verkehrsverein Rapperswil-Jona