Ufology is the study of reports, visual records, purported physical evidence, other phenomena related to unidentified flying objects. UFO reports have been subject to various investigations over the years by governments, independent groups, scientists. However, ufology as a field has not been embraced by academia and is considered a pseudoscience by the scientific community; the term derives from UFO, pronounced as an acronym, the suffix -logy, which comes from the Ancient Greek λογία. An early appearance of this term in print can be found in the article "An Introduction to Ufology" by Ivan T. Sanderson, found in Fantastic Universe magazine's February 1957 issue, which closes with this direct plea: "What we need, in fact, is the immediate establishment of a respectable new science named Ufology." Another early use of the word was in a 1958 speech given at the opening of The Planetary Center, a UFO research organization near Detroit, Michigan. Another early use, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the first documented uses of the word ufology can be found in the Times Literary Supplement from January 23, 1959, in which it writes, "The articles and bureaucratic studies which have been written about this perplexing visitant constitute'ufology'."
This article was printed eight years after Edward J. Ruppelt of the United States Air Force coined the word UFO in 1951; the modern UFO mythology has three traceable roots: the late 19th century "mystery airships" reported in the newspapers of the western United States, "foo fighters" reported by Allied airmen during World War II, the Kenneth Arnold "flying saucer" sighting near Mt. Rainier, Washington on June 24, 1947. UFO reports between "The Great Airship Wave" and the Arnold sighting were limited in number compared to the post-war period: notable cases include reports of "ghost fliers" in Europe and North America during the 1930s and the numerous reports of "ghost rockets" in Scandinavia from May to December 1946. Media hype in the late 1940s and early 1950s following the Arnold sighting brought the concept of flying saucers to the public audience; as the public's preoccupation in UFOs grew, along with the number of reported sightings, the United States military began to take notice of the phenomenon.
The UFO explosion of the early post-war era coincides with the escalation of the Cold War and the Korean War. The U. S. military feared that secret aircraft of the Soviet Union developed from captured German technology, were behind the reported sightings. If correct, the craft causing the sightings were thus of importance to national security and in need of systematic investigation. By 1952, the official US government interest in UFOs began to fade as the USAF projects Sign and Grudge concluded, along with the CIA's Robertson Panel that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national security; the government's official research into UFOs ended with the publication of the Condon Committee report in 1969, which concluded that the study of UFOs in the previous 21 years had achieved little, if anything, that further extensive study of UFO sightings was unwarranted. It recommended the termination of the USAF special unit Project Blue Book; as the U. S. government ceased studying UFO sightings, the same became true for most governments of the world.
A notable exception is France, which still maintains the GEIPAN known as GEPAN and SEPRA, a unit under the French Space Agency CNES. During the Cold War, Canadian, Danish and Swedish governments have each collected reports of UFO sightings. Britain's Ministry of Defence ceased accepting any new reports as of 2010. Ufology has not been embraced by academia as a scientific field of study though UFOs were, during the late 1940s and early 1950s, the subject of large-scale scientific studies; the lack of acceptance of ufology by academia as a field of study means that people can claim to be "UFO researchers", without the sorts of scientific consensus building and, in many cases peer review, that otherwise shape and influence scientific paradigms. Among scientifically inclined UFO research efforts, data collecting is done by amateur investigators. Famous mainstream scientists who have shown interest in the UFO phenomenon include Stanford physicist Peter A. Sturrock, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, computer scientist and astronomer Jacques F. Vallée, University of Arizona meteorologist James E. McDonald.
Ufology is characterized by scientific criticism as a partial or total pseudoscience, a characterization which many ufologists reject. Pseudoscience is a term that classifies studies that are claimed to exemplify the methods and principles of science, but that do not adhere to an appropriate scientific method, lack supporting evidence, falsifiability, or otherwise lack scientific status. Gregory Feist, an academic psychologist, proposes that ufology can be categorized as a pseudoscience because its adherents claim it to be a science while the scientific community denies that it is, because the field lacks a cumulative scientific progress. Rachel Cooper, a philosopher of science and medicine, states that the fundamental problem in ufology is not the lack of scientific method, as many ufologists have striven to meet standards of scientific acceptability, but rather the fact that the assumptions on which the research is based are considered speculative. Stanton Friedman considers the general attitude of mainstream academics as arrogant and dismissive, or bound to a rigid worldview that disallows any evidence contrary to held notions.
Denzler states that the fear of ridicule and a loss of status has pre
Tourism in Greenland is a young business area of the country. Since the foundation of the national tourist council, Greenland Tourism, in 1992, the Home Rule Government has been working with promoting the destination and helping smaller tourist providers establish their services. Foreign travel agencies have been opening up sale of Greenland trips and tours, the cruise industry has had a large increase in routes to Greenland since about the turn of the century; the country has a few historic sites. The everyday life and local culture of Greenlanders is one of the main experiences for adventure travellers to Greenland; the main tourist activities on offer are sailing tours among icebergs, dog sledding tours, ice cap treks, wildlife spotting, iceberg watching, hiking trips to the Norse ruins. Visit Greenland is the Greenland Self-Rule Government agency responsible for tourism in Greenland; the head office is in Nuuk Greenland. There is a subsidiary office in Copenhagen Denmark. Visit Greenland was established in 1992.
Its original goal was to develop a sustainable tourism industry and market Greenland as a tourism destination. The role was subsequently expanded to include the development of industry and small businesses in Greenland. Visit Greenland in Nuuk focuses on facilitation and the Copenhagen office focuses on marketing. Visit Greenland has a collaboration with the Danish travel agency Greenland Travel, the largest tour operator and travel agency specializing in travels to Greenland. Most overnight visitors arriving to Greenland in 2016 were from the following countries of nationality: In 2002 Greenland established five focus regions for the development of the tourism industry in Greenland. "Destination North Greenland" centered on Disko Bay, "Destination Arctic Circle" centered on Kangerlussuaq, "Destination Capital Region" centered on the capital Nuuk, "Destination South Greenland" centered on Qaqortoq, "Destination East Greenland" in East Greenland with Tasiilaq as the main hub. The most popular tourist destination is Ilulissat Icefjord, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Ilulissat Icefjord - Fjord south of the city declared UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004 Jakobshavn Glacier - The most productive glacier in the northern hemisphere Sermermiut - An abandoned Inuit settlement in the UNESCO World Heritage Site Ilimanaq - A small settlement, former whaling station south of the Icefjord Oqaatsut - A small settlement, current whaling station north of Ilulissat Knud Rasmussen's Museum - Museum dedicated to famous Knud Rasmussen Zions Church Greenland National Museum Kangeq: abandoned fishing village Nuuk Art Museum Nuuk Cathedral Narsarsuaq Museum - displays on the Vikings, sheep farming, the American presence in Southern Greenland Iceview Plateau Hike - a 5-6 hour hike from Narsaruaq that leads to a high plateau with a lake Qaqortoq Museum - main museum of Qaqortoq Greenland travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
Kenneth "Supreme" McGriff is an American convicted former drug lord and gangster from Queens, New York, United States. McGriff came to prominence in early 1981 when he formed his own Crack cocaine-distributing and manufacturing organization which he called The Supreme Team based in South Jamaica, New York City, New York. Under McGriff's leadership, the gang's numbers swelled to the hundreds and came to control the Crack Cocaine trade in the Baisley Park, the neighborhood where McGriff was raised. In 1987, McGriff was arrested following a joint state and federal investigation and in 1989 pleaded guilty to engaging in a Continuing Criminal Enterprise, he was sentenced to 12 years' incarceration. McGriff was released from prison on parole in early 1994 after serving seven years of his sentence, he was sent back to prison on parole violations by year's end, served another 2½ years' incarceration before being released in 1997. After being released from prison on parole in 1994, McGriff tried his hand at cinematography, seeking help from Irv Gotti to film a movie based on the Kenyatta series' novel Crime Partners.
However, due to McGriff's reputation, the FBI soon questioned the intimacies of the affiliation with Murder Inc. culminating in a raid of the Murder Inc. offices in early 2003, with accusations of drug trafficking on Kenneth McGriff, while Murder Inc. was indicted on counts of money laundering and conspiracy to commit money laundering. McGriff is alleged to have had a hand in the 2002 murder of Run-DMC member Jam Master Jay, was convicted of ordering the 2001 killing of rapper Eric "E-Moneybags" Smith, in retaliation for the shooting of McGriff's associate Colbert "Black Just" Johnson. Federal authorities accused him in connection with the attempted murder of 50 Cent. On February 1, 2007, McGriff was convicted of murder-for-hire at a federal court in the Eastern District of New York on charges that he paid $50,000 to have two rivals gunned down in 2001; the jury deliberated for five days before finding McGriff guilty of murder conspiracy and drug trafficking. On February 9, 2007, McGriff was sentenced to life in prison.
Throughout this case he was defended by a court-appointed attorney because nearly all of his assets had been seized. McGriff began serving his life sentence at ADX Florence, the federal supermax prison in Colorado, but in 2011, was transferred to the United States Penitentiary, Lee, a high-security federal prison in Pennington Gap, Virginia. List of crime bosses convicted in the 21st century Murder Inc.'s Muscle, Linked to Three Killings, The Smoking Gun archives United States court of appeals - Docket No. 06-2014-cr American Gangster