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Uganda Railway

The Uganda Railway, was a metre-gauge railway system and former British state-owned railway company. The line linked the interiors of Kenya with the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa in Kenya. After a series of mergers and splits, the line is now in the hands of the Kenya Railways Corporation and the Uganda Railways Corporation. Built during the Scramble for Africa, the Uganda Railway was the one genuinely strategic railway to be constructed in tropical Africa at that time. Before the railway's construction, the British East Africa Company had begun the Mackinnon-Sclater road, a 970-kilometre ox-cart track from Mombasa to Busia in Kenya, in 1890. With steam-powered access to Uganda, the British could transport people and soldiers to ensure their domination of the African Great Lakes region; the Uganda Railway was named after its ultimate destination, for its entire original 1,060-kilometre length lay in what would become Kenya. Construction began at the port city of Mombasa in British East Africa in 1896 and finished at the line's terminus, Kisumu, on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria, in 1901.

The railway is 1,000 mm gauge and all single-track with passing loops at stations. 200,000 individual 9-metre rail-lengths and 1.2 million sleepers, 200,000 fish-plates, 400,000 fish-bolts and 4.8 million steel keys plus steel girders for viaducts and causeways had to be imported from India, necessitating the creation of a modern port at Kilindini Harbour in Mombasa. The railway was a huge logistical achievement and became strategically and economically vital for both Uganda and Kenya, it helped to suppress slavery, by removing the need for humans in the transport of goods. In August 1895, a Bill was passed at Westminster authorising the construction of a railway from Mombasa to the shores of Lake Victoria; the man tasked with building the railway was George Whitehouse, an experienced civil engineer who had worked across the British Empire. Whitehouse acted as the Chief Engineer between 1895 and 1903 serving as the Railway's manager from its opening in 1901; the Consulting Engineers were Sir Alexander Rendel of Sir.

A Rendel & Son and Frederick Ewart Robertson. Nearly all the workers involved on the construction of the line came from British India. An agent was appointed in Karachi responsible for recruiting coolies and subordinate officers and a branch office was located in Lahore, the principal recruiting centre. Workers were sourced from villages in the Punjab and sent to Karachi on specially chartered steamers belonging to the British India Steam Navigation Company. Shortly after recruitment began, a plague broke out in India delaying the advancement of the railway; the Government of India only permitted recruitment and emigration to resume on the creation of a quarantine camp at Budapore, financed by the Uganda Railway, where recruits were required to spend fourteen days in quarantine before departure. A total of 35,729 coolies and artisans were recruited along with 1,082 subordinate officers, totalling 36,811 persons; each coolie signed a contract for three years at twelve rupees per month with free rations and return passage to their place of enlistment.

They received half-pay when in free medical attendance. Recruitment continued between December 1895 and March 1901, the first coolies began to return to India after their contracts ended in 1899. 2,493 workers died during the construction of the railway between 1895 and 1903 at a rate of 357 annually. While most of the surviving Indians returned home, 6,724 decided to remain after the line's completion, creating a community of Indians in East Africa. To maintain law and order, the Railway instituted a police department; the force was armed with Martini-Henry rifles. The force was composed of Indians and two officers were lent by the Indian government to drill and superintend the force. A maximum of 400 constables were recruited, the force was handed over to the Protectorate government on completion of the railway. At the turn of the 20th century, the railway construction was disturbed by the resistance by Nandi people led by Koitalel Arap Samoei, he was killed in 1905 by Richard Meinertzhagen. The incidents for which the building of the railway may be most noted are the killings of a number of construction workers in 1898, during the building of a bridge across the Tsavo River.

Hunting at night, a pair of maneless male lions stalked and killed at least 28 Indian and African workers – although some accounts put the number of victims as high as 135. The Uganda Railway faced a great deal of criticism in Parliament, with many parliamentarians decrying it as exorbitantly expensive. Whilst the concept of cost-benefit analysis did not exist in public spending in the Victorian Era, the huge capital sums of the project made many sceptical of the value of the investment. This, coupled with the fatalities and wastage of the personnel constructing it through disease, tribal activity, hostile wildlife led the Uganda Railway to be dubbed a Lunatic Line: Political resistance to this "gigantic folly", as Henry Labouchère called it, surfaced immediately; such arguments along with the claim that it would be a waste of taxpayers' money were dismissed by the Conservatives. Years before, Joseph Chamberlain had proclaimed that, if Britain were to step away from its "manifest destiny", it would by default leave it to other nations to take up the work that it would have been seen as "too weak, too poor, too cowardly" to have done itself.

Its cost has been estimated by one source at £3 million in 1894 money, more than £170 million in 2005 money, £5.5 million or £650 million in 2016 money by another source. Because of the wooden trestle bridges, en

Gro├čer Kellenberg

The Großer Kellenberg is a hill, 211 m above sea level, in the Wiehen range in northern Germany. It is the same height as the hill, known as the Schwarzer Brink, which stands opposite the Großer Kellenberg on the Egge, a parallel side ridge of the Wiehen; the Großer Kellenberg lies within the county of Osnabrück, on the territory of the town of Melle, thus in the Lower Saxon part of the range. The state border with North Rhine-Westphalia runs one kilometre to the east of the summit; the nearest villages are Rödinghausen, three kilometres to the southeast, Büscherheide, much nearer being only 1.5 kilometres to the north. The Großer Kellenberg is the westernmost hill on the main chain of the Wiehen that attains a height of over 200 metres, it is thus the highest hill in the Lower Saxon part of the main chain of the Wiehen Hills. That said, the hill is not the highest point in the borough of Melle – this is in the Melle Hills, that lie to the west but are just a secondary chain of the Wiehen; the next higher hill is the Rödinghauser Berg, 2 kilometres to the east.

At the eastern foot of the hill lies the Grüner See. To the north, between Büscherheide and the summit flows the Glanebach. Although it is on the main chain, the Großer Kellenberg does not form a prominent watershed in this area, because both the Glanebach, the in- and outflows of the Grüner See empty into the River Hunte after a few kilometres; this is because the Hunte breaks through the Wiehen Hills 2.5 kilometres west of the Großer Kellenberg. The hill marks the end of the 3rd stage and start of the 4th stage of the Wittekindsweg, the ridgeway on the main hill chain. In addition, the 3-kilometre-long Großer Kellenberg Circular Path runs around the hill. There are several tumuli on the eastern and northern slopes of the hill and in the valley bottom of the Grüner See; the aforementioned circular walk runs past them. View from the Großer Kellenberg of Büscherheide

Don Simpson (cartoonist)

Donald Edward Simpson is an American comic book cartoonist and freelance illustrator, most noted as the creator of the series Megaton Man, Border Worlds, Bizarre Heroes, as well as the official comic book adaption of King Kong. He freelanced for nearly every major comic book publisher, his most seen work are the illustrations he created for Al Franken's 2004 bestseller and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right. Drawing since the age of five, Simpson was encouraged by artists James Malone and Keith Pollard, among others. Simpson debuted as a comic book artist in 1984 with his creation Megaton Man, a Kitchen Sink Press title that sometimes satirized superheroes cliches. In April 2013, Simpson received his PhD in History of Art and Architecture from the University of Pittsburgh. Simpson wrote and drew the 10-issue Kitchen Sink Press comic-book series Megaton Man and its three-issue miniseries sequel, The Return of Megaton Man. Thereafter, subsequent installments of the color Megaton Man series appeared as black-and-white Kitchen Sink one-shots, including Megaton Man Meets the Uncategorizable X+Thems" #1, Yarn Man #1, Pteranoman #1.

In summer 1985, Marvel Comics objected to Simpson's parody superhero team, the Megatropolis Quartet, claiming that Rex Rigid, Stella Starlight, Bing Gloom too resembled its group the Fantastic Four, issued a "cease and desist" letter. The publisher responded that the characters fell under the Fair Use doctrine, Marvel pursued no further legal action. Megaton Man and the character's supporting cast appeared throughout Simpson's self-published series Bizarre Heroes, the final two issues of which are alternately titled Megaton Man vs. Forbidden Frankenstein #1 and Megaton Man #0. Simpson concentrated on his Megaton Man cast in Image Comics' Megaton Man: Hardcopy #1–2 and Megaton Man: Bombshell #1. Other appearances of the title character include Savage Dragon vs; the Savage Megaton Man #1 with creator Erik Larsen, The normalman/Megaton Man Special with Jim Valentino. In 1994, Simpson began his own imprint, Fiasco Comics, to publish Don Simpson's Bizarre Heroes, which mixed members of the cast of Megaton Man with characters Simpson had created as far back as junior high school, such as the Meddler.

The series ran under differing titles: as Don Simpson's Bizarre Heroes for numbered #0–8, followed by Bizarre Heroes #9–15 The final two issues, #16 and #17, appeared under the titles Megaton Man vs. Forbidden Frankenstein, for which the Grand Comics Database notes, "Though listed in the indicia under this title, this issue is considered to be Bizarre Heroes #16," and Megaton Man #0, for which the Grand Comics Database notes, "Listed in the indicia as'Megaton Man #0.'"Simpson's Megaton Man Weekly Serial 1996–2000 webcomics series became a backup feature in The Savage Dragon in the late 1990s. Megaton Man makes a cameo appearance in Red Anvil Comics' War of the Independents #1 and #4. Simpson wrote and drew the science-fiction backup feature Border Worlds, about a woman and a colonial rebellion, set on a space station, beginning in Megaton Man #6; the feature spun off into a seven-issue, "mature readers" black-and-white comics, followed by Border Worlds: Marooned #1, the only issue of an intended four-issue miniseries.

In 1986 Simpson collaborated with Alan Moore on the comics short "In Pictopia" in Anything Goes!, an anthology published by Fantagraphics Books to raise money in the lawsuit brought by Michael Fleisher. Simpson went on to do freelance art for such comics as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - "Teen Techno Turtle Trio Plus One!" and "Tales of Alternate Turtles on the Moon", Mirage Studios. In his aforementioned works for Mirage, he introduced the superhero character Pteranoman, intended to launch a new comic title, of which only one issue went into print. Fiasco Comics, Inc. continued as the business name for Simpson's commercial-illustration business, which suspended operations in the late 1990s. Clients included Progressive Insurance, Kennywood Park, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, the Pittsburgh Pirates, for the latter of which Simpson created the Parrot's Kid's Club logo. Between 1990 and 1992, Simpson created six erotic underground comix under the pseudonym "Anton Drek," including Wendy Whitebread, Undercover Slut and Forbidden Frankenstein.

Portions of Wendy and other strips appeared in the first four issues of the Spanish erotic-comics anthology magazine Kiss Comix in 1991, an Italian edition of Wendy Whitebread #1 appeared in 2005 from Blue Press. Finnish translations of Wendy Whitebread, Undercover Slut and Forbidden Frankenstein appeared as Paula Patonki, Piilokyttänarttu and Frankensteinin Perhekalleudet issued by the Helsinki publisher Sötem in 1995. 2005: Illustrator and colorist, "Batman Upgrade 5.0," written by Dean Haglund and Peter Murrieta, in Bizarro World. 2005: Cartoonist, Drekbook: l'intégrale d'Anton Drek, trans. Bernard Joubert. 2004: Cartoonist, Don Simpson's Megaton Man, introduction by Al Franken. 2003: Illustrator and letterer, "Operation