Religion in the Republic of Ireland
The predominant religion in the Republic of Ireland is Christianity, with the largest church being the Roman Catholic Church. The Irish constitution says that the state may not endorse any particular religion, in 2011,84. 2% of the population identified themselves as Roman Catholic,2.6 percentage points less than 5 years earlier, although the number of Catholics increased by 179,889. Other significant Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, followed by the Methodist Church in Ireland, the countrys Hindu and Muslim populations have experienced significant growth in recent years, due chiefly to immigration. In the 2011 census,7. 6% of the population had no religion or did not indicate a religious belief, the 1937 Constitution of Ireland gave the Catholic Church a special position as the church of the majority, but recognised other Christian denominations and Judaism. As with other predominantly Catholic European states, the Irish state underwent a period of secularisation in the late twentieth century.
In 1972, the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups, article 44 remains in the Constitution. It begins, The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God and it shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion. Many efforts have made by secular groups to eliminate the rigorous study in the second and sixth classes. Parents can ask for their children to be excluded from religious study if they wish, Christianity is the largest religion in the Republic of Ireland based on baptisms. Irish Christianity is dominated by the Roman Catholic Church which has 84. 2% of the population as followers, most churches are organized on an all-Ireland basis which includes both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. More generally a tradition of visions continues, often outside of Church sanction, evangelical movements have recently spread both within the established churches and outside them. Celtic Christianity has become popular, again both within and outside established churches.
The patron saints of Ireland for Catholics and Anglicans are Saint Patrick, Saint Bridget, Saint Patrick is the only one of the three who is commonly recognised as the patron saint. Saint Patricks Day is celebrated in Ireland and abroad on 17 March, Eastern Orthodoxy in Ireland is represented mainly by recent immigrants from Eastern European countries, such as Romania, Russia, or Ukraine, and accounts for 1% of the population. According to a Georgetown University study, the country has one of the highest rates of regular Mass attendance in the Western World. While daily Mass attendance was 13% in 2006 there had been a reduction in attendance from 81% to 48% between 1990 and 2006, although the decline was reported as leveling off. In the 1970s a survey had given figures at 91%, in 2011, it was reported that weekly Mass attendance in Dublin was on average 18%, with it being lower among younger generations and in some areas less than 2%. A2006 Dentsu poll found that 7% of Ireland had no religion
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Ulster is a province in the north of the island of Ireland. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a rí ruirech, the definition of the province was fluid from early to medieval times. It took a shape in the reign of King James I of England when all the counties of Ireland were eventually shired. This process of evolving conquest had been under way since the Norman invasion of Ireland, particularly as advanced by the Cambro-Norman magnates Hugh de Lacy, Ulster was a central topic role in the parliamentary debates that eventually resulted in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Under the terms of the Act, Ireland was divided into two territories, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, with the passing through the province. While these six counties and two boroughs were all in the province of Ulster, three other counties of the province – Cavan and Monaghan – were assigned to the Irish Free State. Ulster has no function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO-3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code IE-U.
It has suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the province of the Ulaid, the Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region. Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia, the latter two have yielded the terms Ulidian and Ultonian. Words that have used in English are Ullish and Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland is often referred to as Ulster, despite including only six of Ulsters nine counties and this usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland who are unionist, although it is used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context, Ulster has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres. About 62% of the area of Ulster is in the UK while the remaining 38% is in the Republic of Ireland. Ulsters biggest city, has an population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland.
Three Ulster counties – Cavan and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland, about half of Ulsters population lives in counties Antrim and Down. 8% to 42. 7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of government in the Republic of Ireland
Galloway is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the former counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian or a Galwegian, the place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib. The Gall Gaidheil, literally meaning Stranger-Gaidheil, originally referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages. Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, and the River Nith to the east, the definition has, fluctuated greatly in size over history. A hardy breed of black, hornless cattle named Galloway cattle is native to the region, Galloway comprises that part of Scotland southwards from the Southern Upland watershed and westward from the River Nith. Traditionally it has described as stretching from the braes of Glenapp to the Nith. Generally however the landscape is rugged and much of the soil is shallow, the generally south slope and southern coast make for mild and wet climate, and there is a great deal of good pasture.
The northern part of Galloway is exceedingly rugged and forms the largest remaining wilderness in Britain south of the Highlands and this area is known as the Galloway Hills. Historically Galloway has been famous both for horses and for cattle rearing, and milk and beef production are still major industries. There is substantial timber production and some fisheries, the combination of hills and high rainfall make Galloway ideal for hydroelectric power production, and the Galloway Hydro Power scheme was begun in 1929. Since then, electricity generation has been a significant industry, more recently wind turbines have been installed at a number of locations on the watershed, and a large offshore wind-power plant is planned, increasing Galloways green energy production. The 2nd century geographer Ptolemy produced a map of Britain in his Geography, in which he describes the landmarks, rerigoniums exact position is uncertain except that it was on Loch Ryan, close to modern day Stranraer, it is possible that it is the modern settlement of Dunragit.
The Romans named the inhabitants of Galloway the Novantae, the county is rich in prehistoric monuments and relics, amongst the most notable of which are the Drumtroddan Standing Stones, the Torhousekie Stone Circle, both in Wigtownshire and Cairnholy. There is evidence of one of the earliest pit-fall traps in Europe which was discovered near Glenluce, Galloway probably remained a Brythonic dominated region until the late 7th century when it was taken over by the English kingdom of Bernicia. English dominance was supplanted by Norse-Gaelic peoples between the 9th and the 11th century, if it had not been for Fergus of Galloway who established himself in Galloway, the region would rapidly have been absorbed by Scotland. This did not happen because Fergus, his sons and great-grandson Alan, during a period of Scottish allegiance a Galloway contingent followed David, King of Scots in his invasion of England and led the attack in his defeat at the Battle of the Standard. He had three daughters and an illegitimate son Thomas, the Community of Galloway wanted Thomas as their king.
Alexander III of Scotland supported the daughters and invaded Galloway, the Community of Galloway was defeated, and Galloway divided up between Alans daughters, thus bringing Galloways independent existence to an end
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil.
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.
The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have an area of approximately 315,159 km2. Two sovereign states are located on the islands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres, and Lough Neagh, the climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was dominated by temperate rainforest. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC.
Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC, Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD43, the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by permanent settlements. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence, the term British Isles is controversial in Ireland, where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word British with Ireland. The Government of Ireland does not recognise or use the term, as a result and Ireland is used as an alternative description, and Atlantic Archipelago has had limited use among a minority in academia, while British Isles is still commonly employed. Within them, they are sometimes referred to as these islands. The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.
The original records have been lost, writings, e. g. Avienuss Ora maritima, in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, the British Island, and Prettanoi, the Britons. Strabo used Βρεττανική, and Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, historians today, though not in absolute agreement, largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί, the shift from the P of Pretannia to the B of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar
The Highlands are a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the Middle Ages into the modern period, the term is used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands, the Scottish Gaelic name of A Ghàidhealtachd literally means the place of the Gaels and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotlands as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad. The Highland Council is the body for much of the Highlands. However, the Highlands includes parts of the areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Bute, North Ayrshire, Perth & Kinross, Stirling.
The Scottish highlands is the area in the British Isles to have the Taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent, the Highland line distinguished the two Scottish cultures. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided, there was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
Tartan had largely abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland. The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, the economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project. On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area, Service in the Army was attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions. This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acres
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities, such as common ancestral, social, cultural or national experiences. Unlike other social groups, ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives, in some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Ethnic groups, derived from the historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic, generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals. Conversely, formerly separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity, whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis.
The term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos, the inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews. The Greek term in antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men. In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of peculiar to a race, people or nation, the abstract ethnicity had been used for paganism in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an ethnic character. The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972, depending on the context that is used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship. The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, the Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own ethnicity, which they grouped under the name of Hellenes.
Herodotus gave an account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. Many social scientists, such as anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf and they regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups. According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates until recently, one is between primordialism and instrumentalism. In the primordialist view, the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as a given, even coercive
Border reivers were raiders along the Anglo-Scottish border from the late 13th century to the beginning of the 17th century. Their ranks consisted of both Scottish and English families, and they raided the entire Border country without regard to their victims nationality. Their heyday was perhaps in the last hundred years of their existence, during the time of the Stewart Kings in Scotland and England were frequently at war during the late Middle Ages. During these wars, the livelihood of the people on the Borders was devastated by the contending armies, even when the countries were not at war, tension remained high, and royal authority in either kingdom was often weak. Loyalty to a feeble or distant monarch and reliance on the effectiveness of the law usually made people a target for depredations rather than conferring any security, there were other factors which promoted a predatory mode of living. Also, much of the region is mountainous or open moorland, unsuitable for arable farming. Livestock was easily rustled and driven back to raiders territory by mounted reivers who knew the country well, the raiders often removed easily portable household goods or valuables, and took prisoners for ransom.
The reivers were both English and Scottish and raided both sides of the border impartially, so long as the people they raided had no powerful protectors and their activities, although usually within a days ride of the border, extended both north and south of their main haunts. English raiders were reported to have hit the outskirts of Edinburgh, the largest of these was The Great Raid of 1322, during the Scottish Wars of Independence, where it reached as far south as Chorley. The main raiding season ran through the winter months, when the nights were longest. The numbers involved in a raid might range from a few dozen to organised campaigns involving up to three thousand riders. When raiding, or riding, as it was termed, the reivers rode light on hardy nags or ponies renowned for the ability to pick their way over the boggy moss lands. They were armed with lances and small shields, and sometimes with longbows, or light crossbows, known as latches and they invariably carried swords and dirks.
As soldiers, the Border reivers were considered among the finest light cavalry in all of Europe, after meeting one reiver, Queen Elizabeth I is quoted as having said that with ten thousand such men, James VI could shake any throne in Europe. Reivers served as mercenaries, or were forced to serve in English and Scots armies in the Low Countries, such service was often handed down as a penalty in lieu of that of death upon their families. Reivers fighting as levied soldiers played important parts at the battles of Flodden, when fighting as part of larger English or Scottish armies, Borderers were difficult to control as many had relatives on both sides of the border, despite laws forbidding international marriage. They could claim to be of either nationality, describing themselves as Scottish or English as needed and they were badly-behaved in camp, frequently plundered for their own benefit instead of obeying orders, and there were always questions about how loyal they were. The inhabitants of the Borders had to live in a state of constant alert, in the very worst periods of warfare, people were unable to construct more than crude turf cabins, the destruction of which would be little loss
Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It shares borders with Glasgow, North Ayrshire and West Dunbartonshire, Renfrewshire borders the south-west of Glasgow, lying on the south bank of the River Clyde, and contains many of Glasgows commuter towns and villages, as well as rural areas. Present day Renfrewshire borders the south-west of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgows commuter towns, Renfrewshire has boundaries with North Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire and West Dunbartonshire. The ancient county of Renfrewshire covered a larger area — including both Inverclyde and East Renfrewshire and this area still exists in the form of a lieutenancy area and registration county, and has a statutory funding board called the Renfrewshire Valuation Joint Board. The county was based around its seat, the Royal Burgh of Renfrew. There was a district named Renfrew which existed between 1975 and 1996, Renfrewshire Council is the elected local authority for Renfrewshire, which is one of 32 local council areas in Scotland.
The council is based at Renfrewshire House in Paisley, Renfrewshire Council recently won more awards than any other council in Scotland at the CoSLA Awards ceremony—winning three gold awards with a further three silver awards. This is the highest number of awards won by a single Scottish council since CoSLA started handing out its awards. Renfrewshire Council is administered by the Scottish Labour Party, the Provost of Renfrewshire is Anne Hall. Each department is headed by a Director, who is an apolitical, as of 4 May 2012, the composition of the council is as follows, As such, the election resulted in the Scottish Labour Party gaining full control of the Renfrewshire Council. There was no party in control of Renfrewshire Council so therefore a Scottish National Party/Scottish Liberal Democrats coalition was formed to run the council for that four-year period. The electoral system of councils in Scotland is governed by the Local Governance Act 2004. Renfrewshire is represented by three constituencies in the Scottish Parliament, Renfrewshire North and West and Renfrewshire South, the two constituencies covering Renfrewshire in the Westminster Parliament are Paisley and Renfrewshire North and Paisley and Renfrewshire South.
The constituencies are represented by Gavin Newlands and Mhairi Black respectively and it is served by the M8 motorway, which terminates in the area, just east of Langbank, and is a major artery between northwest and southwest Scotland, via the Erskine Bridge. The presence of the airport and the proximity to Glasgow means that Renfrewshire supports one of the busiest transport infrastructures in Scotland, and is frequently congested. Renfrewshire has bus links provided by, Mcgills Bus Services. The Braehead Arena in Renfrewshire close to the boundary with Glasgow is home to leading professional team, the Scottish Rocks. The arena was host to the 2000 Ford World Curling Championships, Renfrewshire has 11 secondary schools,51 primary schools and 3 schools for children with additional support needs