Dr. Henry "Hank" Pym is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by editor and plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber and penciler Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Tales to Astonish #27; the character, a scientist that debuted in a standalone science-fiction anthology story, returned several issues as the original iteration of the superhero Ant-Man with the power to shrink to the size of an insect. Alongside his crime-fighting partner/wife Janet van Dyne, he goes on to assume other superhero identities, including the size-changing Giant-Man and Goliath, he is a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers. Debuting in the Silver Age of Comic Books, Hank Pym has featured in other Marvel-endorsed products such as animated films. Michael Douglas portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, appearing in Ant-Man and Ant-Man and the Wasp, he will reprise his role in the upcoming Avengers: Endgame. Hank Pym debuted in a seven-page solo cover story titled "The Man in the Ant Hill" in the science fiction/fantasy anthology Tales to Astonish #27.
The creative team was editor-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, penciler Jack Kirby, inker Dick Ayers, with Lee stating in 2008: "I did one comic book called'The Man in the Ant Hill' about a guy who shrunk down and there were ants or bees chasing him. That sold so well that I thought making him into a superhero might be fun."As a result, Pym was revived eight issues as the costumed superhero Ant-Man who starred in the 13-page, three-chapter story "Return of the Ant-Man/An Army of Ants/The Ant-Man’s Revenge" in Tales to Astonish #35. The character's adventures became an ongoing feature in the title. Issue # 44 featured the debut of his socialite laboratory assistant Janet van Dyne. Janet adopted the costumed identity of the Wasp, co-starred in Pym's subsequent appearances in Tales to Astonish. Wasp on occasion acted as a framing-sequence host for backup stories in the title. In September 1963, Lee and Kirby created the superhero title The Avengers, Ant-Man and Wasp were established in issue #1 as founding members of the team.
Decades Lee theorized as to why "Ant-Man never became one of our top sellers or had his own book," saying, I loved Ant-Man, but the stories were never successful. In order for Ant-Man to be successful, he had to be drawn this small next to big things and you would be getting pictures that were visually interesting; the artists who drew him, no matter, they kept forgetting that fact. They would draw him standing on a tabletop and they would draw a heroic-looking guy. I would say,'Draw a matchbook cover next to him, so we see the difference in size.' But they kept forgetting. So when you would look at the panels, you thought you were looking at a normal guy wearing an underwear costume like all of them, it didn't have the interest. Pym began what would be a constant shifting of superhero identities in Tales to Astonish, becoming the 12 ft tall Giant-Man in issue #49. Pym and van Dyne continued to costar in the title until issue #69, while appearing in The Avengers until issue #15, after which the couple temporarily left the team.
Pym rejoined the Avengers and adopted the new identity Goliath in Avengers #28. Falling to mental strain, he adopted the fourth superhero identity Yellowjacket in issue #59. Pym reappeared as Ant-Man in Avengers #93 and for issues #4–10 starred in the lead story of the first volume of Marvel Feature. During this run he appeared in a redesigned costume with a nail as a weapon. After appearing as Yellowjacket in the 1980s and battling mental and emotional issues, Pym would temporarily abandon a costumed persona. Pym joined the West Coast Avengers as a inventor in West Coast Avengers vol. 2, #21. The character returned to the Avengers as the superhero Giant-Man in The Avengers vol. 3, #1. When the team disbanded after a series of tragedies, using the Yellowjacket persona again, took a leave of absence beginning with vol. 3, #85. Following the death of van Dyne, a grieving Pym took on yet another superhero identity as the new iteration of Wasp, in tribute to the woman he had married and divorced by this time, in the one-shot publication Secret Invasion: Requiem.
Giant-Man appeared as a supporting character in Avengers Academy from issue #1 through its final issue #39. Pym returned as the Wasp in the mini-series Ant-Man & The Wasp, appeared as a regular character in the 2010-2013 Secret Avengers series, from issue #22 through its final issue #37. After Secret Avengers, Pym joined the Avengers A. I. after beating his creation, Ultron. He appeared in many comic books like Daredevil and the graphic novel Rage of Ultron. Biochemist Dr. Henry "Hank" Pym discovers an unusual set of subatomic particles he labels "Pym particles". Entrapping these within two separate serums, he creates a size-altering formula and a reversal formula, testing them on himself. Reduced to the size of an insect, he becomes trapped in an anthill before he escapes and uses the reversal formula to restore himself to his normal size. Deciding the serums are too dangerous to exist, he destroys them. Shortly afterward, he recreates his serums. Pym's exp
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Stan Lee was an American comic book writer, editor and producer. He rose through the ranks of a family-run business to become Marvel Comics' primary creative leader for two decades, leading its expansion from a small division of a publishing house to a multimedia corporation that dominated the comics industry. In collaboration with others at Marvel—particularly co-writer/artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko—he co-created numerous popular fictional characters, including superheroes Spider-Man, the X-Men, Iron Man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Scarlet Witch and Ant-Man. In doing so, he pioneered a more naturalistic approach to writing superhero comics in the 1960s, in the 1970s he challenged the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, indirectly leading to changes in its policies. In the 1980s he pursued development of Marvel properties with mixed results. Following his retirement from Marvel in the 1990s, he remained a public figurehead for the company, made cameo appearances in films and television shows based on Marvel characters, on which he received an executive producer credit.
Meanwhile, he continued independent creative ventures into his 90s, until his death in 2018. Lee was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995, he received the NEA's National Medal of Arts in 2008. Lee was raised in a Jewish family. In a 2002 survey of whether he believed in God, he stated, "Well, let me put it this way... No, I'm not going to try to be clever. I don't know. I just don't know."From 1945 to 1947, Lee lived in the rented top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan. He married Joan Clayton Boocock from Newcastle, England, on December 5, 1947, in 1949, the couple bought a house in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952, their daughter Joan Celia "J. C." Lee was born in 1950. Another daughter, Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953; the Lees resided in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, from 1952 to 1980. They owned a condominium on East 63rd Street in Manhattan from 1975 to 1980, during the 1970s owned a vacation home in Remsenburg, New York.
For their move to the West Coast in 1981, they bought a home in West Hollywood, California owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer Don Wilson. In September 2012, Lee underwent an operation to insert a pacemaker, which required cancelling planned appearances at conventions. On July 6, 2017, his wife of 69 years, died of complications from a stroke, she was 95 years old. In April 2018, The Hollywood Reporter published a report that claimed Lee was a victim of elder abuse. In August 2018, Morgan was issued a restraining order to stay away from Lee, his daughter, or his associates for three years. Stanley Martin Lieber was born on December 28, 1922, in Manhattan, New York City, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents and Jack Lieber, at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan, his father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue, in Washington Heights, Manhattan.
Lee had one younger brother named Larry Lieber. He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles. By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in an apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back". Lee and his brother shared the bedroom. Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx. In his youth, Lee enjoyed writing and entertained dreams of writing the "Great American Novel" one day, he said that in his youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center. At fifteen, Lee entered a high school essay competition sponsored by the New York Herald Tribune, called "The Biggest News of the Week Contest." Lee claimed to have won the prize for three straight weeks, goading the newspaper to write him and ask him to let someone else win. The paper suggested he look into writing professionally, which Lee claimed "probably changed my life."
He graduated from high school early, aged sixteen and a half, in 1939 and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project. The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy and the arts, its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy and the arts. Lee donated portions of his personal effects to the University of Wyoming at various times, between 1981 and 2001. Lee died at the age of 95 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, on November 12, 2018, after being rushed there in a medical emergency earlier in the day. Earlier that year, Lee revealed to the public that he had been battling pneumonia and in February was rushed to the hospital for worsening conditions at around the same time; the immediate cause
Jack "King" Kirby was an American comic book artist and editor regarded as one of the medium's major innovators and one of its most prolific and influential creators. He grew up in New York City, learned to draw cartoon figures by tracing characters from comic strips and editorial cartoons, he entered the nascent comics industry in the 1930s, drawing various comics features under different pen names, including Jack Curtiss, before settling on Jack Kirby. In 1940, he and writer-editor Joe Simon created the successful superhero character Captain America for Timely Comics, predecessor of Marvel Comics. During the 1940s Kirby teamed with Simon, creating numerous characters for that company and for National Comics Publications to become DC Comics. After serving in the European Theater in World War II, Kirby produced work for DC Comics, Harvey Comics, Hillman Periodicals, other publishers. At Crestwood Publications, he and Simon created the genre of romance comics and founded their own short-lived comic company, Mainline Publications.
Kirby was involved in Timely's 1950s iteration, Atlas Comics, which in the next decade became Marvel. There, in the 1960s, under writer-editor Stan Lee, created many of the company's major characters, including the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, the Hulk; the Lee–Kirby titles garnered high sales and critical acclaim, but in 1970, feeling he had been treated unfairly in the realm of authorship credit and creators' rights, Kirby left the company for rival DC. At DC, Kirby created his Fourth World saga. While these series proved commercially unsuccessful and were canceled, the Fourth World's New Gods have continued as a significant part of the DC Universe. Kirby returned to Marvel in the mid-to-late 1970s ventured into television animation and independent comics. In his years, called "the William Blake of comics", began receiving great recognition in the mainstream press for his career accomplishments, in 1987 he was one of the three inaugural inductees of the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame. In 2017, Kirby was posthumously named a Disney Legend with Lee for their co-creations not only in the field of publishing, but because those creations formed the basis for The Walt Disney Company's financially and critically successful media franchise, the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
Kirby was married to Rosalind Goldstein in 1942. They had four children, remained married until his death from heart failure in 1994, at the age of 76; the Jack Kirby Awards and Jack Kirby Hall of Fame were named in his honor, he is known as "The King" among comics fans for his many influential contributions to the medium. Jack Kirby was born Jacob Kurtzberg on August 28, 1917, at 147 Essex Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City, where he was raised, his parents and Benjamin Kurtzberg, were Austrian Jewish immigrants, his father earned a living as a garment factory worker. In his youth, Kirby desired to escape his neighborhood, he liked to draw, sought out places he could learn more about art. Self-taught, Kirby cited among his influences the comic strip artists Milton Caniff, Hal Foster, Alex Raymond, as well as such editorial cartoonists as C. H. Sykes, "Ding" Darling, Rollin Kirby, he was rejected by the Educational Alliance because he drew "too fast with charcoal", according to Kirby.
He found an outlet for his skills by drawing cartoons for the newspaper of the Boys Brotherhood Republic, a "miniature city" on East 3rd Street where street kids ran their own government. At age 14, Kirby enrolled at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. "I wasn't the kind of student. They wanted people. I didn't want to work on any project forever. I intended to get things done". Kirby joined the Lincoln Newspaper Syndicate in 1936, working there on newspaper comic strips and on single-panel advice cartoons such as Your Health Comes First!!!. He remained until late 1939, when he began working for the movie animation company Fleischer Studios as an inbetweener on Popeye cartoons. "I went from Lincoln to Fleischer," he recalled. "From Fleischer I had to get out in a hurry because I couldn't take that kind of thing," describing it as "a factory in a sense, like my father's factory. They were manufacturing pictures."Around that time, the American comic book industry was booming. Kirby began writing and drawing for the comic-book packager Eisner & Iger, one of a handful of firms creating comics on demand for publishers.
Through that company, Kirby did what he remembers as his first comic book work, for Wild Boy Magazine. This included such strips as the science fiction adventure "The Diary of Dr. Hayward", the Western crimefighter feature "Wilton of the West", the swashbuckler adventure "The Count of Monte Cristo", the humor features "Abdul Jones" and "Socko the Seadog", all variously for Jumbo Comics and other Eisner-Iger clients, he first used the surname Kirby as the pseudonymous Lance Kirby in two "Lone Rider" Western stories in Eastern Color Printing's Famous Funnies #63–64. He settled on the pen name Jack Kirby because it reminded him of actor James Cagney. However, he took offense to those who suggested he changed his name in order to hide his Jewish heritage. Kirby moved on to comic-book publisher and newspaper syndicator Fox Feature Syndicate, earning a then-reasonable $15-a-week salary, he began to
Midtown Comics is a New York City comic book retailer with three shops in Manhattan and an e-commerce website. The largest comic book store in the United States, the company opened its first store in the Times Square area in 1997, its second was opened on Lexington Avenue in 2004, is known as the Grand Central store for its proximity to Grand Central Terminal. Its Downtown store was opened on Fulton Street in the Financial District in November 2010, it used to operate a boutique inside Manhattan's Times Square Toys R Us. The store is noted for appearances by celebrities known outside the comic book industry, for its friendly and energetic staff, for being the most media-friendly comic store in the United States, it was named by The Village Voice in 2012 as the Best Comic Book Store in New York, has been hailed by Comic Book Resources as "the industry’s leading retailer of comic books, graphic novels and manga." On July 13, 2012, the National Geographic Channel premiered Comic Store Heroes, a reality television program set at Midtown Comics.
Due to its geographic proximity to the headquarters of the "Big Two" of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel Comics and DC Comics, the relationship between the store and industry professionals, it was ranked number 44 on Bleeding Cool magazine's 2013 Top 100 Power List of Comic Books. Midtown was founded by partners Gerry Gladston, Angelo Chantly, Thomas Galitos and Robert Mileta, who met as teenagers in Astoria and sold comics in their video stores in Brooklyn and Queens before opening the flagship Midtown Comics in Manhattan, on West 40th Street and Seventh Avenue; the store houses 500,000 books in its collection. According to The New York Times: The stereotypical view of comics stores is that they are dim and dusty places with a no-girls-allowed clubhouse atmosphere. In reality, they run the gamut. For instance, the West Side Midtown store is bright and welcoming to all, with two floors and 5,000 square feet of space; the main floor, one story above street level, has a long wall with countless racks of new and released comics.
The rest of the space offers DVDs, trading cards, back issues and trade paperbacks. Toys and other collectibles are upstairs; the second Midtown store, on Lexington Avenue and 45th Street, though smaller than the first one, is just as inviting. Midtown Comics is the official retail sponsor of New York Comic Con, has performed this role since the NYCC's inception in 2006; each year, Midtown creates a "show-within-a-show", featuring round-the-clock appearances by comics creators and variant comic books by publishers like Marvel Comics and Top Cow. On November 10, 2010, Midtown Comics opened a third Manhattan store. Known as their Downtown store, it is located in the Financial District, at 64 Fulton Street, in the southernmost section of the borough. Inaugural book signings were held for that branch featuring Jim Lee and Jonathan Layman, creator of Chew; as of June 2012, Midtown is the largest comic book store in the United States. The store is a sponsor of Artists Assemble!, a comics festival in Union City, New Jersey that began in February 2013.
In May 2012, Midtown Comics opened a boutique inside the flagship FAO Schwarz toy store in Manhattan's Fifth Avenue shopping district. The boutique offered graphic novels, hardcover books and collectibles; the boutique ceased operations when FAO Schwartz closed in July 2015. In October 2013, Midtown opened a shop inside the Toys R Us store in Manhattan's Times Square; the shop, located next to the second floor animatronic Tyrannosaurus that forms the centerpiece of the Jurassic Park display, offers items similar to that offered in the FAO Schwarz boutique. In 2013, Midtown was ranked number 44 on Bleeding Cool magazine's Top 100 Power List of Comic Books, due to its geographic proximity to the headquarters of the "Big Two" of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel and DC, the fact that industry professionals both shop there and are privy to reaction from Midtown staffers and owners. Midtown's website was at first purely informational, but has developed into a full-scale retail website.
The stores and website are supported by a warehouse in Queens, a staff of around 150 who are described by New York Magazine as "a rare mix of nerd knowledge and chummy confidence – who foster an atmosphere where browsing is more than just a means to a badly needed social end."Midtown produces a weekly podcast that covers the comic book industry, with a different comic book creator interviewed each week. Midtown Comics has developed a reputation for being the most media-friendly comic store in the United States; as Manhattan is the location of the Big Two of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel Comics and DC Comics, the setting for much of the former's stories, Midtown Comics Times Square and its staff have been utilized for local news reporting relating to comic books and popular culture. Midtown Comics co-owner Gerry Gladston has been interviewed for comment on such stories, including a 2006 story on vintage comics selling for large amounts of money at auction, a 2009 story on the return of Captain America after Marvel Comics had killed him off two years prior, a 2014 Marvel storyline that introduced a female Thor.
Midtown's staff were consulted by major media outlets in 2009 regarding the appearance of President Barack Obama in an issue of Spider-Man, again that year regarding the anticipation of the release of the film Avatar. The media rely on Midtown as a source for reaction to industry news and events. Publishers Weekly relies on them for their annual survey about the state of the comics and graphic novel marketplace and for their coverage of Free Comic Book Day, while Comic Book Resour
Iron Man (Ultimate Marvel character)
Iron Man is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is the Ultimate Marvel version of the fictional superhero Iron Man that first appeared in the fourth issue of Ultimate Marvel Team-Up, written by Brian Michael Bendis and drawn by Mike Allred, he appeared in the Ultimates and appears in the same titles they do. In the Ultimate Universe, the character is a wealthy business tycoon and inventor who created the Iron Man power armor. Like his mainstream counterpart, he has a drinking life-threatening affliction. With a life expectancy anywhere between six months and five years, he chose to become a philanthropist and superhero. While the character hasn't yet been featured in his own ongoing series, Stark's early life and origins were explored in the Ultimate Iron Man miniseries written by science fiction author Orson Scott Card. However, this origin story is no longer considered canon in the Ultimate Marvel Universe and was retconned as only being a fictional Japanese anime version.
On the other hand, the character's adult years have been covered by Mark Millar and Warren Ellis. In the limited series The Ultimates, when Tony Stark first hears that Nick Fury is assembling a team of superheroes, he volunteers his services. After helping defeat the Hulk, Stark develops a friendship with Steve Rogers. Though he has many great accomplishments, during the first volume of the Ultimates, he remains unsure of himself shown when he's beat down and throws up in his own helmet, he acts arrogant, but constantly doubts his own abilities. In the last issue he seems to decide that he can't continue fighting until a soldier asks, "If you don't do it, who will?". He fights against the X-Men in Ultimate War, captures the Rhino in Ultimate Spider-Man, fights along with Spider-Man himself in the Ultimate Six storyline. Stark appears in Ultimate Wolverine vs. Hulk, where he supports Wolverine being sent to kill Bruce Banner. Stark criticizes the law being used to stop the Hulk, during which he mockingly suggests creating a Superhero Registration Law referencing the mainstream Stark's support of the Superhero Registration Act.
The Ultimate Galactus trilogy shows the first signs of an early friendship between Stark and Reed Richards, in addition to him sneaking aboard a Kree spacecraft in Ultimate Secret, decapitated a Silver Surfer clone in Ultimate Extinction. In The Ultimates 2, Tony Stark falls in love and proposes to Natasha Romanova. Just prior to proposing, Stark gives her a black suit of armor identical to his own; the flight test of the suit includes flying over her homeland, where Stark had paid the three million inhabitants of her hometown to stand in a field, spelling out his proposal, which she accepts. When the Liberators invade America, Natasha shoots Edwin Jarvis and tries to get Stark, at gunpoint, to transfer much of his fortune to her. However, Stark has ultimate control of the nanites in her bloodstream that allows her to interface with her armor. Using these nanites, Stark incapacitates Romanova and retrieves the enemy plans from her mind with the intention of fighting back against the Liberators.
He takes "Iron Man 6", a massive helicarrier-sized ship armed with dozens of laser cannons and machine guns, wipes out the air force of the Liberators in Washington, D. C.. He heads to New York to aid the heroes there. After the battle Stark agrees to finance the now independent Ultimates, very gets over Natasha's betrayal with the help of a pretty blonde. Ultimate Power marks the first appearance of the independent Ultimates, fighting against an alternate universe Squadron Supreme; this soon follows with the start of Ultimates 3. A sex tape that he made with Natasha during their time together makes it into the public, causing a PR nightmare for the rest of the Ultimates. In Ultimate Human, published around the same time, the focus is on Bruce Banner as he pleads with Stark to cure him of his Hulk affliction just before Ultimatum, which dealt with Magneto's attempt at complete destruction. After Ultimatum, the Ultimate Comics: Armor Wars mini-series featured Iron Man racing across the world to find his stolen armor in order to save the remains of his enterprise.
In Ultimate Comics: New Ultimates, he began a relationship with Carol Danvers and fought against the returning Loki. In the pages of Ultimate Comics: Spider-Man, he was involved with Captain America and Thor in training Spider-Man to become a better hero. During this time, his brother Gregory Stark became the new financial manager for the new Avengers team in Ultimate Comics: Avengers, which featured Rhodey and a new Black Widow. In Ultimate Comics: The Ultimates, Tony Stark is among the central characters and a leading member of the Ultimates. In "The Republic is Burning", he saves a now mortal Thor from the destruction of Asgard. With his Asgardian brethren exterminated by the Children of Tomorrow and Yggdrasil drained of the Odinforce, Thor is no longer a God and Stark takes it upon himself to help Thor resume his role as a God of Thunder, he reveals that he has been keeping Thor's harness and hammer and gives it back to the mortal Thor, with some modifications. Stark joins Nick Fury's latest Ultimates roster alongside Thor, Spider-Woman, Black Widow and Falcon.
Following the reunification of the United States, Tony Stark builds a new red-w
Insanity and craziness are terms that describe a spectrum of individual and group behaviors that are characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns. Insanity can be manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person or persons becoming a danger to themselves or to other people. Conceptually, mental insanity is associated with the biological phenomenon of contagion as in the case of copycat suicides. In contemporary usage, the term insanity is an informal, un-scientific term denoting "mental instability". In medicine, the general term psychosis is used to include the presence either of delusions or of hallucinations or both in a patient. In English, the word "sane" derives from the Latin adjective sanus meaning "healthy". Juvenal's phrase mens sana in corpore sano is translated to mean a "healthy mind in a healthy body". From this perspective, insanity can be considered as poor health of the mind, not of the brain as an organ, but rather refers to defective function of mental processes such as reasoning.
Another Latin phrase related to our current concept of sanity is "compos mentis", a euphemistic term for insanity is "non compos mentis". In law, mens rea means having had a guilty mind, when the act was committed. A more informal use of the term insanity is to denote something or someone considered unique, passionate or extreme, including in a positive sense; the term may be used as an attempt to discredit or criticise particular ideas, principles, personal feelings, attitudes, or their proponents, such as in politics and religion. Madness, the non-legal word for insanity, has been recognized throughout history in every known society; some traditional cultures have turned to witch doctors or shamans to apply magic, herbal mixtures, or folk medicine to rid deranged persons of evil spirits or bizarre behavior, for example. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls that have round holes bored in them using flint tools, it has been conjectured that the subjects may have been thought to have been possessed by spirits which the holes would allow to escape.
However, more recent research on the historical practice of trepanning supports the hypothesis that this procedure was medical in nature and intended as means of treating cranial trauma. The Greeks appeared to share something of today's secular and holistic view, believing that afflictions of the mind did not differ from diseases of the body. Moreover, they saw mental and physical illness as a result of natural causes and an imbalance in bodily humors. Hippocrates wrote that an excess of black bile resulted in irrational thinking and behavior. Romans made other contributions to psychiatry, in particular a precursor of some contemporary practice, they put forward the idea that strong emotions could lead to bodily ailments, the basis of today’s theory of psychosomatic illness. The Romans supported humane treatment of the mentally ill, in so doing codified into law the principle of insanity as a mitigation of responsibility for criminal acts, although the criterion for insanity was set as the defendant had to be found "non compos mentis", a term meaning "not sound of mind".
The Middle Ages, witnessed the end of the progressive ideas of the Greeks and Romans. During the 18th century, the French and the British introduced humane treatment of the clinically insane, though the criteria for diagnosis and placement in an asylum were looser than today including such conditions as speech disorder, speech impediments and depression or being pregnant out of wedlock. Europe's oldest asylum was the precursor of today's Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, known as Bedlam, which began admitting the mentally ill in 1403 and is mentioned in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales; the first American asylum was built in Williamsburg, circa 1773. Before the 19th century these hospitals were used to isolate the mentally ill or the ostracized from society rather than cure them or maintain their health. Pictures from this era portrayed patients bound with rope or chains to beds or walls, or restrained in straitjackets. Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis but is a legal term in the United States, stemming from its original use in common law.
The disorders encompassed by the term covered a wide range of mental disorders now diagnosed as bipolar disorder, organic brain syndromes and other psychotic disorders. In United States criminal law, insanity may serve as an affirmative defense to criminal acts and thus does not need to negate an element of the prosecution's case such as general or specific intent; each U. S. state differs somewhat in its definition of insanity but most follow the guidelines of the Model Penal Code. All jurisdictions require a sanity evaluation to address the question first of whether or not the defendant has a mental illness. Most courts accept a major mental illness such as psychosis but will not accept the diagnosis of a personality disorder for the purposes of an insanity defense; the second question is whether the mental illness interfered with the defendant's ability to distinguish right from wrong. That is, did the defendant know that the alleged behavior was against the law at the time the offense was committed.
Additionally, some jurisdictions add the question of whether or not the defendant was in control of their behavior at the time of the offense. For example, if the defendant was compelled by some aspect of the