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Ultramarathon

An ultramarathon called ultra distance or ultra running, is any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres. There are two types of ultramarathon events: those that cover route; the most common distances are 50 kilometres, 100 kilometres, 50 miles, 100 miles, although many races have other distances. The 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the world governing body of track and field. Other distances/times include double marathons, 24-hour races, multiday races of 1,000 miles or longer; the format of these events and the courses vary, ranging from single loops, to point-to-point road or trail races, to cross-country rogaines. Many ultramarathons trail events, have significant obstacles, such as inclement weather, elevation change, or rugged terrain. Many of these races are run on dirt roads or mountain paths, though some are run on paved roads as well. There are aid stations every 20 to 35 kilometres, where runners can replenish food and drink supplies or take a short break.

Timed events range from 6, 12, 24 hours to 3, 6, 10 days. Timed events are run on a track or a short road course one mile or less. There are some self-supported ultramarathon stage races in which each competitor has to carry all their supplies including food to survive the length of the race a week. An example of this is the Grand to Grand Ultra in the USA; the International Association of Ultrarunners organises the World Championships for various ultramarathon distances, including 50 kilometres, 100 kilometres, 24 hours, ultra trail running, which are recognized by the IAAF. Many countries around the world have their own ultrarunning organizations the national athletics federation of that country, or are sanctioned by such national athletics organizations. World best performances for distances and ages are tracked by the IAU. Racewalking events are 50 km, although 100 km and 100-mile "Centurion" races are organized. Furthermore, the non-competitive International Marching League event Nijmegen Four Days March has a regulation distance of 4 × 50 km over four days for those aged 19–49.

Until 2014, the IAU maintained lists of world best performances on different surfaces. Starting in 2015, the distinction between the surfaces was removed and the records were combined into a single category; some governing bodies continue to keep separate ultramarathon track and road records for their own jurisdictions. In August 2019, Zach Bitter ran 11:19:13 for 100 miles at the Pettit Center in Milwaukee and continued to reach 168.792 km in 12 hours. These will be confirmed as the new world bests once ratified. Alyson Dixon ran a provisional best of 3:07:20 at the 2019 IAU 50 km World Championships. At the 2019 IAU 24 Hour World Championship, Camille Herron improved her 24-hour World Best and a new Championship record with 270.116 km. Patrycja Bereznowska recorded a distance of 401 km in 48 hours in 2018 but this performance does not appear to have been ratified so far by the IAU; the IAU records are as follows. There are four IAU World Championships: the IAU 100 km World Championships, IAU 50 km World Championships, IAU 24 Hour World Championship, the IAU Trail World Championships.

The following is a selected list of world or national-record holding, or world-championship-winning, ultramarathon runners. Tomoe Abe, current women's 100 km Road world record holder Edit Bérces, 24-hour treadmill world record holder.

Prostanthera incisa

Prostanthera incisa, the cut-leaf mintbush, is a shrubby plant native to rocky mountain tops of Eastern Australia. It has an attractive purple flower; the leaves are aromatic, ovate-lanceolate, 1–3 cm long, teethed. Robert Brown described the species in his 1810 work Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, it still bears its original name. There are two recognized varieties: Prostanthera incisa var. incisa Prostanthera incisa var. pubescens Prostanthera incisa is found along the New South Wales coastline from Mount Warning near the Queensland border all the way to Victoria, as well as the Central Tablelands. It is found in sheltered sites in rainforest margins or sclerophyll forest under such trees as Sydney blue gum, cabbage gum, Sydney peppermint, red bloodwood or turpentine, it can occur in scrub along watercourses in association with river she-oak. The leaves and green twigs are distilled for their essential oils; the dried leaf of a specific flavouring chemotype of P. incisa var. incisa is sold under the trade name of native mint.

However, this can be confusing because Australia has true native Mentha species. The dried leaf has high free radical scavenging ability. First grown in England in 1824, P. incisa var. incisa is cultivated on a small-scale commercial basis for essential oil production and for bushfood spice. P. incisa prefers sheltered sites in well-drained acidic soils, in poorly drained soils it can be susceptible to root-rot. It has reasonable frost tolerance down to −5 °, it is a fast-growing shrub, can be harvested within the first year. When pruned back to a height of 50 cm it reshoots readily. Propagation is by seed or cutting material of firm young growth; this species is confused with the related Prostanthera ovalifolia

Koji Toyoda

Koji Toyoda was a Japanese classical musician. He was born in Hamamatsu in 1933. Violinists Toshiya Eto and Koji Toyoda were amongst the first students of the famous music educator Shinichi Suzuki after he returned to Japan from studying in Germany. At that time, Koji Toyoda was only three and a half. During World War II, his studies with Suzuki were discontinued. After losing both parents during the war, Koji worked at a sake shop. Post war efforts of Suzuki to locate his student by radio announcement brought Koji under Suzuki's care, he continued his studies at the Conservatoire National Supérieur in Paris where he studied with Professor Benedetti. He graduated there with a diploma in six months in order to study with George Enesco, as suggested by his former teacher Shinichi Suzuki. By this time George Enesco was old and weak, died 30 months after he started teaching Koji. Koji heard Arthur Grumiaux play at a concert and decided to pursue his teaching, he has become one of Grumiaux' best students, together with another Japanese violinist, Tomiko Shida.

He received the Bach medal of the Harriet Cohen International Music Award in London and awards at international competitions in Paris and Geneva's Concours International d'Exécution Musicale. He was the concertmaster of the Berlin Radio-Philharmonic Orchestra from 1962 to 1979, he was a professor at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin from 1979 to 2000. He was one of the founders and the first music director of the Kusatsu International Summer Music Academy and Festival, the director of the Gunma Symphony Orchestra, he assumed the Presidency of the Talent Education Research Institute, a.k.a. Suzuki method after Shinichi Suzuki died in 1998; some of his compositions are published by the Zen-on Music Publishing Co. Japan. Pedagogy Suzuki method Music education Harriet Cohen International Music Award