The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or "silvers"; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch. During their ocean phase, coho salmon have dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked. After entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, the males may show a slight arching of the back. Mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds reaching up to 36 pounds, they develop a large kype during spawning. Mature females may be darker with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose; the eggs hatch in early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain immobile in the redd during the alevin life stage, which lasts for 6–7 weeks.
Alevin no longer have the protective egg shell, or chorion, rely on their yolk sacs for nourishment during growth. The alevin life stage is sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants; when the yolk sac is resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their freshwater natal streams spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs, before transforming to the smolt stage. Smolts are 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade and the adult's characteristic silver scales start to dominate. Smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July; some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, return to fresh water in the fall. Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn; some precocious males, known as "jacks", return as two-year-old spawners. Spawning males develop kypes, which are hooked snouts and large teeth; the traditional range of the coho salmon runs along both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russia, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, south to Monterey Bay, California.
Coho salmon have been introduced in all the Great Lakes, as well as many landlocked reservoirs throughout the United States. A number of specimens, were caught in waters surrounding Denmark and Norway in 2017, their source is unknown, but the salmon species is farmed at several locations in Europe, making it probable that the animal has slipped the net at such a farm. The total North Pacific harvest of coho salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish, of which 4.5 million were taken in the United States and 1.7 million in Russia. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all. Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery. Coho salmon average 3.5 % by 5.9 % by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest. The total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight. In North America, coho salmon is a game fish in fresh and salt water from July to December with light fishing tackle, it is one of the most popular sport fish in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.
Its popularity is due in part to the reckless abandon which it displays chasing bait and lure while in salt water, the large number of coastal streams it ascends during its spawning runs. Its habit of schooling in shallow water, near beaches, makes it accessible to anglers on the banks, as well as in boats. Ocean-caught coho is regarded as excellent table fare, it has a moderate to high amount of fat, considered to be essential when judging taste. Only spring chinook and sockeye salmon have higher levels of fat in their meat. Due to the lower fat content of coho, when smoking, it is best to use a cold-smoking rather than hot-smoking process. Coho, along with other species, has been a staple in the diet of several indigenous peoples, who would use it to trade with other tribes farther inland; the coho salmon is a symbol of several tribes, representing life and sustenance. In their freshwater stages, coho feed on plankton and insects switch to a diet of small fish upon entering the ocean as adults.
Spawning habitats are small. Salmonid species on the west coast of the United States have experienced dramatic declines in abundance during the past several decades as a result of human-induced and natural factors; the U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service has identified seven populations, called Evolutionary Significant Units, of coho salmon in Washington and California. Four of these ESUs are listed under the U. S. Endangered Species Act; these are the Lower Columbia River, Oregon Coast, Southern Oregon and Northern California Coasts, Central California Coast. The long-term trend for the listed populations is still downward, though there was one recent good year with an increasing trend in 2001; the Puget Sound/Strait of Georgia ESU in Washington is an NMFS "Species of Concern". Species of Concern are those species for which insufficient information prevents resolving the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's concerns regarding status and threats and whether to list the species under the ESA.
On May 6, 1997, NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce, listed as threatened the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast coho salmon ESU
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina
The osprey or more the western osprey — called sea hawk, river hawk, fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range. It is a large raptor, reaching 180 cm across the wings, it is brown on the upperparts and predominantly greyish on underparts. The osprey tolerates a wide variety of habitats, nesting in any location near a body of water providing an adequate food supply, it is found on all continents except Antarctica, although in South America it occurs only as a non-breeding migrant. As its other common names suggest, the osprey's diet consists exclusively of fish, it possesses specialised physical characteristics and exhibits unique behaviour to assist in hunting and catching prey. As a result of these unique characteristics, it has been given its own taxonomic genus and family, Pandionidae. Three subspecies are recognized; the osprey was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae, named as Falco haliaeetus. The genus, Pandion, is the sole member of the family Pandionidae, used to contain only one species, the osprey.
The genus Pandion was described by the French zoologist Marie Jules César Savigny in 1809. Most taxonomic authorities consider the species conspecific. A few authorities split the osprey into the western osprey and the eastern osprey; the osprey differs in several respects from other diurnal birds of prey. Its toes are of equal length, its tarsi are reticulate, its talons are rounded, rather than grooved; the osprey and owls are the only raptors whose outer toe is reversible, allowing them to grasp their prey with two toes in front and two behind. This is helpful when they grab slippery fish, it has always presented something of a riddle to taxonomists, but here it is treated as the sole living member of the family Pandionidae, the family listed in its traditional place as part of the order Falconiformes. Other schemes place it alongside the hawks and eagles in the family Accipitridae—which itself can be regarded as making up the bulk of the order Accipitriformes or else be lumped with the Falconidae into Falconiformes.
The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy has placed it together with the other diurnal raptors in a enlarged Ciconiiformes, but this results in an unnatural paraphyletic classification. The osprey is unusual in; the few subspecies are not unequivocally separable. There are four recognised subspecies, although differences are small, ITIS lists only the first two. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus --: the nominate subspecies. P. haliaetus carolinensis –: North America. This form is larger, darker has a paler breast than the type of the first description. P. haliaetus ridgwayi – Maynard, 1887: Caribbean islands. This form has a pale head and breast compared with nominate haliaetus, with only a weak eye mask, it is non-migratory. Its scientific name commemorates American ornithologist Robert Ridgway. P. haliaetus cristatus --: coastline and some large rivers of Tasmania. The smallest and most distinctive subspecies non-migratory; some authorities have assigned it full species status as Pandion cristatus, known as the eastern osprey.
To date there have been two extinct species named from the fossil record. Pandion homalopteron was named by Stuart L. Warter in 1976 from fossils of Middle Miocene, Barstovian age, found in marine deposits in the southern part of California; the second named species Pandion lovensis, was described in 1985 by Jonathan J. Becker from fossils found in Florida and dating to the latest Clarendonian and representing a separate lineage from that of P. homalopteron and P. haliaetus. A number of claw fossils have been recovered from Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments in Florida and South Carolina; the oldest recognized family Pandionidae fossils have been recovered from the Oligocene age Jebel Qatrani Formation, of Faiyum, Egypt. However they are not complete enough to assign to a specific genus. Another Pandionidae claw fossil was recovered from Early Oligocene deposits in the Mainz basin and was described in 2006 by Gerald Mayr; the genus name Pandion derives from the mythical Greek king of Athens and grandfather of Theseus, Pandion II.
Although Pandion II was not used to name a bird of prey, Nisus, a king of Megara, was used for the genus. The species name haliaetus comes from Ancient Greek haliaietos ἁλιάετος from hali- ἁλι-, "sea-" and aetos άετος, "eagle"; the origins of osprey are obscure. However, this term referred to the Lämmergeier; the osprey is 0.9 -- 2.1 kg in 50 -- 66 cm in length with a 127 -- 180 cm wingspan. It is, thus, of similar size to the largest members of the Falco genera; the subspecies are close in size, with the nominate subspecies averaging 1.53 kg, P. h. carolinensis averaging 1.7 kg and P. h. cristatus averaging 1.25 kg. The wing chord measures 38 to 52 cm, the tail measures 16.5 to 24 cm and the tarsus is 5.2–6.6 cm. The upperparts are a deep, glossy brown, while the breast is white and sometimes streaked w
The Chinook salmon is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples. Other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, chrome hog, Tyee salmon; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name chavycha. Chinook are anadromous fish native to the North Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America, ranging from California to Alaska, as well as Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Arctic north-east Siberia, they have been introduced to other parts of the world, including New Zealand, the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia. A large Chinook is a sought-after catch for a sporting angler; the flesh of the salmon is highly valued for its dietary nutritional content, which includes high levels of important omega-3 fatty acids. Some populations are endangered; the Chinook salmon has not been assessed for the IUCN Red List. According to NOAA the Chinook salmon population along the California coast is declining, due to factors like overfishing, loss of freshwater and estuarine habitat, hydropower development, poor ocean conditions, hatchery practices.
The native distribution of Chinook salmon in North America ranged from the Ventura River in California in the south to Kotzebue Sound in Alaska in the north. Populations have disappeared from large areas where they once flourished, shrinking by as much as 40 percent. In some regions, their inland range has been cut off by dams and habitat alterations: from Southern California, some areas east of the Coast Ranges of California and Oregon, large areas in the Snake River and upper Columbia River drainage basins. In certain areas like California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, it was revealed that low populations of juvenile Chinook salmon were surviving. In the western Pacific, the distribution ranges from northern Japan in the south to the Arctic Ocean as far as the East Siberian Sea and Palyavaam River in the north, they are present and the distribution is well known only in Kamchatka. Elsewhere, information is scarce, but they have a patchy presence in the Anadyr River basin and parts of the Chukchi Peninsula.
In parts of the northern Magadan Oblast near the Shelikhov Gulf and Penzhina Bay stocks might persist, but remain poorly studied. In 1967, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources planted Chinook in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to control the alewife, an invasive species of nuisance fish from the Atlantic Ocean. Alewives constituted 90% of the biota in these lakes. Coho salmon had been planted the year before and the program was a success. Chinook and Coho salmon spawned in the lakes' tributaries. After this success, Chinook were planted in the other Great Lakes, where sport fishermen prize them for their aggressive behavior on the hook; the species has established itself in Patagonian waters in South America, where both introduced and escaped hatchery fish have colonized rivers and established stable spawning runs. Chinook salmon have been found spawning in headwater reaches of the Rio Santa Cruz having migrated over 1,000 km from the ocean; the population is thought to be derived from a single stocking of juveniles in the lower river around 1930.
Sporadic efforts to introduce the fish to New Zealand waters in the late 1800s were failures and led to no evident establishments. Early ova were imported from the Baird hatchery of the McCloud River in California. Further efforts in the early 1900s were more successful and subsequently led to the establishment of spawning runs in the rivers of Cantebury and North Otago; the success of the latter introductions is thought to be attributable to the use of ova from autumn-run populations as opposed to ova from spring-run populations used in the first attempts. Whilst other salmon have been introduced into New Zealand, only Chinook salmon have established sizeable pelagic runs; the Chinook is blue-green, red, or purple on the back and top of the head, with silvery sides and white ventral surfaces. It has the upper half of its body. Chinook have a Black gum line, present in both salt and freshwater. Adult fish may be up to 58 in in length. In the Kenai River of Alaska, mature Chinook averaged 16.8 kg.
The current sport-caught world record, 97.25 lb, was caught on May 1985, in the Kenai River. The commercial catch world record is 126 lb caught near Rivers Inlet, British Columbia, in the late 1970s. Chinook may spend one to eight years in the ocean before returning to their home rivers to spawn; the salmon undergo radical morphological changes as they prepare for the spawning event ahead. All salmon lose the silvery blue they had as ocean fish, their colour darkens, sometimes with a radical change in hue. Salmon are sexually dimorphic, the male salmon develop canine-like teeth and their jaws develop a pronounced curve or hook, called a "kype". Studies have shown that larger and more dominant male salmon have a reproductive advantage as female Chinook are more aggressive toward smaller males. Chinook spawn in larger and deeper waters than other salmon species and can be found on the spawning redds from Sept
Rogue River (Oregon)
The Rogue River in southwestern Oregon in the United States flows about 215 miles in a westward direction from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. Known for its salmon runs, whitewater rafting, rugged scenery, it was one of the original eight rivers named in the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Beginning near Crater Lake, which occupies the caldera left by the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama, the river flows through the geologically young High Cascades and the older Western Cascades, another volcanic province. Further west, the river passes through multiple exotic terranes of the more ancient Klamath Mountains. In the Kalmiopsis Wilderness section of the Rogue basin are some of the world's best examples of rocks that form the Earth's mantle. Near the mouth of the river, the only dinosaur fragments discovered in Oregon were found in the Otter Point Formation, along the coast of Curry County. People have lived along its tributaries for at least 8,500 years. European explorers made first contact with Native Americans toward the end of the 18th century and began beaver trapping and other activities in the region.
Clashes, sometimes deadly, occurred between the natives and the trappers and between the natives and European-American miners and settlers. These struggles culminated with the Rogue River Wars of 1855–56 and removal of most of the natives to reservations outside the basin. After the war, settlers expanded into remote areas of the watershed and established small farms along the river between Grave Creek and the mouth of the Illinois River, they were isolated from the outside world until 1895, when the Post Office Department added mail-boat service along the lower Rogue. As of 2010, the Rogue has one of the two remaining rural mail-boat routes in the United States. Dam building and removal along the Rogue has generated controversy for more than a century. By 2009, all but one of the main-stem dams downstream of a huge flood-control structure 157 miles from the river mouth had been removed. Aside from dams, threats to salmon include high water temperatures. Although sometimes too warm for salmonids, the main stem Rogue is clean, ranking between 85 and 97 on the Oregon Water Quality Index.
Although the Rogue Valley near Medford is urban, the average population density of the Rogue watershed is only about 32 people per square mile. Several historic bridges cross the river near the more populated areas. Many public parks, hiking trails, campgrounds are near the river, which flows through forests, including national forests. Biodiversity in many parts of the basin is high; the Rogue River begins at Boundary Springs on the border between Klamath and Douglas counties near the northern edge of Crater Lake National Park. Although it changes direction many times, it flows west for 215 miles from the Cascade Range through the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest and the Klamath Mountains to the Pacific Ocean at Gold Beach. Communities along its course include Union Creek, Trail, Shady Cove, Gold Hill and Rogue River, all in Jackson County. Significant tributaries include the South Fork Rogue River, Elk Creek, Bear Creek, the Applegate River, the Illinois River. Arising at 5,320 feet above sea level, the river loses more than 1 mile in elevation by the time it reaches the Pacific.
It was one of the original eight rivers named in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, which included 84 miles of the Rogue, from 7 miles west of Grants Pass to 11 miles east of the mouth at Gold Beach. In 1988, an additional 40 miles of the Rogue between Crater Lake National Park and the unincorporated community of Prospect was named Wild and Scenic. Of the river's total length, 124 miles, about 58 percent is Scenic; the Rogue is one of only three rivers that start in or east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and reach the Pacific Ocean. The others are the Umpqua Klamath River; these three Southern Oregon rivers drain mountains south of the Willamette Valley. The United States Geological Survey operates five stream gauges along the Rogue River, they are located, from uppermost to lowermost, near Prospect, Eagle Point, Central Point, Grants Pass, Agness. Between 1960 and 2007, the average discharge recorded by the Agness gauge at river mile 29.7 or river kilometer 47.8 was 6,622 cubic feet per second.
The maximum discharge during this period was 290,000 cubic feet per second on December 23, 1964, the minimum discharge was 608 cubic feet per second on July 9 and 10, 1968. This was from a drainage basin of 3,939 square miles, or about 76 percent of the entire Rogue watershed; the maximum flow occurred between December 1964 and January 1965 during the Christmas flood of 1964, rated by the National Weather Service as one of Oregon's top 10 weather events of the 20th century. Draining 5,156 square miles, the Rogue River watershed covers parts of Jackson, Curry and Klamath counties in southwestern Oregon and Siskiyou and Del Norte counties in norther
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres of public lands in the United States which constitutes one eighth of the landmass of the country. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service; the agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming; the mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres of BLM public lands.
The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands, totaling about 36 million acres. In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, Native American groups. The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787; these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution. As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored and made available for settlement. During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.
After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, England and Spain, ceded territory to the United States. In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function. Land was sold. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted; the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by error. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were fulfilled. Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land. Several different types of patents existed; these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, town lots. A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land, surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.
This pattern spread across the entire United States. The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands; the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, oil and sodium to take place on public lands. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees; the Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937 referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon. In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for this new agency to reorganize. In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land; the agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River. As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi. BLM personnel on the ground have been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance. By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership; the law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that th