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Uncle Sam

Uncle Sam is a common national personification of the U. S. federal government or the country in general that, according to legend, came into use during the War of 1812 and was named for Samuel Wilson. The actual origin is by a legend. Since the early 19th century, Uncle Sam has been a popular symbol of the US government in American culture and a manifestation of patriotic emotion. While the figure of Uncle Sam represents the government, Columbia represents the United States as a nation; the first reference to Uncle Sam in formal literature was in the 1816 allegorical book The Adventures of Uncle Sam, in Search After His Lost Honor by Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy, Esq. Other possible references date to the American Revolutionary War: an Uncle Sam is mentioned as early as 1775, in the original lyrics of "Yankee Doodle", though it is not clear whether this reference is to Uncle Sam as a metaphor for the United States, or to an actual person named Sam; the lyrics as a whole celebrate the military efforts of the young nation in besieging the British at Boston.

The 13th stanza is: The earliest known personification of the United States was as a woman named Columbia, who first appeared in 1738 and sometimes was associated with another female personification, Lady Liberty. With the American Revolutionary War came Brother Jonathan, a male personification, Uncle Sam appeared after the War of 1812. Columbia appeared with either Brother Jonathan or Uncle Sam, but her use declined as a national personification in favor of Liberty, she was abandoned once she became the mascot of Columbia Pictures in the 1920s. According to an article in the 1893 The Lutheran Witness, Uncle Sam was another name for Brother Jonathan: When we meet him in politics we call him Uncle Sam. Here of late Uncle Sam alias Brother Jonathan has been doing a powerful lot of complaining, hardly doing anything else. A March 24, 1810 journal entry by Isaac Mayo states: weighed anchor stood down the harbour, passed Sandy Hook, where there are two light-houses, put to sea and second day out most deadly seasick, oh could I have got on shore in the hight of it, I swear that uncle Sam, as they call him, would forever have lost the services of at least one sailor.

The precise origin of the Uncle Sam character is unclear, but a popular legend is that the name "Uncle Sam" was derived from Samuel Wilson, a meatpacker from Troy, New York who supplied rations for American soldiers during the War of 1812. There was a requirement at the time for contractors to stamp their name and where the rations came from onto the food they were sending. Wilson's packages were labeled "E. A – US." When someone asked what that stood for, a co-worker jokingly said, "Elbert Anderson and Uncle Sam," referring to Wilson, though the "US" stood for United States. Doubts have been raised as to the authenticity of this story, as the claim did not appear in print until 1842. Additionally, the earliest known mention referring to the metaphorical Uncle Sam is from 1810, predating Wilson's contract with the government; as early as 1835, Brother Jonathan made a reference to Uncle Sam, implying that they symbolized different things: Brother Jonathan was the country itself, while Uncle Sam was the government and its power.

By the 1850s, the names Brother Jonathan and Uncle Sam were being used nearly interchangeably, to the point that images of what had been called "Brother Jonathan" were being called "Uncle Sam". The appearance of both personifications varied wildly. For example, one depiction of Uncle Sam in 1860 showed him looking like Benjamin Franklin, while a contemporaneous depiction of Brother Jonathan looks more like the modern version of Uncle Sam, though without a goatee. Uncle Sam did not get a standard appearance with the effective abandonment of Brother Jonathan near the end of the American Civil War, until the well-known "recruitment" image of Uncle Sam was first created by James Montgomery Flagg during World War I; the image was inspired by a British recruitment poster showing Lord Kitchener in a similar pose. It is this image more than any other that has influenced the modern appearance of Uncle Sam: an elderly white man with white hair and a goatee, wearing a white top hat with white stars on a blue band, a blue tail coat, red-and-white-striped trousers.

Flagg's depiction of Uncle Sam was shown publicly for the first time, according to some, on the cover of the magazine Leslie's Weekly on July 6, 1916, with the caption "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?" More than four million copies of this image were printed between 1917 and 1918. Flagg's image was used extensively during World War II, during which the U. S. was codenamed "Samland" by the German intelligence agency Abwehr. The term was central in the song "The Yankee Doodle Boy", featured in 1942 in the musical Yankee Doodle Dandy. There are two memorials to Uncle Sam, both of which commemorate the life of Samuel Wilson: the Uncle Sam Memorial Statue in Arlington, his birthplace. Wilson's boyhood home can still be visited in New Hampshire. Samuel Wilson died on July 31, 1854, aged 87, is buried in Oakwood Cemetery, New York. In 1989, "Uncle Sam Day" became official. A Congressional joint resolution designated September 13, 1989 as "Uncle Sam Day", the birthday of Samuel Wilson. In 2015, the family history company MyHeritage researched Uncle Sam's family tree and claims to have tracked down his living relatives.

Uncle Sam billboard Mouraux and Jean-Pierre Mouraux. W

Tribe of Gad

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Gad was one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel who, after the Exodus from Egypt, settled on the eastern side of the Jordan River. It is one of the ten lost tribes. From after the conquest of the land by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel in c. 1050 BC, the Tribe of Gad was a part of a loose confederation of Israelite tribes. No central government existed, in times of crisis the people were led by ad hoc leaders known as Judges. With the growth of the threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes decided to form a strong centralised monarchy to meet the challenge, the Tribe of Gad joined the new kingdom with Saul as the first king. After the death of Saul, all the tribes other than Judah remained loyal to the House of Saul, but after the death of Saul's son Ish-bosheth, successor to the throne of Israel, the Tribe of Gad joined the other northern Israelite tribes in making Judah's king David the king of a re-united Kingdom of Israel.

However, on the accession of David's grandson Rehoboam, in c. 930 BC the northern tribes split from the House of David and from Saul's tribe Benjamin to reform Israel as the Northern Kingdom. Gad was a member of the Northern Kingdom until the kingdom was conquered by Assyria in c. 723 BC and the population deported. From that time onwards, the Tribe of Gad has been counted as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. A genealogy of the "children of Gad" is set out in 1 Chronicles 5:11-17. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. However, in the case of the Tribes of Gad and half of Manasseh, Moses allocated land to them on the eastern side of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea; the Tribe of Gad was allocated the central region of the three, east of Ephraim and West Manasseh, though the exact location is ambiguous. "The border was Jazer, all the cities of Gilead, half the land of the children of Ammon, unto Aroer, before Rabbah.

The location was never secure from invasion and attacks, since to the south it was exposed to the Moabites, like the other tribes east of the Jordan was exposed on the north and east to Aram-Damascus and the Assyrians. According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Gad the seventh son of Jacob, from whom it took its name. However, some Biblical scholars view this as a postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation. In the Biblical account, Gad is one of the two descendants of Zilpah, a handmaid of Jacob, the other descendant being Asher. In common with Asher is the possibility that the tribal name derives from a deity worshipped by the tribe, Gad being thought by scholars to be to have taken its name from Gad, the semitic god of fortune. Furthermore, the Moabite Stone differentiates between the kingdom of Israel and the tribe of Gad, presenting Gad as predating Israel in the lands east of the Jordan.

These details seems to indicate that Gad was a northwards-migrating nomadic tribe, at a time when the other tribes were quite settled in Canaan. In the biblical account, Gad's presence on the east of the Jordan is explained as a matter of the tribe desiring the land as soon as they saw it, before they had crossed the Jordan under Joshua, conquered Canaan. Classical rabbinical literature regards this selection of the other side by Gad as something for which they should be blamed, remarking that, as mentioned in Ecclesiastes, the full stomach of the rich denies them sleep; when they arrived at the Jordan and saw the fertility of the land, they said: "One handful of enjoyment on this side is better than two on the other". However, because they crossed the river to help their brethren in the conquest of Palestine, just as Simeon did when he took his sword and warred against the men of Shechem, they were found worthy to follow the tribe of Simeon at the sacrifices on the occasion of the dedication of the Tabernacle.

Moses was buried in the territory of Gad. According to some, Elijah was a descendant of Gad; the tribes of Gad and Reuben were the first. Though forming part of the Kingdom of Israel, from the biblical account it appears that under Uzziah and Jotham the tribe of Gad joined with the kingdom of Judah instead; when Tiglath-Pileser III annexed the kingdom of Israel in about 733-731 BC, Gad fell victim to the actions of the Assyrians, the tribe were exiled.

Slow Dance (song)

"Slow Dance" is a song by American recording artist Keri Hilson. Written with American singer Justin Timberlake, the song was penned while she was a guest on the British leg of Timberlake's FutureSex/LoveShow tour; the writing team included Johnkenum D. Spivery, as well as Timbaland protégés The Royal Court and Jim Beanz, who with Skyz Muzik produced the track; the song serves as the sixth single from her debut studio album, In a Perfect World.... Giving off a psychedelic vibe and compared to 1980's Prince ballads and Ciara slow burners, the song received positive reviews, complimenting its musical backdrop and vulnerable lyrical appeal. Hilson premiered the song at her producer/mentor Polow da Don's launch party for his record label, Zone 4, in Atlanta in July 2007, performed it several times as promoting it as In A Perfect World's sixth single; the song was not adequately receptive in the United States, reaching forty-nine on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. Two music videos for the song were shot, the Chris Robinson-directed second version being used as the official video.

The video features Hilson at getting ready and enjoying herself at a party, featuring appearances by Monica, Chris Brown, former Pussycat Dolls member Melody Thornton and Omarion, among others. She performed the song as a part of a medley at the 2009 Soul Train Music Awards. "Slow Dance" was written with Hilson alongside American recording artist Justin Timberlake, as well as Johnkenum D. Spivery and Timbaland protégés The Royal Court and Jim Beanz. According to Hilson, the songs were first in the works with fellow Timbaland collaborator Justin Timberlake in 2006, during FutureSex/LoveSounds era, but she commented, "it was still unofficial then; the budgets hadn't been opened up for me at that stage." Hilson premiered the song at her producer and mentor Jamal "Polow da Don" Jones's launch party his newly created, Interscope-distributed record label, Zone 4, in Atlanta in July 2007. On choosing singles for In A Perfect World... in an interview with Digital Spy, Hilson stated, " liked it a lot at first and said it should be a single, but just as, about to happen he called it'bubble bath music'.

But now he loves it again and thinks it should be a single! He'll change it up on you." The song went for adds on urban airplay formats on July 21, 2009. The down-tempo R&B piece features a guitar-laden background with synthesizers, features lyrics about the physical attraction of a relationship. "Slow Dance" has been said to sound like a Ciara's "Promise" and 1980's Prince ballad, described as "sparkly" and "psychedelic." A writer for Spike called the song a "digital lullaby." Calling the lyrical content "the ecstasy of desire with all the warmth of an alien observing life on Planet Earth", Mikael Wood of The Los Angeles Times said the song was impeccably arranged. Quentin B. Huff of PopMatters stated, that on In A Perfect World... songs like "Slow Dance", "tend to provide better matches between the vocals and the music, since the backdrop keeps things simple and the lyrics don’t always fall into slang and unintentional irony." Jon Caramanica of The New York Times called the song "excellent", commenting that the song was the album's high point.

Sophie Bruce of BBC Music said the song "is laden with potential in its first Prince-channelling two minutes, but loses its way when it breaks down into beatboxing." Calling the album's slow numbers a problem, the song itself "smooth", Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine said "Slow Dance" was "nothing more than a copy of Ciara's "Promise." The original music video was directed by Paul Hunter, known for his work on previous Michael Jackson and TLC clips. However, for unknown reasons, the video was scrapped, Hilson re-shot a clip for the video with "Knock You Down" and "Number One" director Chris Robinson. Robinson told Rap-Up, "Keri Hilson is a real girl. That’s what we want to get across." He talked about the premise and plot of the video, stating that the video portrays Hilson as a woman who doesn't take herself commenting, "It’s a sexy song, but we don’t want to fall into the typical love, love R&B vibe with that... it starts where you think, ‘Oh, it’s about her and being sexy.' She’s in her house and by herself, you kind of think it could be serious, but the song drops out in the middle and her friends catch her being all sexy like, ‘What the f**k are you doing?

You are not singing by yourself.’" In an interview with That Grape Juice, when asked about the video and on the sensuality of the live performances compared to video, Hilson responded, "Yeah. It is a bit of that, but it’s a bit toned down for the video, because you got so much censoring, I can’t do everything I do on stage. So when people come out they’re still gonna be a bit surprised to see it live, after seeing the video, but I’m pleased with the video. I love the colours and it’s reminiscent of the whole late 70s early 80s era in music." Chris Brown, Monica, Melody Thornton, Polow Da Don all appear in the video. The video begins with Hilson, dressed lavishly, arriving late to a Jeep full of the previous stated people; the clip flips back to what happened earlier that night, showing Hilson getting ready in a seductive fashion, as she chooses perfume and picks out clothes. Scenes of Hilson performing in front of a leather-like wall are interspersed in between her and her friends riding down a boulevard to the club.

Once she arrives to the club, she is attracted to a particular man, subsequently performs elaborate, sensual choreography with him and other dancers, before slow dancing. VIBE said, "Keri Hilson is fine as wine. You know it. We know it, and she knows it. But for the doubters, she proves it once again with th