The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by enslaved African-Americans to escape into free states and Canada. The scheme was assisted by others sympathetic to the cause of the escapees. Not a railroad, the workers who secretly aided the fugitives are collectively referred to as the "Underground Railroad". Various other routes led to Mexico. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. One of the main reasons Florida was purchased by the United States was to end its function as a safe haven for escaped slaves. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north and grew until the Civil War began. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America was a desirable destination, as its long border gave many points of access, it was further from slave catchers, beyond the reach of the United States' Fugitive Slave Acts.
Most former slaves, reaching Canada by boat across Lake Ontario, settled in Ontario. More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived.
With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War. It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law; because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession.
The escape network was neither underground nor a railroad. According to John Rankin, "It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as as if they had gone into the ground. After the fugitive slaves entered a depot on that road no trace of them could be found, they were secretly passed from one depot to another until they arrived in Canada." It was known as a railroad, using rail terminology such as stations and conductors, because, the transportation system in use at the time. The Underground Railroad did not have a headquarters, nor were there published guides, pamphlets, or newspaper articles; the Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, all of them maintained by abolitionist sympathizers and communicated by word of mouth. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans.
Church clergy and congregations of the North played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as the anti-slavery branches of mainstream denominations which split over the issue, such the Methodist church and the Baptists. The role of free blacks was crucial. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme. "Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, then
The following is a list of television programs broadcast by Tokyo Broadcasting System. Programs are listed in each section in chronological order. Ajin: Demi-Human The Angry Beavers RoboRoach Yoko! Jakamoko! Toto! Christopher Crocodile Kazoku no Katachi Honoo-no Taiiku-kai TV All-Star Thanksgiving Count Down TV Kamiwaza Wanda Kono Bijutsubu ni wa Mondai ga Aru! Girlish Number IndyCar Series Dark Tales of Japan Nemuri no Mori Mito Kōmon Ōoka Echizen Edo o Kiru Ultra Q Captain Ultra Ultra Seven Ultra Fight The Return of Ultraman Iron King Ultraman Ace Ultraman Taro Ultraman Leo Kamen Rider Stronger Ultraman 80 Ultraman Tiga Ultraman Gaia Kato-chan Ken-chan Gokigen TV Utaban Koko ga Hen da yo Nihonjin Koisuru Hanikami Lincoln Takeshi's Castle' The Puzzle Place' Sesame Street' List of anime aired on TBS, an alphabetical list of all anime broadcast by TBS
Antoine Racine was a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and the 1st Bishop of Sherbrooke from 1874 to 1893. He is buried in the Cathedral in Sherbrooke. Séminaire Saint-Charles-Borromée was founded by Racine in 1875, the year after he became the first Bishop of Sherbrooke. A degree granting institution it's most famous alumnus was Prime Minister of Canada Louis St. Laurent, who graduated in 1902, he is the namesake of Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue parish known as St-Antoine-de-Lennoxville. "Antoine Racine". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. Antoine Racine at Find a Grave