The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines, distinct from the usual poppet valve. Sleeve valve engines saw use in a number of pre-World War II luxury cars and in the United States in the Willys-Knight car and light truck, they subsequently fell from use due to advances in poppet-valve technology, including sodium cooling, the Knight system double sleeve engine's tendency to burn a lot of lubricating oil or to seize due to lack of it. The Scottish Argyll company used its own, much simpler and more efficient, single sleeve system in its cars, a system which, after extensive development, saw substantial use in British aircraft engines of the 1940s, such as the Napier Sabre, Bristol Hercules and the promising but never mass-produced Rolls-Royce Crecy, only to be supplanted by the jet engines. A sleeve valve takes the form of one or more machined sleeves, it fits between the piston and the cylinder wall in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, where it rotates and/or slides.
Ports in the side of the sleeves come into alignment with the cylinder's inlet and exhaust ports at the appropriate stages in the engine's cycle. The first successful sleeve valve was patented by Charles Yale Knight, used twin alternating sliding sleeves, it was used in some luxury automobiles, notably Willys, Mercedes-Benz, Panhard and Avions Voisin. Mors adopted double sleeve-valve engines made by Minerva; the higher oil consumption was outweighed by the quietness of running and the high mileages without servicing. Early poppet-valve systems required decarbonization at low mileages; the Burt-McCollum sleeve valve was named for the two inventors who applied for similar patents within a few weeks of each other. The Burt system was an open sleeve type, driven from the crankshaft side, while the McCollum design had a sleeve in the head and upper part of the cylinder, a more complex port arrangement; the design that entered production was more'Burt' than'McCollum.' It was used by the Scottish company Argyll for its cars, was adopted by Bristol for its radial aircraft engines.
It used a single sleeve. Mechanically simpler and more rugged, the Burt-McCollum valve had the additional advantage of reducing oil consumption, while retaining the combustion chambers and big, porting area possible in the Knight system. A small number of designs used a "cuff" sleeve in the cylinder head instead of the cylinder proper, providing a more "classic" layout compared to traditional poppet valve engines; this design had the advantage of not having the piston within the sleeve, although in practice this appears to have had little practical value. On the downside, this arrangement limited the size of the ports to that of the cylinder head, whereas in-cylinder sleeves could have much larger ports; the main advantages of the sleeve-valve engine are: High volumetric efficiency due to large port openings. Sir Harry Ricardo demonstrated better mechanical and thermal efficiency; the size of the ports can be controlled. This is important when an engine operates over a wide RPM range, since the speed at which gas can enter and exit the cylinder is defined by the size of the duct leading to the cylinder, varies according to the cube of the RPM.
In other words, at higher RPM the engine requires larger ports that remain open for a greater proportion of the cycle. Good exhaust scavenging and controllable swirl of the inlet air/fuel mixture in single-sleeve designs; when the intake ports open, the air/fuel mixture can be made to enter tangentially to the cylinder. This helps scavenging when exhaust/inlet timing overlap is used and a wide speed range required, whereas poor poppet valve exhaust scavenging can dilute the fresh air/fuel mixture intake to a greater degree, being more speed dependent. Greater freedom of combustion chamber design means that fuel/air mixture swirl at top dead centre can be more controlled, allowing improved ignition and flame travel which, as demonstrated by H. Ricardo, allows at least one extra unit of compression ratio before detonation, compared with the poppet valve engine; the combustion chamber formed with the sleeve at the top of its stroke is ideal for complete, detonation-free combustion of the charge, as it does not have to contend with compromised chamber shape and hot exhaust valves.
No springs are involved in the sleeve valve system, therefore the power needed to operate the valve remains constant with the engine's RPM, meaning that the system can be used at high speeds with no penalty for doing so. A problem with high-speed engines that use poppet valves is that as engine speed increases, the speed at which the valve moves has to increase; this in turn increases the loads involved due to the inertia of the valve, which has to be opened brought to a stop reversed in direction and closed and brought to a stop again. Large poppet valves that allow good air-flow have considerable mass and require a strong spring to overcome their inertia when closing. At higher engine speeds, the valve spring may be unable to close the valve before the next opening event, resulting in a failure to close; this effect, called valve float, can result in the valve being struck by the top of the rising piston. In addition, push-rods, valve rockers can be eliminated in a sleeve valve design, as th
First Battle of the Marne
The Battle of the Marne was a World War I battle fought from 6–12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west; the battle was the culmination of the German advance into France and pursuit of the Allied armies which followed the Battle of the Frontiers in August and had reached the eastern outskirts of Paris. A counter-attack by six French armies and the British Expeditionary Force along the Marne River forced the Imperial German Army to retreat northwest, leading to the First Battle of the Aisne and the Race to the Sea; the battle was a victory for the Allied Powers but led to four years of trench warfare stalemate on the Western Front. The battle of the Marne was a major turning point of World War I. By the end of August 1914, the whole Allied army on the Western Front had been forced into a general retreat back towards Paris. Meanwhile, the two main German armies continued through France, it seemed that Paris would be taken as both the French and the British fell back towards the Marne River.
The war became a stalemate. It was one of the most important events in the war; the German retreat left the Schlieffen Plan in ruins and Germany had no hope of a quick victory in France. Its army was left to fight a long war on two fronts. Field Marshal Sir John French, commander of the British Expeditionary Force, began to plan for a full British retreat to port cities on the English Channel for an immediate evacuation; the military governor of Paris, Joseph Simon Gallieni, wanted to organise the French and British armies to counter the weight of the German army's advance. After consulting Lord Kitchener about the use of British forces, Gallieni secured the overall command of the BEF, thus stopping Sir John's planned withdrawal. Gallieni's plan was simple. All Allied units would counter-attack the Germans along the Marne River, thus halting the German advance; as this was going on, Allied reserves would be thrown in to restore the ranks and attack the German flanks. On 5 September, in the mid-afternoon, battle commenced when the French Sixth Army stumbled into the forward guard of the German First Army.
By 9 September, it looked as though the German First and Second Armies would be encircled and destroyed. General von Moltke suffered a nervous breakdown upon hearing of the danger to his two armies, his subordinates ordered a general retreat to the Aisne River in order to regroup. The retreating armies were pursued by the French and British, although the pace of the Allied advance was slow – a mere 19 km in one day; the German armies ceased their retreat after 65 km at a point north of the Aisne River, where they dug in, preparing trenches that were to last for several years. The German retreat between 9 September and 13 September marked the abandonment of the Schlieffen Plan. Moltke is said to have reported to the Kaiser: "Your Majesty, we have lost the war." In the aftermath of the battle, both sides dug in and four years of stalemate ensued. The Battle of the Frontiers is a general name for all the operations of the French armies from 7 August to 13 September. A series of encounter battles began between the German and Belgian armies on the German-French frontier and in southern Belgium on 4 August 1914.
Liège was occupied by the Germans on 7 August. The first units of the British Expeditionary Force landed in France and French troops crossed the German frontier; the Battle of Mulhouse was the first French offensive of World War I. The French captured Mulhouse, until forced out by a German counter-attack on 11 August, fell back toward Belfort. On 12 August, the Battle of Haelen was fought by German and Belgian cavalry and infantry, resulting in a Belgian defensive success; the BEF completed its move of four divisions and a cavalry division to France on 16 August, as the last Belgian fort of the Fortified Position of Liège surrendered. The Belgian government withdrew from Brussels on 18 August; the main French offensive, the Battle of Lorraine, began with the Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg advances by the First Army on Sarrebourg and the Second Army towards Morhange. Château-Salins near Morhange was Sarrebourg the next day; the German 6th and 7th Armies counter-attacked on 20 August, the Second Army was forced back from Morhange and the First Army was repulsed at Sarrebourg.
The German armies crossed the border and advanced on Nancy, but were stopped to the east of the city. The Belgian 4th Division, the solitary part of the Belgian army not to retreat to the defensive lines around Antwerp, dug in to defend Namur, besieged on 20 August. Further west, the French Fifth Army had concentrated on the Sambre by 20 August, facing north on either side of Charleroi and east towards Namur and Dinant. Additional support was given to the Belgians at Namur by the French 45th Infantry Brigade. On the left, the Cavalry Corps of General Sordet linked up with the BEF at Mons. To the south, the French retook Mulhouse on 19 August and withdrew. By 20 August, a German counter-offensive in Lorraine had begun and the German 4th and 5th Armies advanced through the Ardennes on 19 August towards Neufchâteau. An offensive by the French Third and Fourth Armies through the Ardennes began on 20 August in support of the French invasion of Lorraine; the opposing armies met in thick fog. On 22 August, the Battle of the Ardennes began with French attacks, which were costly to both sides and forced the Fren
Talbot Type T4 "Minor"
The Talbot "Minor" Type T4 was a mid-sized executive car produced by the French Talbot company between 1937 and 1940. Under the conventions of the time, the car would have been called "Talbot 13CV" reflecting its engine size, but the "13CV" name was not applied because of adverse superstition concerning the number "13"; as part of the backwash from the bankruptcy and break-up of the Anglo-French Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq combine in 1935, the French part of the business was purchased by Tony Lago, an auto-industry entrepreneur born in Venice, but who had built much of his auto-industry career during the 1920s in England. The registered name of the company Lago now owned was "Automobiles Talbot-Darracq S. A.", but in the English speaking world it is known as "Talbot-Lago". The cars themselves were badged in their home market as Talbots, the badge worn by products of the predecessor company since 1922 when the "-Darracq" suffix had been dropped from the names used for the cars in France. Although in 1935 Lago's company continued building Talbot models from the pre-bankruptcy period, he replaced them with a range of light weight sporting six cylinder engined cars, centred round the "Talbot Baby" and the less sporting "voitures de tourisme" centred round the "Talbot Major" and the smaller "Talbot Cadette".
The passenger car range was complemented by a high profile motor racing programme. The passenger cars and racing cars were designed by a fellow Italian expatriate called Walter Becchia who during 1939 would transfer to Citroën and play a key role in the development of the Citroën 2CV; the launch of a four-cylinder model, the Talbot "Minor" Type T4, at the Paris Motor Show in October 1937 represented something of a departure for Talbot and a surprise for industry observers. The new model broadened the range and would enable Talbot to compete lower down the market place hierarchy, against models such and the Hotchkiss Type 864 and the Salmson S4; the car took its chassis from the Talbot Baby. Beccia designed a new four door steel body which resembled the larger body of the six cylinder Talbots Cadette and Major. For traditionally minded customers preferring to select their own car body, the Minor could be ordered in bare chassis form; the steering wheel and driving seat were on the right-hand side of the car, following a convention, universal among European auto-makers twenty years earlier, but, now seen as rather old fashioned in countries where traffic drove on the right.
The wheels at the front were independently suspended subject to a transverse leaf spring, while the back wheels were attached using a rigid axle suspended from longitudinally mounted leaf springs. The four cylinder 2323cc engine placed the car in the 13CV car tax band. Fed via overhead valves by a single Stromberg 22 carburetor, it produced a claimed maximum output of 62 hp at 4,000 rpm. At launch the Minor was priced at 42,500 Francs for a car with the manufacturer's standard steel body. In bare chassis form the price quoted was 35,000 Francs. An obvious competitor was the standard "Cabourg" bodied Type 864 from Hotchkiss which came with a listed price of 39,900 Francs; the Hotchkiss, with its claimed 68 hp of power from an engine of identical dimensions, appears the more aggressively priced, but neither car was small enough to challenge the volume auto-makers in terms of unit sales. The Talbot Minor continued in production for several months after the declaration of war in September 1939, after November 1939 Talbot were delivering cars to the French army for use as staff cars, but during the first part of 1940 the Talbot Suresnes plant was converted to war production.
Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow
The Museum of the Great Patriotic War is a history museum located in Moscow at Poklonnaya Gora. The building was designed by architect Anatoly Polyansky. Work on the museum began on March 3, 1986, the museum was opened to the public on May 9, 1995; the museum features exhibits and memorials concerning World War II, known in Russia as "The Great Patriotic War". The museum features 14,143 square meters of exhibit space for permanent collections and an additional 5,500 square meters for temporary exhibits. Near the entry to the museum is the Hall of Commanders, which features a decorative "Sword and Shield of Victory" and bronze busts of recipients of the Order of Victory, the highest military honor awarded by the Soviet Union. In the center of the museum is the Hall of Glory, a white marble room which features the names of over 11,800 of the recipients of the Hero of the Soviet Union distinction. A large bronze sculpture, the "Soldier of Victory," stands in the center of this hall. Below lies the Hall of Sorrow, which honors Soviet people who died in the war.
This room is dimly lit and strings of glass beads hang from the ceiling, symbolizing tears shed for the dead. The upper floors feature numerous exhibits about the war, including dioramas depicting major battles, photographs of wartime activities and munitions, awards, letters from the battlefront, model aircraft. In addition, the museum maintains an electronic "memory book" which attempts to record the name and fate of every Russian soldier who died in World War II; the museum is set in a 2,424-hectare park on Poklonnaya Hill. The park features a large, paved plaza and open space where military vehicles and other apparatus from World War II are displayed. In the park are the Holocaust Memorial Synagogue, the Church of St. George, the Moscow Memorial Mosque, a triumphal arch, an obelisk, a number of sculptures. Official Site Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War at Museums of Russia Photos of the museum Museum of the Great Patriotic War at Google Cultural Institute
Officine Meccaniche or OM was an Italian car and truck manufacturing company. It was founded in 1899 in Milan as Società Anonima Officine Meccaniche to manufacture railway rolling stock and car production began in 1918, it still exists as a forklift builder. The inception of the company resulted from the merger of two companies, Grondona Comi & C and Miani Silvestri & C in 1899. OM manufactured railway stock. Car production started in 1918, using the plant of the former Brixia-Zust, just after OM took over Zust car company of Brescia, Northern Italy; the first OM car, Tipo S305 an old Zust model, appeared in 1918 with a 4712 cc four-cylinder side-valve in-line engine. Further models were Tipo 465 in 1919, Tipo 467 and Tipo 469 in 1921. 1923 saw Tipo 665 ` Superba' with a 2-litre six-cylinder engine. This model was successful in racing, winning top five positions in the 2-litre class in 1925 and 1926 at the Le Mans but its greatest achievement was the victory in the first Mille Miglia race in 1927 where Ferdinando Minoia and Giuseppe Morandi led home an O.
M.'123' at an average speed of 48.27 miles per hour for 21 hours 4 minutes 48 seconds. Some cars were equipped with Roots superchargers. In 1925 OM began to build trucks and buses, using licensed Swiss Saurer engines and other mechanical components. Ties with Saurer persisted through all of OM's history. OM was taken over by the Fiat Group in 1938 and in the following year passenger car production ceased, OM became a commercial vehicle and train part manufacturer. Main new product in the WWII post-war era was the Leoncino a light truck in the 2.0 to 2.5 tons range, an immediate success. It became the forefather of several series of heavier but structurally similar models, namely Tigrotto, Lupetto and Daino, launched between 1957 and 1964. Bus chassis versions of several of these models were available. In the 60s and 70s the light and medium-weight OM truck ranges were sold in Switzerland as Saurer-OM or Berna-OM, in Austria as Steyr-OM, in France as Unic-OM, in Germany as Büssing-OM. In 1968 OM was definitively merged into the Fiat Group as a brand belonging to the Commercial Vehicles division, which included Fiat and Unic.
In 1975 it was absorbed into IVECO and the OM brand disappeared from the truck and bus markets, although it still survives as an independent forklift manufacturer. FS ALn 772 OM X-series List of Italian companies 1925 24 Hours of Le Mans 1926 24 Hours of Le Mans Tripoli Grand Prix OM forklifts webpage
The P107 was a World War II French half-track. In the 1920s and 1930s Citroën developed a long line of half-tracks based on the Kégresse patent. In 1934, the company introduced its newest and more powerful P107 model as a successor to the Citroën-Kégresse P17, but before mass production could take place, Citroën went bankrupt and its new owner, chose to focus on the civilian markets. Unic was therefore able to acquire a license for the Kégresse patent, took over the production of the P107. From 1937, the vehicles build by Unic received various designations, such as P 107 B, P 107 BU or P 107 U1. Th first order was made in 1935. Two main variants of the P107 were accepted in French military service: a light prime mover for the 75 mm, short 105 mm Bourges and short 105 mm Schneider guns, a platform cargo transport for engineer units. A third version was delivered to transmission units. 1,274 examples were delivered before the war and 1,896 more were delivered until June 1940. 60 P 107s were ordered by Poland on 27 August 1939 but on 22 September they were recalled to France while en route to Poland.
During World War II, the Germans used these captured half-tracks extensively under the name leichter Zugkraftwagen 37 U304 to tow various anti-tank guns. With German half-tracks in short supply, Major Alfred Becker of the 21. Panzerdivision suggested converting captured French vehicles, he ordered the conversion of several hundred Unic half-tracks into leichter Schützenpanzerwagen. Vauvillier, François. L'automobile sous l'uniforme 1939-40. Massin. ISBN 2-7072-0197-9. Http://www.autogallery.org.ru/m/unicp107.htm
Simca was a French automaker, founded in November 1934 by Fiat and directed from July 1935 to May 1963 by Italian Henri Théodore Pigozzi. Simca was affiliated with Fiat and, after Simca bought Ford's French activities, became controlled by the Chrysler Group. In 1970, Simca became a subsidiary and brand of Chrysler Europe, ending its period as an independent company. Simca disappeared in 1978, when Chrysler divested its European operations to another French automaker, PSA Peugeot Citroën. PSA replaced the Simca brand with Talbot after a short period when some models were badged as Simca-Talbots. During most of its post-war activity, Simca was one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in France; the Simca 1100 was for some time the best-selling car in France, while the Simca 1307 and Simca Horizon won the coveted European Car of the Year title in 1976 and 1978, respectively—these models were badge engineered as products of other marques in some countries. For instance the Simca 1307 was sold in Britain as the Chrysler Alpine, the Horizon was sold under the Chrysler brand.
Simca vehicles were manufactured by Simca do Brasil in São Bernardo do Campo and Barreiros in Spain. They were assembled in Australia, Chile and the Netherlands during the Chrysler era. In Argentina, Simca had a small partnership with Metalmecánica SAIC for the production of the Simca Ariane in 1965. Henri Théodore Pigozzi was active in the automotive business in the early 1920s when he met Fiat founder, Giovanni Agnelli, they began business together in 1922 with Pigozzi acting as a scrap merchant, buying old automobile bodies and sending them to Fiat for recycling. Two years Pigozzi became Fiat's General Agent in France, in 1926 SAFAF was founded. In 1928, SAFAF started the assembly of Fiat cars in Suresnes near Paris, licensed the production of some parts to local suppliers. By 1934, as many as 30,000 Fiat cars were sold by SAFAF; the SIMCA company was founded in 1935 by FIAT, when Fiat bought the former Donnet factory in the French town of Nanterre. The first cars produced were Fiat 508 Balillas and Fiat 518 Arditas, but with Simca-Fiat 6CV and 11CV badges.
They were followed during 1936 by the Simca Cinq or 5CV, a version of the Fiat Topolino announced in the Spring, but only available for sale from October 1936. The Huit, an 8CV version of the Fiat 508C-1100, appeared in 1937. Production of the 6CV and 11CV stopped in 1937, leaving the 5CV and the 8CV in production until the outbreak of World War II; the firm remained connected with Fiat, it was not until 1938 that the shortened name "Simca" replaced "Simca-Fiat". Of the businesses that emerged as France's big four auto-makers after the war, Simca was unique in not suffering serious bomb damage to its plant. There were persistent suggestions that Henri Pigozzi's close personal relationship with the Agnelli family and Fiat's powerful political influence with the Mussolini government in Italy secured favourable treatment for Simca during the years when France fell under the control of Italy's powerful ally, Germany. Despite France being occupied, Simca cars continued to be produced in small numbers throughout the war.
Following the 1944 liberation, the company’s close association with Italy became an obvious liability in the feverish atmosphere of recrimination and new beginnings that swept France following four years of German occupation. Shortly after the liberation the Nanterre plant's financial sustainability received a boost when Simca won a contract from the American army to repair large numbers of Jeep engines. On 3 January 1946 the new government’s five-year plan for the automobile industry came into force. Government plans for Simca involved pushing it into a merger with various smaller companies such as Delahaye-Delage, Bernard and Unic so as to create an automobile manufacturing combine to be called “Générale française automobile”. With half an eye on the Volkswagen project across the Rhine, the authorities determined that GFA should produce the two door version of the “AFG”, a small family car, developed during the war by the influential automobile engineer, Jean-Albert Grégoire. Grégoire owed his influence to a powerfully persuasive personality and a considerable engineering talent.
Regarding the future of the French automobile industry, Grégoire held strong opinions, two of which favoured front-wheel drive and aluminium as a material for car bodies. A few weeks after the liberation Grégoire joined the Simca board as General Technical Director, in order to prepare for the production of the AFG at the company’s Nanterre factory. For Simca, faced with a determinedly dirigiste left-wing French government, the prospect of nationalisation seemed real. Simca’s long standing Director General, Henri Pigozzi, was obliged to deploy his considerable reserves of guile and charm in order to retain his own position within the company, it appears that in the end Pigozzi owed his survival at Simca to the intervention with the national politicians of his new board room colleague, Jean-Albert Grégoire. In return, Grégoire obtained the personal commitment of the surviving Director General to the production at Nanterre of his two-door AFG, it is easy to see how the two-door AFG looked, because its four-door equivalent went into