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Union of South Africa

The Union of South Africa is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, it included the territories that were a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was a signatory of the Treaty of Versailles and became one of the founding members of the League of Nations, it was conferred the administration of South West Africa as a League of Nations mandate. It became treated in most respects as another province of the Union, but it never was formally annexed. Like Canada and Australia, the Union of South Africa was a self-governing dominion of the British Empire, its full sovereignty was confirmed with the Balfour Declaration 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931. It was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with the Crown being represented by a governor-general.

The Union came to an end with the enactment of the constitution of 1961, by which it became a republic and left the Commonwealth. The Union of South Africa was a unitary state, rather than a federation like Canada and Australia, with each colony's parliaments being abolished and replaced with provincial councils. A bicameral parliament was created, consisting of the House of Assembly and Senate, with members of the parliament being elected by the country's white minority. During the course of the Union, the franchise changed on several occasions always to suit the needs of the government of the day. Parliamentary supremacy was a convention of the constitution, inherited from the United Kingdom. Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria, Parliament would be in Cape Town, the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein. Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg were given financial compensation.

The Union remained under the British Crown as a self-governing dominion of the British Empire. With the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the Union and other dominions became equal in status to the United Kingdom, the Parliament of the United Kingdom could no longer legislate on behalf of them; this had the effect of making the other dominions de jure sovereign nations. The Status of the Union Act, passed by the South African Parliament in 1934, incorporated the applicable portions of the Statute of Westminster into South African law, underscoring its status as a sovereign nation, it removed what remaining authority Whitehall had to legislate for South Africa, as well as any nominal role that the Crown had in granting Royal Assent. The Governor-General was now required to sign or veto bills passed by Parliament, without the option of seeking advice from London; the Monarch was represented in South Africa by a Governor-General, while effective power was exercised by the Executive Council, headed by the Prime Minister.

Louis Botha a Boer general, was appointed first Prime Minister of the Union, heading a coalition representing the white Afrikaner and English-speaking British diaspora communities. Prosecutions before courts were instituted in the name of the Crown and government officials served in the name of the Crown. An entrenched clause in the Constitution mentioned Dutch and English as official languages of the Union, but the meaning of Dutch was changed by the Official Languages of the Union Act, 1925 to include both Dutch and Afrikaans. Most English-speaking whites in South Africa supported the United Party of Jan Smuts, which favoured close relations with the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, unlike the Afrikaans-speaking National Party, which had held anti-British sentiments and was opposed to South Africa's intervention in the Second World War; some Nationalist organisations, like the Ossewa Brandwag, were supportive of Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Most English-speaking South Africans were opposed to the creation of a republic, many of them voting "no" in the 5 October 1960 referendum.

But due to the much larger number of Afrikaans-speaking voters, the referendum passed, leading to the establishment of a republic in 1961. The Afrikaner-dominated Government withdrew South Africa from the Commonwealth. Following the results of the referendum, some whites in Natal, which had an English-speaking majority, called for secession from the Union. Five years earlier, some 33,000 Natalians had signed the Natal Covenant in opposition to the plans for a republic. Subsequently, the National Party government had passed a Constitution that repealed the South Africa Act; the features of the Union were carried over with little change to the newly formed Republic. The decision to transform from a Union to Republic was narrowly decided in the referendum; the decision together with the South African Government's insistence on adhering to its policy of apartheid resulted in South Africa's de facto expulsion from the Commonwealth of Nations. The South Africa Act dealt with race in two specific provisions.

First it entrenched the liberal Cape Qualified Franchise system of the Cape Colony which operated free of any racial considerations. The Cape Prime Minister at t

List of pipeline accidents in the United States in 2001

The following is a list of pipeline accidents in the United States in 2001. It is one of several lists of U. S. pipeline accidents. See list of natural gas and oil production accidents in the United States; this is not a complete list of all pipeline accidents. For natural gas alone, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, a United States Department of Transportation agency, has collected data on more than 3,200 accidents deemed serious or significant since 1987. A "significant incident" results in any of the following consequences: fatality or injury requiring in-patient hospitalization $50,000 or more in total costs, measured in 1984 dollars liquid releases of 5 barrels or more releases resulting in an unintentional fire or explosion. PHMSA and the National Transportation Safety Board post incident data and results of investigations into accidents involving pipelines that carry a variety of products, including natural gas, diesel fuel, kerosene, jet fuel, carbon dioxide, other substances.

Pipelines are repurposed to carry different products. On January 4, 2001, Williams Gas Pipeline - Southcentral was notified that gas was heard blowing in a field 5 miles west of Shelby, Mississippi. Natural gas was leaking from an 18-inch diameter pipeline in Bolivar County. Property damage was confined to company facilities in a crop field where there were no dwellings along the pipeline corridor. Investigators uncovered the pipe to find a fracture about 30 inches long circumferentially in a wrinkle bend of the pipe, manufactured in 1940. On January 4, 2001, a circumferential split in a sharp wrinkle bend caused a leak in a 22-inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline in Harrisonville, Missouri; the pipe, owned by Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company, was manufactured in 1931. On January 15, 2001, at Lehi, Questar Gas Company received notification that a Questar line was blowing. A Questar employee arrived on-scene and found that the blowing 20-inch high pressure steel pipeline had been hit by a Caterpillar front end loader at an aboveground span that went about 20 feet across a ravine.

Investigation revealed that during the previous night, the front end loader had been stolen from a nearby sand and gravel pit. It is believed that the vandals hotwired the front end loader and used it to pull two trucks from the mud in the hills above the scene of the incident, they rolled the front end loader down the hill where it struck the pipeline and tore a 9-inch by 3-inch hole in the pipe. The total property damage was $300,838. On January 17 and 18, a series of gas explosion hit downtown Hutchinson, resulting in 2 deaths, 2 buildings being destroyed, it was discovered that gas was leaking from an underground gas storage cavern in the area. On March 22, 2001, at Eustis, Florida, a Florida Gas Transmission Company pipeline had a fire when venting gas from a 24-inch diameter pipeline ignited during a planned blowdown; the fire was extinguished. Damage from the fire was limited to company equipment, a backhoe, adjacent power lines; the cause of the gas ignition is not known. On April 1, a Dome Pipeline in North Dakota carrying gasoline ruptured and burst into flames a few miles west of Bottineau, North Dakota.

An estimated 1.1 million US gallons of gasoline burned before the pipeline could be shut down. The company attributed the break to damage by an "outside force", which a Bottineau County Sheriff said appeared to be frost that melted at uneven rates and breaking the pipeline. On April 14, a 6-inch petroleum productions failed near Harwood, North Dakota, spilling 40 barrels of fuel oil. There were no injuries; the failure was due to an ERW seam failure, with this particular pipeline having had other ERW seam failures in the past in 1987 and 1993. On April 13, 2001, at Glasco, dead vegetation was spotted on a flyover along a natural gas transmission pipeline right-of-way; the vegetation was killed by escaping gas. The cause of the leak was a split in a seam near a girth weld on a 36-inch diameter Kinder Morgan Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America line; the pipe was manufactured in 1960. On May 1, a MAPCO 10-inch propane pipeline burned, in Platte County, Missouri. 13,500 barrels of propane were burned.

On May 24 bulldozer being used in Taylor County, Texas hit a petroleum pipeline, causing a large petroleum fire. There were no injuries. On June 13, in Pensacola, Florida, at least ten persons were injured when two Gulf South Pipeline natural gas lines ruptured and exploded after a parking lot gave way beneath a cement truck at a car dealership; the blast sent chunks of concrete flying across a four-lane road, several employees and customers at neighboring businesses were evacuated. About 25 cars at the dealership and ten boats at a neighboring business were destroyed; the eight-inch diameter pipeline was installed in 1943. On July 8, 2001, a Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. pipeline at Corrine, West Virginia, was damaged by cataclysmic flooding of the Guyandotte River, which washed out 200 feet of pipe where it crossed over the river. Due to washed out roads and bridges and dangerous flooding in the area, it took 5 hours for the crew to reach shutoff valves on both sides of the washout. On July 24, a pipeline spread burning gasoline near Manheim, Pennsylvania.

On August 11, at 5:05 a.m. MST, an El Paso Natural Gas 24-inch gas transmission pipeline failed near Williams, resulting in the release of natural gas; the natural gas continued to discharge for about an hour before igniting. Stress corrosion cracking w

Nikolai Danielson

Nikolai Frantsevich Danielson was a Russian socio-political figure, publicist, one of the theoreticians of liberal populism. He is famous for translation of Das Kapital by Marx, being a writer on Russian economic development, he graduated from Commercial School in St. Petersburg, attended lectures in St. Petersburg's university. In the 1860s Danielson worked at the St Petersburg Mutual Credit Association. Mutual credit associations were often associated with utopian and social reform politics, during that period, he became involved in radical political circles and took interest in one of the populist narodnik movement. In 1872, Danielson published the first Russian translation of volume 1 of Das Kapital by Karl Marx; the translation had been initiated by Mikhail Bakunin before Bakunin's break with Marx and had been continued by German Lopatin. While completing the translation, Danielson initiated a correspondence with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which continued for the rest of their lives.

Danielson translated volumes 2 and 3 of Das Kapital, which were published in 1885 and 1896. In 1880 Danielson published the article "Studies of Our Post-Reform Economy" in issue 10 of the journal Slovo. Marx, who had taught himself Russian, commended it and encouraged Danielson to expand it into a book, which Danielson subsequently did; that book, bearing the same title, appeared in 1893. The book and the article on which it was based contained extensive statistical material on Russia's economic development. Danielson regarded himself as a Marxist, but was criticized by the self-proclaimed "orthodox" Marxists Georgi Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin and Peter Struve, among others. Danielson's critics grouped him with populist writers like Vasily Vorontsov and Nikolay Mikhaylovsky, but whereas Vorontsov claimed that the development of industrial capitalism in Russia was impossible for lack of markets and Mikhailovsky thought that it was possible but undesirable and preventable, Danielson argued that capitalist industrialisation was well under way in Russia by the 1890s.

The "orthodox" Marxists agreed with him in this. However, in the 1890s, Plekhanov and their associates argued that capitalism in Russia must follow the same course as capitalist development in Western Europe. Danielson believed that the "capitalist stage" of development could be foreshortened in Russia, since Russia's late development would allow it to adopt the latest western industrial technology without having to undergo the social evolution that had first produced it in the West; this theory went back to A. I. Herzen and N. G. Chernyshevsky and influenced the theoreticians of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, such as Victor Chernov, it anticipated Leon Trotsky's theory of "uneven and combined development". Danielson argued that capitalism was dispensable for further economic development, that industrialisation could continue on the basis of a socialist economy. Like the narodniks, he saw the surviving peasant village communes as potential nuclei for a socialist organisation of the Russian economy.

Plekhanov and Lenin denounced this as dangerous utopianism. In the early 1900s, Danielson was involved with the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party, but he did not play a active role in it, he withdrew after the "Azef affair" of 1908. Danielson seemed to have played no role in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Zverev, V. N. F. Danielson, V. P. Vorontsov: Dva portreta na fone russkogo kapitalizma. Moscow, 1997; the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition, Moscow, 1970–1979 Von Laue, Theodor H. "The Fate of Capitalism in Russia, the Narodnik Version." American Slavic and East European Reviev XIII, 11-28. Walici, A; the Controversy over Capitalism: Studies in the Social Philosophy of the Russian Populists. Notre Dame UP, 1989. Eaton, Henry, "Marx and the Russians." Journal of the History of Ideas, p. 89. Fedayashin, Anton A. "Humane Modernization as a Liberal Ideal: Late Imperial Russia on the Pages of theHerald of Europe, 1891–1904." The Historian Vol. 71, 2009, pp. 780–804. Lenin, V. I. “Po povodu tak nazyvaemogo voprosa o rynkakh.”

Poln. sobr. soch. 5th ed.. Vol. 1. Pp. 95–96, 98, 104, 119–20. Lenin, V. I. “Ekonomicheskoe soderzhanie narodnichestva i kritika ego v knige g. Struve.” Ibid. vol. 1. Lenin, V. I. “Chto takoe ’druz’ia naroda’ i kak oni voiuiut protiv sotsial-demokratov?" Ibid. vol. I, pp. 218–19, 243, 280, 282–83, 320–21. 335–38