Unitary authority

A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.

Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.

In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In England, "unitary authorities" are those local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not unitary authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation and not since given the status of a unitary authority. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.

Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils; the definitive description "unitary authority" is specific to England alone in UK legislation. Thus single-tier authorities elsewhere in the UK are not properly styled as unitary authorities. Northern Ireland is divided into eleven districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development.

Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions. The collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency. Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name; the Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle. While the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, the term can be encountered in a few official publication


Cusco spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province; the city is the seventh most populous in Peru, in 2017 it had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m; the city was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th century until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983, Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with the title "City of Cuzco", it has become a major tourist destination. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru; the indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language; the word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka, related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa flew to the site of the future city, they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him.

He returned and told Ayar Manco that from on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize, it is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave. The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times, though Cusco was used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time.

As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since the Spanish pronunciation of'z' is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years on 23 June 1990, the local authorities formalized a new spelling related more to Quechuan: Qosqo. There is no official spelling of the city's name. In English-language publications both "s" and "z" can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco"; the city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the earlier Spanish spelling. The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200 CE, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100 CE; the Inca expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century.

In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman. The temple covers some 2,700 square feet and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies, establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility. Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people, it was the capital of the Inca Empire. Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a sacred animal. How Cusco was built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: hanan; each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Antisuyu and Qullasuyu. A road led from each quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire; each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory.

After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives. Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death. According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu. Archaeological evidence, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti; the city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested that this city plan was replicat

Joseph Vaezian

Joseph Vaezian was an Iranian Armenian film producer and director. Vaezian was born in 1918 in the city of Kermanshah, he was a businessman before turning to cinema. Having an interest in art, he co-founded, with Aramais Aghamalian and Samuel Khachikian, the Armenian Troup Theater in 1947. Ten years he set up «Azhir Film Studio» with Khachikian and Shahrokh Rafie and started a new career as film producer. Storm in Our Town, produced by him and Rafi'e, was the first of 15 films he produced up to 1967. In the mid 1960s, he left Azhir Film to try his hands in other capacities, wrote and directed The Wandering Man, followed only by two films: Desperados and Fighting the Devil. Vaezian died in Tehran; as a producer1964 The Devil Is Knocking 1964 The Strike 1963 Victim of Sinful Desire 1962 Anxiety 1962 A Girl Is Screaming 1961 One Step to Death 1961 The Neighborhood Kids 1960 Lovers' Spring 1959 The Hill of Love 1959 In Search of a Groom 1958 A Messenger from HeavenAs a director1968 Az-jangozashtegan Joseph Vaezian on IMDb