Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage, its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung, non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, whether it is poetry or prose, it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as short story or drama. Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing.
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more inclusive notions. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover those writings that possess high quality or distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition; this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as "the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing." Problematic in this view is that there is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything can be literature, anything, universally regarded as literature has the potential to be excluded, since value judgments can change over time. The formalist definition is. Jim Meyer considers this a useful characteristic in explaining the use of the term to mean published material in a particular field, as such writing must use language according to particular standards; the problem with the formalist definition is that in order to say that literature deviates from ordinary uses of language, those uses must first be identified.
Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has been applied to spoken or sung texts. Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature. A French term for "a literary type or class". However, such classes are subject to change, have been used in different ways in different periods and traditions; the history of literature follows the development of civilization. When defined as written work, Ancient Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, are considered the world's oldest literatures; the primary genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts and prayers, tales—were written entirely in verse. Most Sumerian literature is poetry, as it is written in left-justified lines, could contain line-based organization such as the couplet or the stanza, Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras.
The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, the great Indian epics of a later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. Literature in all its forms can be seen as written records, whether the literature itself be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through things like characters' actions and words or the authors' style of writing and the intent behind the words; the plot is for more than just entertainment purposes. Studying and analyzing literature becomes important in terms of learning about human history. Literature provides insights about how society has evolved and about the societal norms during each of the different periods all throughout history. For instance, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we make sense of the past, it is asserted that both of these are "discourses, human constructs, signifying systems, both derive their major claim to truth from that identity."
Literature provides views of life, crucial in obtaining truth and in understanding human life throughout history and its periods. It explores the possibilities of living in terms of certain values under given social and historical circumstances. Literature helps us understand references made in more modern literature because authors reference mythology and other old religious texts to describe ancient civi
Iberville Parish, Louisiana
Iberville Parish is a parish located south of Baton Rouge in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,387, its seat is Plaquemine. The parish was formed in 1807. Iberville Parish is part of LA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the parish is named for Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. A few archeological efforts have been made in the Parish to excavate the Native American burial mounds that have been identified there; the first expedition, led by Clarence B. Moore, was an attempt at collecting data from a couple of the sites, it set the groundwork for projects. Moore was interested in the skeletal remains of the previous inhabitants, rather than excavating for archeological items. Archeologists are interested in these sites because of their uniformity and size; some of the mounds are a hundred feet wide and six feet tall. Most of them contain human remains. Iberville Parish is represented in the Louisiana State Senate by a Republican, attorney Rick Ward, III, a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, who has served in the Senate since 2012.
The parish is represented in the state House by Democrat Major Thibaut of Oscar in Pointe Coupee Parish. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 653 square miles, of which 619 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water. Interstate Highway 10 Louisiana Highway 1 Louisiana Highway 30 Louisiana Highway 69 Louisiana Highway 75 Louisiana Highway 76 Louisiana Highway 77 Pointe Coupee Parish West Baton Rouge Parish East Baton Rouge Parish Ascension Parish Assumption Parish Iberia Parish St. Martin Parish Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 33,387 people residing in the parish. 49.3% were Black or African American, 48.8% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 2.0% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 33,320 people, 10,674 households, 8,016 families residing in the parish; the population density was 54 people per square mile. There were 11,953 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the parish was 49.26% White, 49.70% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. 1.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,674 households, 36.20% of which contained children under age 18, 49.60% of which were married couples living together, 20.40% of which had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 21.90% of the households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.29. 26.20% of the population was under age 18. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $29,039, the median income for a family was $34,100. Males had a median income of $32,074 versus $20,007 for females.
The per capita income for the parish was $13,272. About 19% of families and 23% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30% of those under age 18 and 18% of those age 65 or over; the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections operates two prisons, Elayn Hunt Correctional Center and Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, in St. Gabriel in Iberville Parish. LCIW houses the female death row. Iberville Parish School Board operates the public schools within Iberville Parish. Iberville Parish Library operates libraries in the parish; the Parish Headquarters Library is located in Plaquemine. Branches include Bayou Pigeon, Bayou Sorrel, East Iberville, Grosse Tete, Rosedale, White Castle; the Gillis W. Long Center, located on the outskirts of Carville, LA, is operated by the Louisiana Army National Guard; this post is home to the 415TH MI Battalion, the 241ST MPAD, the 61st Troop Command. The 415TH MI is a subunit of the 139TH RSG. Plaquemine St. Gabriel Maringouin White Castle Grosse Tete Rosedale Bayou Goula Crescent Alhambra Bayou Pigeon Bayou Sorrel Dorcyville Iberville Indian Village Seymourville National Register of Historic Places listings in Iberville Parish, Louisiana Moon Griffon, radio talk show host born in Iberville Parish in 1961 Jessel Ourso, sheriff of Iberville Parish from 1964-1978.
Southern Cross of Honor
The Southern Cross of Honor was a commemorative medal created in 1899 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy to honor Confederate Veterans. Between 1900 and 1913, 78,761 were issued; the Southern Cross of Honor is in the form of a cross pattée suspended from a metal bar with space for engraving. The award has no cloth ribbon; the obverse displays the Confederate battle flag placed on the center thereof surrounded by a wreath, with the inscription UNITED DAUGHTERS CONFEDERACY TO THE U. C. V. on the four arms of the cross. The reverse of the medal is the motto of the Confederate States, DEO VINDICE and the dates 1861 1865 surrounded by a laurel wreath; the arms of the cross bear the inscription SOUTHERN CROSS OF HONOR. The medal was conceived by Mrs. Alexander S. Erwin, daughter of Confederate politician Howell Cobb, in 1898, she and Sarah E. Gabbett designed it; the first medal was issued on April 26, 1900, to Erwin's husband, Captain Alexander S. Erwin by the Athens Chapter. Charles W. Crankshaw of Atlanta, was chosen as the contractor to produce the medal.
Its first manufacturer was Schwaab Seal Co. of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1904 the contract was shifted to Hoag of Newark, New Jersey. Anna Davenport Raines was the Custodian of Crosses of Honor until her death in 1913. Though intended to end in 1913, after the issuance of 78,761 medals, in 1912 it was extended indefinitely; the program ended in 1959. The Southern Cross of Honor could only be bestowed through the United Daughters of the Confederacy, it could not be purchased. It was available to any branch of the Confederate military. Only living veterans were eligible; however the final award was given posthumously, in 1951 to Rear Adm. Raphael Semmes. At least 78,761 were awarded. Although no Civil War veterans are still living, the last verified Confederate veteran dying in 1951, Virginia Code section 18.2-176 remains in effect and makes it a Class 3 misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than US$500, to "wear any Southern Cross of Honor when not entitled to do so by the regulations under which such Crosses of Honor are given."An unofficial analog of the Union's GAR Medal, its wearing was never authorized on U.
S. military uniforms. The Southern Cross of Honor is used as an emblem or marker on the graves of Confederate veterans who served honorably; the cross is still available to be placed as an emblem on all United States Government-furnished headstones or markers. This emblem will only be issued by the U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs to be placed on the grave of a Confederate veteran. List of awards A Guide to the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Southern Cross of Honor Records, 1905-1941 at James Madison University Unidentified Civil War veteran in United Confederate Veterans uniform with Southern Cross of Honor medal at the Library of Congress
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas. The conflict was characterized by years of electoral fraud, raids and retributive murders carried out in Kansas and neighboring Missouri by pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" and anti-slavery "Free-Staters". At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether the Kansas Territory would allow or outlaw slavery, thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for popular sovereignty, requiring that the decision about slavery be made by the territory's settlers and decided by a popular vote. Existing sectional tensions surrounding slavery found focus in Kansas, with the pro-slavery element arguing that every settler had the right to bring his own property, including slaves, into the territory. Missouri, a slave state since 1821, was populated by a large number of settlers with Southern sympathies and pro-slavery attitudes, many of whom tried to influence the decision in Kansas.
The conflict was fought politically as well as between civilians, where it degenerated into brutal gang violence and paramilitary guerrilla warfare. The term "Bleeding Kansas" was popularized by Horace Greeley's New York Tribune. Bleeding Kansas was demonstrative of the gravity of the era's most pressing social issues, from the matter of slavery to the class conflicts emerging on the American frontier, its severity made national headlines which suggested to the American people that the sectional disputes were unlikely to reach compromise without bloodshed, it therefore directly presaged the American Civil War. Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state in January 1861, but partisan violence continued along the Kansas–Missouri border for most of the war; the episode is designated historic sites. As abolitionism became popular in the United States and tensions between its supporters and detractors grew, the U. S. Congress maintained a tenuous balance of political power between Northern and Southern representatives.
At the same time, the increasing emigration of Americans to the country's western frontier and the desire to build a transcontinental railroad that would connect the eastern states with California urged incorporation of the western territories into the Union. The inevitable question which arose asked how these territories would treat the issue of slavery when promoted to statehood; this question had plagued Congress during political debates following the Mexican–American War. The Compromise of 1850 had at least temporarily solved the problem by permitting residents of the Utah and New Mexico Territories to decide their own laws with respect to slavery by popular vote. In May 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act created from unorganized Indian lands the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska for settlement by U. S. citizens. The Act was proposed by Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois as a way to appease Southern representatives in Congress, who had resisted earlier proposals to organize the Nebraska Territory because they knew it must be admitted to the Union according to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had explicitly forbidden the practice of slavery in all U.
S. territory north of 36°30' latitude and west of the Mississippi River, except in the state of Missouri. Southerners feared this would upset the balance between slave and free states and thereby give abolitionist Northerners an advantage in Congress. Douglas' proposal attempted to allay these fears with the organization of two territories instead of one, as well as the inclusion of a clause that would, like the condition prescribed for Utah and New Mexico, permit settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the legality of slavery in their own territories – a notion which directly contradicted and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Like many others in Congress, Douglas assumed that settlers of Nebraska would vote to prohibit slavery and that settlers of Kansas, further south and closer to the slave state of Missouri, would vote to allow it, thereby the balance of slave and free states would not change. Regarding Nebraska this assumption was correct. In Kansas, the assumption of legal slavery underestimated abolitionist resistance to the repeal of the long-standing Missouri Compromise.
Southerners saw the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act as an emboldening victory. Each side of the slavery question saw a chance to assert itself in Kansas, it became the nation's prevailing ideological battleground. Immigrants supporting both sides of the slavery question arrived in the Kansas Territory to establish residency and gain the right to vote. Among the first settlers of Kansas were citizens of slave states Missouri, many of whom supported Southern ideologies and emigrated to secure the expansion of slavery. Pro-slavery immigrants settled towns including Atchison; the administration of President Franklin Pierce appointed territorial officials in Kansas aligned with its own pro-slavery views and, heeding rumors that the frontier was being overwhelmed by Northerners, thousands of non-resident slavery proponents soon entered Kansas with the goal o
Issues of the American Civil War
Issues of the American Civil War include questions about the name of the war, the tariff, states' rights and the nature of Abraham Lincoln's war goals. For more on naming, see Naming the American Civil War; the question of how important the tariff was in causing the war stems from the Nullification Crisis, South Carolina's attempt to nullify a tariff and lasted from 1828 to 1832. The tariff was low after 1846, the tariff issue faded into the background by 1860 when secession began. States' rights was the justification for nullification and secession; the most controversial right claimed by Southern states was the alleged right of Southerners to spread slavery into territories owned by the United States. Under Lincoln's leadership, the war was fought to preserve the Union. With slavery so divisive, Union leaders by 1862 reached the decision that slavery had to end in order for the Union to be restored. Union war evolved as the war progressed in response to political and military issues, historians do not use them to explain the causes of the war.
The key new issues were the elimination of slavery and the legal and economic status of the freed slaves. Slavery was the major cause of the American Civil War, with the South seceding to form a new country to protect slavery, the North refusing to allow that. Historians agree that other economic conflicts were not a major cause of the war. Economic historian Lee A. Craig reports, "In fact, numerous studies by economic historians the past several decades reveal that economic conflict was not an inherent condition of North-South relations during the antebellum era and did not cause the Civil War." When numerous groups tried at the last minute in 1860–61 to find a compromise to avert war, they did not turn to economic policies. The South and Northeast had quite different worldviews, they traded with each other and each became more prosperous by staying in the Union, a point many businessmen made in 1860–61. However, Charles A. Beard in the 1920s made a influential argument to the effect that these differences caused the war.
He saw the industrial Northeast forming a coalition with the agrarian Midwest against the Plantation South. Critics pointed out that his image of a unified Northeast was incorrect because the region was diverse with many different competing economic interests. In 1860–61, most business interests in the Northeast opposed war. After 1950, only a few mainstream historians accepted the Beard interpretation, though it was accepted by libertarian economists; as Historian Kenneth Stampp— who abandoned Beardism after 1950 — sums up the scholarly consensus: "Most historians...now see no compelling reason why the divergent economies of the North and South should have led to disunion and civil war. The Southerners in Congress set the federal tariffs on imported goods the low tariff rates in 1857. Controversy over whether slavery was at the root of the tariff issue dates back at least as far as the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. During the debate at Alton, Lincoln said that slavery was the root cause of the Nullification crisis over a tariff, while his challenger Stephen Douglas disagreed.
John C. Calhoun, who led South Carolina's attempt to nullify a tariff, supported tariffs and internal improvements at first, but came to oppose them in the 1820s as sectional tensions between North and South grew along with the sectional nature of slavery. Calhoun was a plantation owner. Calhoun said that slavery was the cause of the Nullification Crisis. While most leaders of Southern secession in 1860 mentioned slavery as the cause, Robert Rhett was a free trade extremist who opposed the tariff. However, Rhett was a slavery extremist who wanted the Constitution of the Confederacy to legalize the African Slave Trade. Republicans saw support for a Homestead Act, a higher tariff and a transcontinental railroad as a flank attack on the slave power. There were enough Southern Senators in the U. S. Senate to keep the tariff low after 1846; when the tariff was higher three decades before the war, only South Carolina revolted, the issue was nullification, not secession. The tariff was much lower by 1861.
When the Confederacy was formed it set a high 15% tariff on all imports, including imports from the United States. Historian Eric Foner has argued that a free-labor ideology dominated thinking in the North, which emphasized economic opportunity. By contrast, Southerners described free labor as "greasy mechanics, filthy operators, small-fisted farmers, moonstruck theorists", they opposed the proposed Homestead Acts that would give out free farms in the West, fearing the small farmers would oppose plantation slavery. Indeed, opposition to homestead laws was far more common in secessionist rhetoric than opposition to tariffs; the Union government set up the Freedmen's Bureau to supervise and protect the legal and economic status of the freed slaves. It operated across the former slave states 1865-1872. Proposals were made to seize Confederate property and give land to freedmen, but Congress never approved. Questions such as whether the Union was older than the states or the other way around fueled the debate over states' rights.
Whether the federal government was supposed to have substantial powers or whether it was a voluntary federation of sovereign states added to the controversy. According to historian Kenneth M. Stampp, each section used states' rights arguments whe
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, the opposite of selfishness. In a common way of living, it doesn't deny the singular nature of the subject, but realizes the traits of the individual personality in relation to the others, with a true and personal interaction with each of them, it is focusing both on the whole community. In a Christian practice, it is the law of love direct to his neighbour; the word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, meaning "other people" or "somebody else".
Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action, at a cost to themselves, but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, "intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards". Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to; the theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as "benefits"; the term altruism may refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others.
Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first. The concept has a long history in ethical thought; the term was coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, has become a major topic for psychologists, evolutionary biologists, ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is acting to help them. Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage called "Note on alms"; this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes: Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it.
This is the ancient morality of the gift. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness, offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children. Compare Altruism – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the science of ethology, more in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, courtship gifts, production of public goods, environmentalism. Theories of altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.
Some of the proposed mechanisms are: Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that altering photographs so that they more resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name if rare, this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study; this effect was strong for firstborns, who are close to their families. Vested interests. People are to suffer if their friends and similar social ingroups suffer or disappear. Helping such group members may therefore benefit the altruist.
Making ingroup membership more no