Bombardier CRJ700 series
The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, CRJ1000 are regional jet airliners manufactured by Bombardier and based on the CRJ100 and 200. Bombardier markets the trio of aircraft as the CRJ Series complementing its Bombardier Dash 8 twin turboprops marketed as the Q Series. Bombardier designed a larger plane, the C Series, but, now majority-owned by Airbus and marketed as the Airbus A220. Following the success of the CRJ100/200 series, Bombardier Aerospace produced larger variants in order to compete with larger regional aircraft such as the Fokker 70/Fokker 100 or the BAe 146 family, competed with the Embraer E-Jet family. In 1995, the CRJ-X development was expected to cost C$300 million. By 1999, Bombardier had invested C$650 million to develop the 70-seat CRJ700, was to invest C$200 million more to develop the CRJ-900, stretched to 90 seats; the CRJ700 was priced $24-25 million, the CRJ900 was to be priced $28-29 million. Final assembly of the aircraft is at Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, outside Montreal, Canada.
In 2007, Bombardier launched the CRJ900 NextGen to replace the initial version. Its improvements and conic nozzle enhances fuel economy by 5.5%. The new model has improved economics and a new cabin common to the CRJ700 NextGen and CRJ1000 NextGen. Mesaba Aviation, operating at the time as Northwest Airlink, was the launch customer, remains the largest operator of the CRJ900 NextGen; the Endeavor fleet of CRJ900 NextGen aircraft are configured in a two class seating configuration, with 12 first class seats and 64 coach seats. In 2008, the CRJ700 was replaced with the CRJ700 NextGen, featuring improved economics and a revised cabin common to the CRJ900 NextGen and CRJ1000 NextGen. In January 2011, SkyWest Airlines ordered four CRJ700 NextGen aircraft, it accounts for over 20% of all jet departures in North America and globally the family operates more than 200,000 flights per month. In 2016, Bombardier began offering a modernized cabin design for the CRJ Series with a more spacious entry, larger overhead bins, larger windows situated higher in the fuselage, newer seats, larger lavatories, upgraded lighting.
Maintenance intervals were extended to 800/8,000 hours. A checks every 800 flight hours and C checks every 8,000 start from summer 2018, a new conic engine nozzle boosts fuel efficiency by 1%; the 60-100-seat airliner market is forecast by Bombardier for 5,500 from 2018 through 2037. Re-engining the CRJ like the Embraer E-Jet E2 with new, more efficient engines like the GE Passport instead of the current GE CF34, would not overcome the certification expense as newer engines are larger and heavier, eroding fuel burn improvements on short regional routes; as of November 2018, following Bombardier's decisions to sell the CSeries to Airbus and the Q Series to Viking Air, the company is looking at "strategic options" to return the CRJ to profitability. Analysts suspect that it may decide to exit the commercial aircraft market altogether and refocus on business aircraft. Design work on the CRJ700 by Bombardier started in 1995 and the programme was launched in January 1997; the CRJ700 is a stretched derivative of the CRJ200.
The CRJ700 features a new wing with leading edge slats and a stretched and widened fuselage, with a lowered floor. Its first flight took place on 27 May 1999; the aircraft's FAA Type Certificate designation is the CL-600-2C10. The CRJ700 first entered commercial service with Brit Air in 2001. Seating ranges from 63 to 78; the CRJ700 comes in three versions: Series 700, Series 701, Series 702. The Series 700 is limited to 68 passengers, the 701 to 70 passengers, the 702 to 78 passengers; the CRJ700 has three fuel/weight options: standard, ER, LR. The ER version has an increase in fuel capacity as well as maximum weight, which in turn increases the range; the LR increases those values further. The executive version is marketed as the Challenger 870; the CRJ700 directly competes with the Embraer 170, which seats 70 passengers. The early build; however build aircraft are now equipped standard with the -8C5 model, an uprated 8C1. Most airlines have replaced the older engines with the newer model, while a few have kept the older -8C1 in their fleet.
Maximum speed is Mach 0.85 at a maximum altitude of 12,500 m. Depending upon payload, the CRJ700 has a range of up to 3,620 km with original engines, a new variant with CF34-8C5 engines will have a range of up to 4,660 km. On February 6, 2019, Bombardier launched the CRJ550, based on the CRJ700, with 50 seats in three classes; the launch customer, United Airlines, ordered 50 aircraft configured with 10 first class, 20 Economy Plus and 20 economy seats, to be delivered in 2019. The CRJ550 has a lower MTOW than the CRJ700 in order to comply with scope clauses in US pilot contracts, is expected to receive type certification in the second half of 2019; the initial 50 aircraft will be sourced from existing CRJ700 airframes, rather than being newly constructed. The CRJ900 is a stretched 76–90 seat version of the CRJ700; the airplane is loosely based on the CRJ200 series with a few major improvements. The first CRJ900 was modified from the prototype CRJ700 by adding longer fuselage plugs fore and aft of the wings.
It was converted into the prototype CRJ1000 by replacing the fuselage plugs with longer plugs. The CRJ900 competes with the Embraer 175, is more efficient per seat-mile, according to Bombardier. Mesa Air Group was the launch customer for the CRJ900 painted in America West livery; the FAA Type Certificate designation of the CRJ900 is the CL-600-2D
MileagePlus is the loyalty program of United Airlines and Aeromar that offers rewards to passengers traveling on certain types of tickets. Following the 2011 merger agreement between United Airlines and Continental Airlines, United Mileage Plus was chosen to be the frequent flyer program for the combined airline; the program was subsequently renamed to MileagePlus, maintains its relationship with its Star Alliance partners, as well as other airline and travel enterprise agreements. Following the integration and phase out of Continental OnePass on March 3, 2012, MileagePlus became the frequent flyer program for Copa Airlines and Copa Airlines Colombia; the new program member IDs follow the OnePass format in lieu of the old Mileage Plus format, any members who had existing OnePass member ID numbers retained their existing numbers. In March 2015, Copa Airlines announced that it would phase out the MileagePlus program in favor of a new frequent flyer program called ConnectMiles. Frequent flier programs were introduced in 1979 by Texas International Airlines.
Two years American Airlines launched their AAdvantage program, United's Mileage Plus was launched one week later. On June 29, 2011, United Airlines changed the name of the program from Mileage Plus to MileagePlus. On July 9, 2011, Tom Stuker became the first member of the MileagePlus program to reach ten million flown miles on United, he earned this distinction flying from Los Angeles to Chicago on flight 942. Jeff Smisek president and CEO of United Airlines, was on hand to congratulate him. For reaching the ten million mile number, he was given the only United Titanium Card and his name was placed on the side of a United Boeing 747-400. Stuker remains the world's most frequent flyer. Several controversial changes were introduced to the program in 2012, following the integration of the Continental OnePass program into MileagePlus; this included the reduction in bonus miles for Premier Gold and Premier Platinum members, as well as the inability of Premier Silver members to reserve Economy Plus seats until 24 hours prior to departure.
Changes have occurred to the upgrade process, where upgrades are being sold at check-in for prices as low as $69 when elites are still being processed on the upgrade waitlist. Million Mile Flyer George Lagen filed, in late May 2012, a class action against United for taking away or demoting "lifetime" benefits promised to pre-merger Million Mile Flyers. A federal judge dismissed the class-action lawsuit on the basis that the contract which regulated "Million Mile Flyer" customers was the same as for all MileagePlus members, which gave the airline the right to unilaterally reduce or discontinue benefits anytime it wanted to. In addition to United Airlines, all 28 members of the Star Alliance as well as a number of other airlines participate in the MileagePlus program to a certain degree. MileagePlus miles can be both earned and redeemed on flights with United, as well as any partner airline. However, certain booking classes on partner airlines are excluded from mileage accrual; the airline partners of MileagePlus are: MileagePlus miles can be redeemed for travel on any combination of United Airlines and United Express carriers, as well as Star Alliance partners and other airline partners.
MileagePlus offers Saver and Everyday awards, at different tiers of pricing with different capacity control mechanisms. Saver awards are capacity-controlled awards available for travel on all partner airlines; the release of saver award seats is dictated by the operating airline, who will make the award inventory available to all its partners, including United MileagePlus. On flights operated by United Airlines, additional saver award inventory is offered to Premier members, in addition to that offered to general members. Everyday awards are only available for travel on United and United Express, have greater availability than saver awards. "Everyday" awards cost two to three times as much as the equivalent "Saver" awards. Redeemable miles do not expire, provided that there is account activity within the previous 18 months. MileagePlus awards do not require round-trip travel. While status levels were not part of the MileagePlus program, they were introduced in 1987 to reward customers who had achieved certain qualification thresholds within a given calendar year.
All Premier members are eligible for Premier Access, which allows them to use exclusive check-in and security lines, as well as priority boarding and baggage retrieval. Members reach Premier status by earning the required number of Premier qualifying miles or Premier qualifying segments. Starting in 2014, members living in United States must in addition meet a minimum annual spending level, tracked as Premier Qualifying Dollars, on United issued tickets in a calendar year to qualify for a tier. Premier Silver status is the lowest status level in the MileagePlus program; this level includes access to Star Alliance Silver status. Premier Gold status is a mid-level status in the MileagePlus program; this is the lowest level status. Premier Platinum status is a upper level status in the MileagePlus program. Premier 1K status is the highest status of the MileagePlus Program. Status holders enjoy the highest upgrade access to a dedicated phone line. Global Services status is a level above Premier 1K, it is a secretive, by-invitation-only status level that provides discrete services to high value individuals that spend tens of thousands of dollars flying on United Airlines per year.
Members are top corporate executives and celebrities. The program was introduced in 20
Independence Air was a low-cost airline, owned by FLYi, Inc. headquartered in the Loudoun Gateway Corporate Center in Dulles, unincorporated Loudoun County, United States that operated from 1989 until 2006. Its route network focused on the East Coast of the United States, but it extended to the West Coast; the route network was based at Washington Dulles International Airport. It ceased all operations at 8:24 p.m. UTC-5 on January 5, 2006; the airline had been in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy since November 7, 2005. There had been discussion of a last-minute deal that could save the airline, but that did not happen. Independence Air started life as Atlantic Coast Airlines on December 15, 1989, operating feeder services as United Express for United Airlines and Delta Connection for Delta Air Lines. After United withdrew the contract when the ACA labor and management would not agree to the concessions it requested, Atlantic Coast reinvented itself as low-cost carrier Independence Air, it was announced on November 19, 2003, operations as Independence Air began on June 16, 2004.
At its inception, it was unique among low-cost carriers in that its fleet consisted of 50-seat regional jets, although the airline introduced larger Airbus A319 equipment. It was based at Washington Dulles International Airport and contributed to Dulles's substantial increase in passenger use, bringing one million new customers to the airport in its first three months of operation; the airline was credited with helping to reduce fares to and from the airport. From the beginning, the airline faced criticism; some believed that it expanded too had a poor fleet mix and did not have the resources to compete with the legacy airlines, who despite their own financial troubles, would match the fares offered by Independence. Further, industry experts believed that the reasons behind the airline's failure were not problems with the low-cost strategy, but miscues on the part of airline management. Atlantic Coast's / Independence Air's former partner at Dulles, United Airlines, responded vigorously to Independence Air's emergence as a stand-alone carrier by leveraging Washington area passenger loyalty to the United Mileage Plus frequent flyer program.
United offered its Mileage Plus members substantial bonuses, including free trips around the world on United and other Star Alliance carriers. Problems, including flights flying far below capacity, were identified in October 2004, less than six months following the airline's launch as the parent company attempted to avoid bankruptcy. On May 20, 2004 prior to its inaugural flight, Independence Air signed a deal with the Washington Redskins to become the official airline sponsor of the team for three years. In the summer of 2005, the airline offered the GLiDE Summer Travel Pass for college students. Upon paying $250, the customer would be able to fly at no cost from May 1-Aug 31, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays & Saturdays; this move was meant not to bring in revenue, but to try to fill seats that otherwise would have flown empty. This promotional tool was not enough to prevent trouble, due in part to the airline losing $150 million in its two years of operation. Independence Air became known for the humorous touches it added to the flying experience, such as replacing the flight attendant safety announcements with prerecorded versions of the warnings by celebrities such as James Carville and Mary Matalin.
They attracted attention from their partnership with the Laugh Factory and the use of former baggage handler Dave George as "the Flyi Guy" — the airline's resident comedian. Independence Air invested in a fleet of 20 promotional vehicles, dubbed "Jet Trucks". Modified pickup trucks were painted in the airline's livery and featured an aircraft tail attached to the truck's bed. Jet Trucks were featured at all promotional events and activities, where employees would hand out information and branded giveaways. Rather than having these vehicles sit in the headquarters office parking lot between events, 10 trucks were allocated for employee use to increase public exposure. Independence Air had its headquarters in Loudoun Gateway III in the Loudoun Gateway Corporate Center in Dulles, unincorporated Loudoun County, Virginia; the facility is located at the intersection of Virginia Route 28 and Virginia Route 606, 1 mile north of the Dulles Toll Road and near Washington Dulles International Airport. The three-story, 76,557 square feet building has an about 25,000 RSF floor plate.
The entire Loudoun Gateway Corporate Center has about 38.6 acres of space. Grubb & Ellis had leased 76,982 square feet of the building to Atlantic Coast Airlines. From the airline's beginning, its fleet mix was cited as one of the causes of its financial troubles. Independence Air's fleet flowed in an attempt to stay in business. In February 2005, the airline canceled the lease on more than 20 Bombardier CRJ200 jets and British Aerospace Jetstream 41 turbo-prop planes. After its emergence as an independent brand name, Independence Air became known for offering low airfares: as little as $29 one-way to Florida from Washington Dulles International Airport. However, the company never overcame a series of financial problems during its transition, its decline started only six months after its launch. In Febru
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
SkyWest Airlines is a North American regional airline headquartered in St. George, Utah. SkyWest is classified as one of the major airlines of the United States. However, as a regional airline it serves as and operates for other major air carriers via code sharing agreements that it has contracted with such as American, Delta and United. SkyWest is paid to operate and maintain aircraft used on flights that are scheduled and priced by a partner mainline airline. In all, it is the largest regional airline in North America when measured by fleet size, number of passengers carried, number of destinations served between all the airlines it contracts with. SkyWest operates an average of more than 2,200 flights per day to 250+ cities in the United States, Canada and the Bahamas with an extensive network of routes set up to connect passengers between smaller airports and the large hubs of its partner airlines. In total, SkyWest carried 35.9 million passengers in 2017. Under various contracts, the company operates an average of 897 flights per day as Delta Connection on behalf of Delta Air Lines, 812 flights per day as United Express on behalf of United Airlines, 332 flights per day as American Eagle on behalf of American Airlines, 144 flights per day as Alaska SkyWest in partnership with Alaska Airlines.
The vast majority of SkyWest’s contracts are fixed-fee, with partner airlines paying a set amount for each flight operated, regardless of the number of passengers carried. The remaining 7% of flights are operated under a pro-rate contract, with SkyWest assuming all costs, setting fares, retaining all revenue from non-connecting passengers, splitting the fares of connecting passengers on a pro-rated basis with the partner airline. SkyWest operates on a pro-rate basis on 68 routes across 10 hubs through agreements with American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines. SkyWest is owned by Inc. an airline holding company. SkyWest provides contract ground handling services at airports across the United States. Frustrated by the limited extent of existing air service, Ralph Atkin, a St. George, Utah lawyer, purchased Dixie Airlines to shuttle businessmen to Salt Lake City in 1972. After early struggles, SkyWest began a steady expansion across the western U. S, it became the eleventh largest regional carrier in 1984 when it acquired Sun Aire Lines of Palm Springs and had its initial public offering in 1986.
In 1985, SkyWest began codesharing as Western Express, a feeder service for Western Airlines at its Salt Lake City hub and other mainline Western destinations utilizing Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia and Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner turboprop aircraft. Following the acquisition and merger of Western by Delta Air Lines in 1986, SkyWest became a Delta Connection air carrier with code share service being flown on behalf of Delta to destinations in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and Wyoming. In 1995, SkyWest began operating flights for Continental Airlines out of LAX; the relationship was discontinued two years when SkyWest began flying for United Airlines. SkyWest's United Express flights out of SFO, LAX and DEN became its largest operation by the late 1990s. A partnership with Continental was revived in 2003 out of George Bush Intercontinental Airport, but was discontinued in June 2005. On August 15, 2005, Delta sold Atlantic Southeast Airlines to the newly incorporated SkyWest, Inc. for $425 million in cash.
The acquisition was completed on September 8, 2005. On August 4, 2010, SkyWest, Inc. announced that it planned to acquire ExpressJet Airlines and merge it with SkyWest subsidiary Atlantic Southeast Airlines in a deal reported to have a value of $133 million. The purchase aligned the largest commuter operations of United Airlines and Continental Airlines, who were in a merger process, was approved on September 13, 2010, by the Federal Trade Commission. In May 2011, SkyWest replaced six Horizon Air flights on the West Coast being operated for Alaska Airlines; the flights were based out of Seattle and Portland, fly to several California cities including Fresno, Santa Barbara and Ontario. Alaska Airlines has similar agreements with PenAir for Alaskan flights and Horizon Air for flights in the lower 48. On September 6, 2011, AirTran Airways ended its partnership with SkyWest. Shortly after, SkyWest began a codesharing agreement with US Airways to operate CRJ200 aircraft from US Airways' hub in Phoenix, Arizona.
On November 15, 2012, SkyWest began a capacity purchase agreement with American Airlines for 12 CRJ200 aircraft from American's hub in Los Angeles, California. On September 6, 2017, SkyWest Airlines reported that it has entered into aircraft purchase agreements and capacity purchase agreements to acquire and fly 15 new aircraft with Delta Air Lines and 10 new aircraft with Alaska Airlines. Of the 25 aircraft, 15 Embraer E175 SC aircraft will fly under an agreement with Delta in a 70-seat configuration; the E175 SC aircraft can be retrofitted to 76 seats in the future. The agreement with Alaska includes 10 Embraer E175s, which will be configured with 76 seats, similar to aircraft SkyWest has placed into service with Alaska. Expected delivery dates of the 25 aircraft run from March 2018 through the end of 2018. On December 18, 2018, SkyWest, Inc. announced that it would sell ExpressJet Airlines to another airline holding company with ties to United Airlines, ExpressJet's sole client. The 70 million dollar deal closed on January 23, 2019.
SkyWest flies to 251 destinations throughout North America including Denver International Airport, Salt Lake City International Airport, San Francisco International Airport
Oscar Munoz (executive)
Oscar Munoz is an American businessman. He was named president and chief executive officer of United Airlines on September 8, 2015. At the time of this appointment, Munoz had been serving as a member of the board of directors of parent company United Continental Holdings since its formation with the 2010 merger between United and Continental. Munoz had been a member of Continental's board of directors since 2004. On August 29, 2016, in a newly created role, United announced Scott Kirby as its president, with Muñoz being the CEO of the airline. On March 2017, Munoz was named "Communicator of the Year for 2017" by PRWeek; the following month Munoz received widespread criticism for his handling of the issues after a ticketed passenger was forcibly removed from United Airlines Flight 3411, leading Steve Barrett, Editor-in-chief of PRWeek US, to state "if PRWeek was choosing its Communicator of the Year now, we would not be awarding it to Oscar Munoz … In time, the episode and subsequent response will be quoted in textbooks as an example of how not to respond in a crisis."
Subsequently, on April 21, 2017, UCH announced that Munoz would remain chief executive officer of the airlines but would "not take broader control of the company as planned." Munoz had been scheduled to assume the role of chairman of the board of UCH at the company's 2018 annual stockholders' meeting. Munoz was born in January 1959, the oldest of nine children in a Mexican-American family living in California, was the first in his family to graduate from college. Munoz earned a BS in business from the University of Southern California, an MBA from Pepperdine University. Munoz was president of CSX Corporation during 2015 and its chief operating officer from 2012 to 2015. From 2001 to 2003, Munoz served as the chief financial officer and vice president of consumer services at AT&T. Munoz had worked for Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo Inc.. Munoz has twice been named among the "100 Most Influential Hispanics" by Hispanic Business magazine. In March 2017, he was named "Communicator of the Year for 2017" by PRWeek.
On April 9, 2017, Chicago O'Hare Airport security removed four passengers from United Express Flight 3411 to make space for four employees who were deadheading to another flight. Three of the passengers left the airplane without incident, but the fourth, Dr. David Dao, refused to leave the seat he had paid for. Chicago Department of Aviation Police officers were called to remove Dao, which they accomplished by first slamming his face into the arm rest and dragging the injured and bleeding man from the aircraft; the following day, an official response from United Airlines, attributed to Munoz, apologized "for having to re-accommodate these customers" without mentioning Dao's injuries. In an email to United employees, Munoz stated that he stood behind employees for having "followed established procedures" and said that Dao was "disruptive and belligerent". Videos depicting the incident and Dao's injuries were circulated, United Airline's shares declined. In a second press release on April 11, more sensitive to public opinion, Munoz "deeply apologize to the customer forcibly removed and to all other customers aboard."Munoz's handling of the incident was described by various critics as a "fumbling response," a "major disappointment," and a "sort of a self-immolation makes you wonder about his choice as CEO."
Munoz was under pressure from activist shareholders to improve United's performance, including its customer relations, after he took charge of the airline in 2015. However, analysts remained confident of future performance. Munoz suffered a heart attack on October 2015, a month after becoming CEO of United Airlines. On January 5, 2016, he received a heart transplant and returned to work in March 2016. Munoz is married to Cathy.
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o