SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

United Grand Lodge of England

The United Grand Lodge of England is the governing Masonic lodge for the majority of freemasons in England and the Commonwealth of Nations. Claiming descent from the Masonic grand lodge formed 24 June 1717 at the Goose & Gridiron Tavern in London, it is considered to be the oldest Masonic Grand Lodge in the world. Together with the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the Grand Lodge of Ireland, they are referred to by their members as "the home Grand Lodges" or "the Home Constitutions". Prior to 1717 there were Freemasons' lodges in England and Ireland, with the earliest known admission of non-operative masons being in Scotland. On St John's Day, 24 June 1717, three existing London lodges and a Westminster lodge held a joint dinner at the Goose and Gridiron alehouse in St. Paul's Churchyard, elected Anthony Sayer to the chair as Grand Master, called themselves the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster; the City of London Corporation has erected a Blue Plaque near the location. Little is known of Sayer save that he was described as a Gentleman when he became Grand Master, but fell on hard times, receiving money from the Grand Lodge charity fund.

In 1718 Sayer was succeeded by a successful Civil Servant. The society passed into the care of John Theophilus Desaguliers, a scientist and clergyman back to Payne. In 1721, the Grand Lodge managed to obtain a nobleman, the Duke of Montagu to preside as Grand Master, so was able to establish itself as an authoritative regulatory body, began meeting on a quarterly basis; this resulted in lodges outside London becoming affiliated, accepting sequentially numbered warrants conferring seniority over applicants. In 1723, by authority of the Grand Lodge, James Anderson published the Constitutions of Masonry for the purposes of regulating the craft and establishing the Grand Lodge's authority to warrant Lodges to meet; the book includes a fanciful history of the Craft, which contains much interesting material. Throughout the early years of the new Grand Lodge there were any number of Masons and lodges that never affiliated with the new Grand Lodge; these unaffiliated Masons and their Lodges were referred to as "Old Masons", or "St. John Masons", "St. John Lodges".

During the 1730s and 1740s antipathy increased between the London Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland. Irish and Scots Masons visiting and living in London considered the London Grand Lodge to have deviated from the ancient practices of the Craft; as a result, these Masons felt a stronger kinship with the unaffiliated London Lodges. The aristocratic nature of the London Grand Lodge and its members alienated other Masons causing them to identify with the unaffiliated Lodges. On 17 July 1751, representatives of five Lodges gathered at the Turk's Head Tavern, in Greek Street, Soho and formed a rival Grand Lodge – "The Grand Lodge of England According to the Old Institutions", they considered that they practiced a more ancient and therefore purer form of Masonry, called their Grand Lodge The Ancients' Grand Lodge. They called those affiliated to the Premier Grand Lodge, by the pejorative epithet The Moderns; these two unofficial names stuck. The creation of Lodges followed the development of the Empire, with all three home Grand Lodges warranting Lodges around the world, including the Americas and Africa, from the 1730s.

In 1809 the Moderns appointed a "Lodge of Promulgation" to return their own ritual to regularity with Scotland and the Ancients. In 1811 both Grand Lodges appointed Commissioners and over the next two years, articles of Union were negotiated and agreed. In January 1813 the Duke of Sussex became Grand Master of the Moderns on the resignation of his brother, the Prince Regent, in December of that year another brother, Duke of Kent became Grand Master of the Antients. On 27 December 1813 the United Grand Lodge of England was constituted at Freemasons' Hall, London with the Duke of Sussex as Grand Master. A Lodge of Reconciliation was formed to reconcile the rituals worked under the two former Grand Lodges; the new Grand Master had high hopes for Freemasonry, having a theory that it was pre-Christian and could serve the cause of humanity as a universal religion. However, his autocratic dealings with ordinary lodges won him few friends outside London, sparked open rebellion and a new Grand Lodge of Wigan in the North West.

Within Grand Lodge, opposition centred on Masonic Charity. Robert Crucefix launched the Freemason's Quarterly Review to promote charity to keep Freemasons from the workhouse, to engage masons in the broader argument for social reform; the Earl of Zetland's complacent and inept management of Grand Lodge played into the hands of the reformers, by the end of the 1870s English Freemasonry had become a perfect expression of the aspirations of the enlightened middle classes. In response to conspiracy theories about Freemasons and hostile views gaining new life, due to the works of Stephen Knight and Martin Short, the United Grand Lodge of England began to change the way it dealt with the general public and the media from the mid-1990s, emphasizing a new "openness." This presentation was summed up by Provincial Secretary of East Lancashire, Alan Garnett who declared, "we're not a secret society or a society with secrets, but we are a private society." Lodges across England and Wales began holding open days, to allow the general public to see what they do.

Freemasons' Hall and the Library and Museum of Freemasonry opened to the general public, including guided tours. Today, the United Grand Lodge of England or Grand Lodge has over 200,000 members meeting in over 6,800 Lodges, organised into a number

Leadership (newspaper)

Leadership is a Nigerian daily national newspaper. It was established in October 2004 and is published by Leadership Newspaper Group based in Abuja, Nigeria. On its website, the paper asserts: "We shall stand up for good governance. We shall defend the interests of the Nigerian state against its leaders and we shall raise our pen at all times in defence of what is right; these are the values by which we intend to be assessed". On 9 January 2007 a dozen State Security Service agents stormed the Leadership offices and arrested general manager Abraham Nda-Isaiah, editor Bashir Bello Akko and journalist Abdulazeez Sanni; the cause was an article written by journalist Danladi Ndayebo that discussed the political maneuvers in the ruling People's Democratic Party party that led to nomination of Umaru Musa Yar'Adua as presidential candidate. On 6 May 2008 a squad of armed, plain-clothed policemen from the Niger State Command raided the Leadership head office and arrested the deputy editor, Danladi Ndayebo without any warrant.

According to the editor, Prince Charles Dickson, the cause was a feature article said to have defamed the character of Senator Isa Mohammed. In December 2009, the Nigerian Union of Journalists named Leadership "Newspaper of the Year"; the award was accepted by its Group Executive Director. In a restructuring effective 1 January 2011, Azubuike Ishiekwene was appointed the first managing director of Leadership Newspapers, while Abraham Nda-Isaiah became managing director of Leadership Holdings. Ishiekwene had been editor of The Punch, managing director of that newspaper. In the April 2011 elections Golu Timothy, a former editor of the newspaper, was elected to the State House of Assembly in the Kanke Constituency of Plateau State, he ran on the PDP platform. Golu was reported to be seeking the position of Speaker in the Plateau House of Assembly. On July 17, 2013, the Leadership reprinted the writer Shai Afsai’s photographs and first-person article “Igbo Jews of Nigeria Strive to Study and Practice” under the title “Igbo-Jews Of Nigeria Study And Practise Judaism,” citing the Leadership’s Igho Oyoyo as its author.

After being threatened with legal action by the New English Review's editor, the Leadership issued an apology for the plagiarism and a corrected byline, ten days later

Make Way (The Kingston Trio album)

Make Way is the ninth album by the American folk music group the Kingston Trio, released in 1961. It reached number two on the Billboard charts, despite there being no US singles released from the album.. In his Allmusic review, critic Bruce Eder called the album "...a beautiful if low-key selection of a dozen songs traditional tunes adapted by the group" despite noting that the liveliest songs were misplaced on the album's track sequence." Make Way was reissued in 1992 on CD by Capitol with Goin' Places. In 1997, all of the tracks from Make Way were included in The Guard Years 10-CD box set issued by Bear Family Records. Make Way was reissued in 2001 by Collectors' Choice Music with Goin' Places; this reissue has three bonus tracks: "The Golden Spike", "The Wines of Madeira" and "Don't You Weep, Mary". "En El Agua" "Come All You Fair and Tender Ladies" "A Jug of Punch" "Bonny Hielan' Laddie" "Utawena" "Hard Travelin'" "Hangman" "Speckled Roan" "The River is Wide" "Oh, Yes, Oh" "Blow the Candle Out" "Blue Eyed Gal" Dave Guardvocals, guitar Bob Shane – vocals, guitar Nick Reynolds – vocals, tenor guitar, conga David "Buck" Wheatbass, guitar Mongo Santamaríapercussion on "Utawena" Willie "Bobo" Colon – percussion on "Utawena" Kingston Trio Timeline