Busan known as Pusan and now Busan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's second most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million inhabitants. It is the economic and educational center of southeastern Korea, with its port—Korea's busiest and the 9th-busiest in the world—only about 120 miles from the Japanese islands of Kyushu and Honshu; the surrounding "Southeast Economic Zone" is now South Korea's largest industrial area. Busan is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single county, together housing a population of 3.6 million. The full metropolitan area, including the adjacent cities of Gimhae and Yangsan, has a population of 4.6 million. The most densely built-up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong and the Suyeong Rivers, with mountains separating most of the districts; the Nakdong is Korea's longest river and Busan's Haeundae Beach is the country's largest. Busan is a center for international conventions, hosting APEC in 2005.
It is a center for sports tournaments in Korea, having hosted the 2002 Asian Games and FIFA World Cup. It is home to the Shinsegae Centum City. Busan was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network as a "City of Film" in December 2014; the name "Busan" is the Revised Romanization of the city's Korean name since the late 15th century. It replaced the earlier McCune-Reischauer romanization Pusan in 2000; the name 釜山 is Sino-Korean for "Cauldron Mountain", believed to be a former name of Mt Hwangryeong west of the city center. The area's ancient state Mt Geochil is thought to refer to the same mountain, which towers over the town's harbor on the Suyeong. Paleolithic remains found in the Jung-dong district and Jwa-dong district in Haeundae shows a history of Busan beginning in the prehistoric age. In addition, neolithic relics were discovered in shell mounds in Dongsam-dong, a shell mound dating between the BCE era to the 3rd Century A. D. was found in the Dongnae district. Mt Geochil is recorded as a chiefdom of the Jinhan Confederacy in the 2nd–4th centuries.
It was organized as a district. The grave goods excavated from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dong indicate that a complex chiefdom ruled by powerful individuals was present in the Busan area in the 4th century, just as Korea's Three Kingdoms were forming; the mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day Dongnae-gu and Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong. From the beginning of the 15th century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished but the Busan settlement continued until Japan invaded Korea in 1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in Japan were established in 1607, Busan was permitted to be reconstructed; the Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876.
In 1876, Busan became the first international port in Korea under the terms of the Treaty of Ganghwa. During the Japanese rule, Busan developed into a hub trading port with Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway before electrification was introduced in 1924. During the Korean War, Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea not captured by the North Korean army within the first three months of the war, the other being Daegu; as a result, the cities became refugee camp sites for Koreans during the war. As Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the control of South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong urban character. In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City.
In 1983, the provincial capital of Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from Busan to Changwon. In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City. Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula, it is located on the coast. It is the nearest of South Korea's six largest cities to Japan; the distance as the crow flies from Busan to Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, is about 49.5 km, to Fukuoka, about 180 km, by contrast, to Seoul about 314 km. Busan borders low mountains on the north and west, the seas on the south and east; the Nakdong River Delta is located on the west side of the city, Geumjeongsan, the highest mountain in the city, on the north. The Nakdong River, South Korea's longest river, flows through the west and empties into the Korea Strait; the southeastern region, called Yeongnam in Korea, encompasses both Gyeongsang Provinces and 3 metropolitan cities of Busan and Ulsan. Ulsan lies northeast of Busan. Combined population exceeds 13 million. Located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan has a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate.
High or low temperatures are rare. The highe
Sanctions against North Korea
A number of countries and international bodies have imposed sanctions against North Korea. Many sanctions are concerned with North Korea's nuclear weapons program and were imposed after its first nuclear test in 2006; the United States imposed sanctions in the 1950s and tightened them further after international bombings against South Korea by North Korean agents during the 1980s, including the Rangoon bombing and the bombing of Korean Air Flight 858. In 1988, the United States added North Korea to its list of state sponsors of terrorism. Sanctions against North Korea started to ease during the 1990s when South Korea's then-liberal government pushed for engagement policies with the North; the Clinton administration signed the Agreed Framework with North Korea in 1994. However, the relaxing of economic sanctions was short-lived. North Korea continued its nuclear program and withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003, causing countries to reinstate various sanctions. UN Security Council Resolutions were passed after North Korea conducted nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016, 2017.
Sanctions were focused on trade bans on weapons-related materials and goods but expanded to luxury goods to target the elites. Further sanctions expanded to cover financial assets, banking transactions, general travel and trade; the UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions since North Korea's first nuclear test in 2006. Resolution 1718, passed in 2006, demanded that North Korea cease nuclear testing and prohibited the export of some military supplies and luxury goods to North Korea; the UN Security Council Sanctions Committee on North Korea was established, supported by the Panel of Experts. Resolution 1874, passed after the second nuclear test in 2009, broadened the arms embargo. Member states were encouraged to inspect ships and destroy any cargo suspected of being related to the nuclear weapons program. Resolution 2087, passed in January 2013 after a satellite launch, strengthened previous sanctions by clarifying a state's right to seize and destroy cargo suspected of heading to or from North Korea for purposes of military research and development.
Resolution 2094, passed in March 2013 after the third nuclear test, imposed sanctions on money transfers and aimed to shut North Korea out of the international financial system. Resolution 2270, passed in March 2016 after the fourth nuclear test, further strengthened existing sanctions, it banned the export of gold, vanadium and rare earth metals. The export of coal and iron were banned, with an exemption for transactions that were purely for "livelihood purposes." Resolution 2321, passed in November 2016, capped North Korea's coal exports and banned exports of copper, nickel and silver. In February 2017, a UN panel said that 116 of 193 member states had not yet submitted a report on their implementation of these sanctions, though China had. Resolution 2371, passed in August 2017, banned all exports of coal, iron and seafood; the resolution imposed new restrictions on North Korea's Foreign Trade Bank and prohibited any increase in the number of North Koreans working in foreign countries. Resolution 2375, passed on 11 September 2017, limited North Korean crude oil and refined petroleum product imports.
Resolution 2397, passed on 22 December 2017 after the launch of a Hwasong-15 intercontinental ballistic missile, limited North Korean crude oil and refined petroleum product imports to 500,000 barrels per year, banned the export of food and electrical equipment, called for the repatriation of all North Korean nationals earning income abroad within 24 months. The resolution authorized member states to seize and inspect any vessel in their territorial waters found to be illicitly providing oil or other prohibited products to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. United Nations agencies are restricted in the aid they can give to North Korea because of the sanctions, but they can help with nutrition, health and sanitation. In February 2017, China announced. China has banned exports of some petroleum products and imports of textiles from North Korea in line with United Nations sanctions. From 1950 to 2008, trade between the United States and North Korea was restricted under the US Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917.
After 2008, some restrictions related to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act stayed in effect. In February 2016, the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016 was passed which: requires the President to sanction entities found to have contributed to North Korea's weapons of mass destruction program, arms trade, human rights abuses, or other illegal activities. Imposes mandatory sanctions on entities involved in North Korea's mineral or metal trade, which comprises a large part of North Korea's foreign exports. Requires the US Treasury Department to determine whether North Korea should be listed as a "primary money laundering concern," which would trigger tough new financial restrictions. Imposes new sanctions authorities related to North Korean human rights and cybersecurity abuse. In July 2017, after the death of tourist Otto Warmbier, the United States government banned US citizens from visiting North Korea without special validation starting 1 September 2017. In August 2017, the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act was passed.
On 21 September 2017, President Donald Trump issued Executive Order 13810 allowing the United States to cut from its financial system or freeze assets of any companies, businesses and individuals tradin
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 498
The United Nations General Assembly resolution 498 was approved on February 1, 1951, in response to the intervention of Chinese troops in Korean War. It was the first time. In late 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops crossed into North Korea to help the troops of North Korea to fight the coalition led by United States and South Korea; the General Assembly vote followed unsuccessful attempts by the U. S. delegation to the United Nations to have the Security Council take action against the Chinese. Exercising his nation's veto power, the Soviet representative on the Security Council blocked the U. S. effort. Turning to the General Assembly, the U. S. delegation called for the United Nations to condemn communist China as an aggressor in Korea. The resolution had 3 main points: The aggression of the People's Republic of China is condemned The Chinese troops are exhorted to leave Korea The United Nations member states are exhorted to continue supporting the U. N. troops in Korea For Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Republic of China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Israel, Liberia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Philippines, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela.
Against Burma, Byelorrusian SSR, India, Ukrainian SSR, USSR. Abstentions Afghanistan, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yugoslavia; the action was symbolic, because many nations were reluctant to take more forceful action against the People's Republic of China for fear that the conflict in Korea would escalate. While economic and political sanctions could have been brought against China, the United Nations decided to take no further action; the Korean War continued for 2 more years ending in a stalemate and an armistice in 1953. United Nations General Assembly resolution United Nations Security Council resolution
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force, formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 12 June 2009. The resolution, passed under Chapter VII, Article 41, of the UN Charter, imposes further economic and commercial sanctions on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and encourages UN member states to search North Korean cargo, in the aftermath of an underground nuclear test conducted on 25 May 2009; the provisions of the resolution include: Authorizing member states to inspect, "in accordance with their national authorities and legislation, consistent with international law", North Korean cargo on land and air, to destroy any goods suspected of being connected to the DPRK's nuclear programme. Requiring the North Korean government to return to the six-party talks and renounce its announcement of withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Preventing financial services that could contribute to the nuclear or ballistic missile related programmes. Instructing member states not to provide financial assistance to the DPRK nuclear programme, or enter into loans with the country, except for humanitarian or developmental reasons.
Extending the arms embargo on North Korea by banning all weapons exports from the country and most imports, with an exception to small arms, light weapons and related material – though member states must notify the Security Council five days prior to selling the weapons. Demanding that North Korea halt its nuclear weapons program and conduct no further nuclear or missile tests. Asking member states to notify the Council of steps they are taking to implement the sanctions within 45 days. Affirming the Security Council's commitment to a peaceful, diplomatic resolution to the situation. Adopting the resolution unanimously, the Council condemned the nuclear test, in "violation and flagrant disregard" of previous Council resolutions 1695 and 1718; the resolution is now binding under international law. China: Ambassador Zhang Yesui said China voted in favor of the resolution as actions by North Korea were in "disregard for the international community’s common objective". However, he stressed that the diplomatic means should be employed rather than imposing sanctions, the resolution should not "adversely impact the country’s development, or humanitarian assistance to it".
He urged against the use of force when inspecting North Korean cargo. France: Ambassador Jean-Maurice Ripert remarked that the DPRK had been "engaged in a secret nuclear programme" which increased its threat, he said that the country had increased tensions in the region by firing missiles and the Security Council had responded to that by imposing tough sanctions on the regime, though he mentioned that the Council was concerned about the population. Russia: Permanent Representative Vitaly Churkin said the measures adopted were "substantive and targeted in nature", "clearly tied to ending the DPRK programme to create nuclear missiles", he insisted the sanctions did not target the North Korean people, a key issue with his delegation. He insisted that any sanctions be lifted once North Korea cooperates. United Kingdom: Deputy Ambassador Philip Parham said the adoption of the resolution shows that "the international community is united in condemning North Korea's proliferation activities". United States: Envoy Rosemary DiCarlo said that the resolution created "markedly stronger sanctions" against Pyongyang to persuade it to abandon its nuclear weapons program.
This was followed by U. S. Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice who claimed the resolution was "unprecedented" and has "teeth that will bite"; the resolution was a "strong and united international response" to the testing of the nuclear device. Austria: Ambassador Thomas Mayr-Harting said the resolution was a "clear and unequivocal" response to North Korea's actions, he called for the country to rejoin the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Burkina Faso: Deputy Representative Paul Robert Tiendrébéogo supported the resolution emphasising his country's aspiration for a nuclear-free world and the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy, he called on North Korea to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, six-party talks and other institutions stressing that the country should "choose dialogue". Croatia: Ambassador Ranko Vilović mentioned that the sanctions were not targeted towards the North Korean population, but called on North Korea to accede to the CTBT and six-party talks. Costa Rica: Permanent Representative Jorge Urbina echoed the views of the rest of the Council, urged the country to return to international systems of dialogue.
Japan: Permanent Representative Yukio Takasu welcomed the resolution, describing the DPRK's actions as an "irresponsible act" which constituted a threat to his country. He hoped; the Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso urged North Korea to take the resolution "seriously". Libya: Permanent Representative Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalgham said the world would not enjoy security until all nuclear weapons were eliminated, he said the international community had failed to reward Libya for ceasing its nuclear programme and hoped similar sanctions would be applied to Israel. Shalgham said that while his country did not support sanctions which harm the population, in this case this was the best way forward to bring about a solution to the situation. Mexico: Ambassador Claude Heller said the resolution was a "clear message" that North Korea's actions were unacceptable to the international community, he remarked that recent actions by the DPRK were in violation of Security Council resolutions which undermined aspirations for a nuclear-free world and urged North Korea to "completely and p
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on October 14, 2006. The resolution, passed under Chapter VII, Article 41, of the UN Charter, imposes a series of economic and commercial sanctions on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the aftermath of that nation's claimed nuclear test of October 9, 2006. UNSCR 1718 banned a range of imports and exports to North Korea and imposed an asset freeze and travel ban on persons involved in the country’s nuclear program; this trade ban included “battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, large caliber artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack helicopters, missiles or missile systems.” The resolution prohibited imports of luxury goods to the country. Large-scale arms, nuclear technology, related training on nuclear weapons development were prohibited from being provided to North Korea. All states were to cooperate in inspecting cargo suspected of trafficking nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons into the country.
In practice, not all states supported this and China, an ally of North Korea, did not inspect cargo to and from the country and continued to support the North Korean regime. Sanctions limiting trade and instituting travel bans were included. Stipulations required states to freeze the assets of individuals suspected of being involved with North Korea’s nuclear program. Special provisions were included that allowed money transfers and travel ban exemptions for humanitarian purposes to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis; the resolution's provisions include: North Korea must "not conduct any further nuclear test or launch of a ballistic missile", "suspend all activities related to its ballistic missile programme" and "abandon all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programmes in a complete and irreversible manner". The DPRK must "return to the six-party talks without precondition". Shipments of cargo going to and from North Korea may be stopped and inspected for weapons of mass destruction or associated items.
A ban is placed on imports and exports of "battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, large calibre artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack helicopters, missiles or missile systems", "related materiel including spare parts" and any other items identified by the sanctions committee. UN member states must freeze the overseas assets of individuals and companies involved with the DPRK's weapons programmes. An international travel ban is placed on programme employees and their families. UN members are banned from exporting luxury goods to North Korea; the resolution established a committee to gather more information, specify the sanctions, monitor them, issue recommendations. Subsequently, in 2009 a Panel of Experts was established in support of this Committee. While the resolution does invoke Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter which allows for enforcement, it does not provide for any use of military force to back up these demands; the UN Security Council had earlier determined to present a united front on this resolution in order to make clear to Pyongyang its condemnation of the reclusive nation's nuclear aspirations, but there remain differences of opinion about the implementation of the resolution.
Both China and Russia are concerned about how cargo inspections could provoke confrontations with the North Korean Navy, China declared after passage of the resolution that it will not perform such inspections. The United States compromised on its initial desire to block all imports of military equipment; the final vote on the sanction was delayed by the attempts to change the wording. On 16 November 2006, under the terms of the resolution, French officials in the French territory of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean searched a North Korean ship. North Korea's UN envoy Pak Gil Yon walked out of the chamber after saying Pyongyang "totally rejects" the "unjustifiable" resolution, he said it was "gangster-like" for the Security Council to have adopted a "coercive resolution" while neglecting US pressure on North Korea: "If the United States increases pressure on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the DPRK will continue to take physical countermeasures considering it as a declaration of war."The United States ambassador at the time, John Bolton, said that it was the second time in three months that the representative of North Korea had rejected a unanimous resolution of the Security Council and walked out.
He went on to add: "It is the contemporary equivalent of Nikita Khrushchev pounding his shoe on the rostrum of the General Assembly."On October 17, 2006, North Korea said the United Nations had declared war on the country when it imposed sanctions for the country's nuclear test. The DPRK foreign ministry said North Korea was not afraid of war. A statement carried by the official Korean Central News Agency said that North Korea will "mercilessly strike" if its sovereignty is violated. 2006 North Korean nuclear test List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1701 to 1800 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874 UN video feeds of Security Council vote Text of the Resolution at undocs.org D'Amato, Anthony. "Pyongyang and Proliferation: The UN North Korea Resolution". JURIST. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. UN Sanction Search Tool UN Security Council Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1718 (Reports issued by the UN Panel of Experts, established to support of the Sanctions Committee in carrying out its mandate as specified in paragraph