Vienna International Centre
The Vienna International Centre is the campus and building complex hosting the United Nations Office at Vienna. It is colloquially known as UNO City; the VIC, designed by Austrian architect Johann Staber, was built between 1973 and 1979 just north of the river Danube. The initial idea of setting up an international organization in Vienna came from the Chancellor of Austria Dr. Bruno Kreisky. Six Y-shaped office towers surround a cylindrical conference building for a total floor area of 230,000 square metres; the highest tower stands 127 metres tall. These office towers were among the first modern skyscrapers to be built in Austria. About 5,000 people work at the VIC, which offers catering and shopping facilities and a post office. Two banks, travel agents and other commercial services have offices on the premises; the VIC is an extraterritorial area, exempt from the jurisdiction of local law. Complementing the early 2000s asbestos removal works in the VIC, a new conference building designated “C2”, now termed “M Building”, was constructed over the existing parking deck near the southern perimeter of the campus, put into service in 2009.
The M building hosted all conferences during the renovation of the C building from 2009-2013. Both M and C buildings are now being used for meetings. Large conferences can be accommodated in the neighbouring Austria Center Vienna, a separate conference and exhibition centre with a capacity of 6,000, with the VIC campus part of the UNO-City; the ACV has an indoor link to the VIC buildings. It is guarded by United Nations security personnel; the VIC is served by Kaisermühlen/VIC station on line U1 of the Vienna U-Bahn. A major UN site along with New York and Nairobi, the VIC hosts several organizations: Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization International Atomic Energy Agency United Nations Commission on International Trade Law United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River Five other notable international organizations headquartered in Vienna, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the OPEC Fund for International Development, the International Anti-Corruption Academy and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, occupy facilities outside the VIC.
The Vienna International Centre offers shopping opportunities to its staff, the staff of Permanent Missions and other international organizations based in Vienna. The Commissary, so named after similar facilities for U. S. military personnel at various duty stations, offers an international selection of foodstuffs and household items, thus catering to expatriate employees who may purchase familiar items that are not available in the host country Austria. The store is run by the IAEA on a non-profit basis. Donau City ^. ^ In contrast to the VIC, the ACV uses American spelling. The United Nations in Vienna
United Nations Trusteeship Council
The United Nations Trusteeship Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security. The trust territories—most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from nations defeated at the end of World War II—have all now attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countries; the last was Palau part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which became a member state of the United Nations in December 1994. Provisions to form a new UN agency to oversee the decolonization of dependent territories from colonial times was made at the San Francisco Conference in 1945 and were specified Chapter 12 of the Charter of the United Nations; those dependent territories were to be placed under the international trusteeship system created by the United Nations Charter as a successor to the League of Nations mandate system.
Eleven territories were placed under trusteeship: seven in Africa and four in Oceania. Ten of the trust territories had been League of Nations mandates. In order to implement the provisions on the trusteeship system, the General Assembly passed resolution 64 on Dec. 14, 1946, which provided for the establishing of the United Nations Trusteeship Council. The Trusteeship Council held its first session in March 1947. In March 1948, the United States proposed that the territory of Mandatory Palestine be placed under UN Trusteeship with the termination of the British Mandate in May 1948. However, the US did not make an effort to implement this proposal, which became moot with the declaration of the State of Israel. Under the Charter, the Trusteeship Council was to consist of an equal number of United Nations Member States administering trust territories and non-administering states. Thus, the Council was to consist of all U. N. members administering trust territories, the five permanent members of the Security Council, as many other non-administering members as needed to equalize the number of administering and non-administering members, elected by the United Nations General Assembly for renewable three-year terms.
Over time, as trust territories attained independence, the size and workload of the Trusteeship Council was reduced. The Trusteeship Council came to include only the five permanent Security Council members, as the only country administering a Trust Territory was a permanent member. With the independence of Palau part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, in 1994, there presently are no trust territories, leaving the Trusteeship Council without responsibilities; the Trusteeship Council was not assigned responsibility for colonial territories outside the trusteeship system, although the Charter did establish the principle that member states were to administer such territories in conformity with the best interests of their inhabitants. Its mission fulfilled, the Trusteeship Council suspended its operation on 1st of November 1994, although under the United Nations Charter it continues to exist on paper, its future role and existence remains uncertain; the Trusteeship Council is headed by Anne Gueguen, with Jonathan Guy Allen as vice-president, although the sole current duty of these officers is to meet with the heads of other UN agencies on occasion.
According to the United Nations website: By a resolution adopted on 25th of May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required -- by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council. The chamber itself is still used for other purposes. Following a three-year refurbishment, restoring its original design by Danish architect, Finn Juhl, the chamber was re-opened in 2013; the formal elimination of the Trusteeship Council would require the revision of the UN Charter, why it has not been pursued. Other functions for the Trusteeship Council have been considered; the Commission on Global Governance's 1995 report recommends an expansion of the trusteeship council. Their theory is that an international regulatory body is needed to protect environmental integrity and the global commons on the two-thirds of the world's surface, outside national jurisdictions.
However, in March 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan proposed a sweeping reform of the United Nations, including an expansion of the Security Council. As this restructuring would involve significant changes to the UN charter, Annan proposed the complete elimination of the Trusteeship Council as part of these reforms. United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories American trusteeship proposal for Palestine Homepage of the UN Trusteeship Council UN Decolonization page
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice sometimes called the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It settles legal disputes submitted by states and gives advisory opinions on legal issues referred by authorized U. N. organs and specialized agencies. Through its opinions and rulings, the ICJ serves as a source of international law; the ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice, established by the League of Nations in 1920 and began its first session in 1922. After the Second World War, both the League and the PCIJ were dissolved and replaced by the United Nations and ICJ, respectively; the Statute of the ICJ draws from that of its predecessor, the latter's cases remain valid opinio juris. All members of the U. N. are party to the ICJ Statute. The ICJ comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms, it is seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague, making it the only principal U. N. organ not located in New York City.
Its official working languages are French. Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice; the Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the court. The court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. After the court ruled that the United States's covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law, the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court's jurisdiction only on a discretionary basis. Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the Nicaragua case; the ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term. No two judges may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the court is supposed to represent the "main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world"; that has meant common law, civil law and socialist law. There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed by geographic regions so that there are five seats for Western countries, three for African states, two for Eastern European states, three for Asian states and two for Latin American and Caribbean states. For most of the court's history, the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have always had a judge serving, thereby occupying three of the Western seats, one of the Asian seats and one of the Eastern European seats.
Exceptions have been China not having a judge on the court from 1967 to 1985, during which time it did not put forward a candidate, British judge Sir Christopher Greenwood being withdrawn as a candidate for election for a second nine-year term on the bench in 2017, leaving no judges from the United Kingdom on the court. Greenwood had been supported by the UN Security Council but failed to get a majority in the UN General Assembly. Indian judge Dalveer Bhandari instead took the seat. Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be "elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character" who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with in Articles 16–18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to act as counsel. In practice, members of the court have their own interpretation of these rules and allow them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest.
A judge can be dismissed only by a unanimous vote of the other members of the court. Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the Nicaragua case, the United States issued a communiqué suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the court because of the presence of judges from Eastern bloc states. Judges may give their own separate opinions. Decisions and advisory opinions are by majority, and, in the event of an equal division, the President's vote becomes decisive, which occurred in the Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict, ICJ Reports 66. Judges may deliver separate dissenting opinions. Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby ad hoc judges sit on contentious cases before the court; the system allows any party to a contentious case to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible; the system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases.
For example, if a state knows that it will have a judicial officer
International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is an international organisation with its permanent secretariat in Vienna. It was established by the Danube River Protection Convention, signed by the Danube countries in Sofia, Bulgaria, in 1994; the commission became active in 1998. Since it has grown into one of the largest and most active international bodies of river basin management expertise in Europe; the commission deals not only with the Danube itself, but with the whole Danube River Basin, which includes more than 300 tributaries and the ground water resources. The ICPDR’ legal basis is the “Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable use of the Danube River ” referred to as the “Danube River Protection Convention” or “DRPC”, it commits the contracting parties to join their efforts in sustainable water management, including conservation of surface and ground water, pollution reduction, the prevention and control of floods and ice hazards. The convention was signed in Sofia, Bulgaria, in 1994 and came into force in October 1998.
The ICPDR was created to implement the Danube River Protection Convention. It is both a forum to allow its contracting parties to coordinate the implementation of the convention and a platform to review the progress they make; the key objectives of the ICPDR include the following: Ensure sustainable water management Ensure conservation and rational use of surface waters and ground water Control pollution and reduce inputs of nutrients and hazardous substances Control floods and ice hazards. The ICPDR facilitates cooperation between the Danube countries and the Black Sea region in issues requiring coordination, cooperates with other international organisations where appropriate, addresses new challenges related to water management as they emerge; when the EU Water Framework Directive was adopted in October 2000, all countries cooperating under the DRPC decided to make all efforts to implement the Directive throughout the whole basin. The Non EU Member States committed themselves to implement the WFD within the frame of the DRPC.
In addition, the ICPDR serves as a coordination platform for the basin-wide implementation of the EU Floods directive. The ICPDR is an international organisation, it meets twice a year: The Ordinary Meeting is held in Vienna in December, another meeting of Heads of Delegations is held in June in the country of the Presidency. The meetings consist of delegations of contracting parties and observer organisations; every contracting party has one Head of Delegation representing the country. For all decisions the achievement of consensus is sought; the meetings are chaired by the ICPDR President. In addition, much of the work of the ICPDR is done by Expert Groups, which are panels of specialists from the ICPDR contracting parties and observers – civil servants of the relevant ministries, in some cases employees of NGOs or contracted agencies. There are seven permanent Expert Groups and one ad hoc Expert Group as of 2011: Pressures and Measures Monitoring and Assessment Flood Protection River Basin Management Information Management and GIS Public Participation and Communication Accident Prevention and Control Strategic Expert Group The expert groups all have Terms of Reference and mandates adopted by the Commission.
They meet twice to three times a year. Time- and target-limited task groups may be established for specific tasks which not all countries are represented in; the expert groups discuss issues related to their Terms of Reference and prepare reports and recommendations for coordinated action. The ICPDR has a Permanent Secretariat to support its work, supervised by an Executive Secretary, as of 2013, Ivan Zavadsky; the secretariat has its headquarters in Vienna, from where it administers and supports the work of the ICPDR. The total staff of the secretariat is 8 permanent staff members and additional short-term project staff. If all national experts, delegates from observers and consultants are considered, there are more than 300 people working with and for the ICPDR; the ICPDR serves as a platform for coordination. The signing of the convention however, commits the countries under international law to some specific actions and to uphold certain principles. In some past conflicts, the ICPDR could contribute to accommodating the harmonisation of efforts by providing a place for discussion.
The President or the staff at the secretariat can induce talks on specific issues and contribute to building consensus. The convention provides a dispute settlement mechanism, but in practice this has not been needed so far, as the countries concerned have worked to ensure dialogue and developed consensus on issues of conflict; the ICPDR has fifteen contracting parties: The ICPDR has 22 official observers with rights to attend meetings and participate in decision-making: The ICPDR budget comes from the contributions of the Contracting Parties. According to the Danube River Protection Convention, the Contracting Parties shall contribute an equal share, unless unanimously decided otherwise by the ICPDR; some exceptions are applied for a transitional period. The total annual budget of the ICPDR is a little more than one million Euros. Much of the ICPDR’s work is done directly by Member Countries; such contributions in staff and material are therefore considerable though this does not show in the ICPDR budget.
Costs of participation in the Commission’s and Expert b
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations office, established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and was renamed the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2002. In 2016–2017 it has an estimated biannual budget of US$700 million; the agency, employing between 1,500 and 2,000 people worldwide, has its headquarters in Vienna, with 21 field offices and two liaison offices in Brussels and in New York City. The United Nations Secretary-General appoints the agency's Executive Director. Yuri Fedotov, the former Russian Ambassador to the United Kingdom, has held this position since his appointment in 2010, when he succeeded Antonio Maria Costa in his personal capacity, as Director-General of the United Nations Office at Vienna. UNODC incorporates the secretariat of the International Narcotics Control Board.
UNODC was established to assist the UN in better addressing a coordinated, comprehensive response to the interrelated issues of illicit trafficking in and abuse of drugs, crime prevention and criminal justice, international terrorism, political corruption. These goals are pursued through three primary functions: research and support to governments in the adoption and implementation of various crime-, drug-, terrorism-, corruption-related conventions and protocols, as well as technical/financial assistance to said governments to face their respective situations and challenges in these fields; the office aims long-term to better equip governments to handle drug-, crime-, terrorism-, corruption-related issues, to maximise knowledge on these issues among governmental institutions and agencies, to maximise awareness of said matters in public opinion, nationally and at community level. 90% of the Office's funding comes from voluntary contributions from governments. These are the main themes that UNODC deals with: Alternative Development, anti-corruption, Criminal Justice, Prison Reform and Crime Prevention, Drug Prevention, -Treatment and Care, HIV and AIDS, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Money Laundering, Organized Crime, Terrorism Prevention.
The World Drug Report is a yearly publication that presents a comprehensive assessment of the international drug problem, with detailed information on the illicit drug situation. It provides estimates and information on trends in the production and use of opium/heroin, coca/cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants; the Report, based on data and estimates collected or prepared by Governments, UNODC and other international institutions, attempts to identify trends in the evolution of global illicit drug markets. Through the World Drug Report, UNODC aims to enhance Member States' understanding of global illicit drug trends and increase their awareness of the need for the more systematic collection and reporting of data relating to illicit drugs. United Nations Conventions and their related Protocols underpin all the operational work of UNODC; the Convention is a binding instrument that entered into force on 29 September 2003, through which States parties commit to taking a series of measures against transnational organized crime.
States that ratify the convention has the duty of creation of domestic offences to combat the problem, the adoption of new, sweeping frameworks for mutual legal assistance, law enforcement cooperation, technical assistance and training. The convention signifies an important stage in dealing with transnational crime by recognizing the seriousness of the problem that the crime poses, gaining understanding from the member states of the importance of a cooperative measure; the convention is complemented by three different protocols: the Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children. The Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children aims to provide a convergence in the states' domestic offences in the investigation and the persecution process. Another objective of the protocol is to protect the victims of trafficking in persons with full respect; the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land and Air is concerned with the aggravating problem of organized crime groups for smuggling persons.
The protocol aims to combat and prevent transnational smuggling as well as to promote cooperative measures for enhancing protective measures for victims. The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition was adopted to prevent and provide a cooperative measure for illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. By adopting the protocol, the member states commit to adopt domestic criminal offences for illegal manufacturing, providing governmental licensing ammunition, keeping track of the ammunition. In its resolution 55/61, the General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was desirable; the text of the Convention was negotiated during seven sessions held between 21 January 2002 and 1 October 2003. The Convention was adopted by the General Assembly on 31 October 2003.
In 2003, the United Nati
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm – a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, northern Turkmenistan. Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics and natural sciences, distinguished himself as a historian and linguist, he studied all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy, he was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic and knew Greek and Syriac. He spent much of his life in Ghazni capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan.
In 1017 he travelled to South Asia and authored a study of Indian culture after exploring the Hinduism practised in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology", he was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, was given the title al-Ustadh for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He was born in the outer district of the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields. Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well; the Iranian Khwarezmian language, the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.
He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. There he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya on historical and scientific chronology around 1000 A. D. though he made some amendments to the book. He visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who ruled Khwarezm, their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years.
He was forty-four years old. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India, he may have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions, he sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy and related subjects like mathematical geography, his religion contributed to his research of astronomy, as in Islam and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be found using astronomical data. Biruni's major work on astrology is an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication, his endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as'sorcery'.
In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Tahqiq ma li-l-hind translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy, no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a: he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There