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United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations office, established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and was renamed the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2002. In 2016–2017 it has an estimated biannual budget of US$700 million; the agency, employing between 1,500 and 2,000 people worldwide, has its headquarters in Vienna, with 21 field offices and two liaison offices in Brussels and in New York City The United Nations Secretary-General appoints the agency's Executive Director. Yuri Fedotov, the former Russian Ambassador to the United Kingdom, held this position since from 2010 until 2019, when the United Nations Secretary-General announced that Ms. Ghada Fathi Waly of Egypt would replace him as both Executive Director of UNODC and Director General of the United Nations Office at Vienna.

UNODC incorporates the secretariat of the International Narcotics Control Board. UNODC was established to assist the UN in better addressing a coordinated, comprehensive response to the interrelated issues of illicit trafficking in and abuse of drugs, crime prevention and criminal justice, international terrorism, political corruption; these goals are pursued through three primary functions: research and support to governments in the adoption and implementation of various crime-, drug-, terrorism-, corruption-related conventions and protocols, as well as technical/financial assistance to said governments to face their respective situations and challenges in these fields. The office aims long-term to better equip governments to handle drug-, crime-, terrorism-, corruption-related issues, to maximise knowledge on these issues among governmental institutions and agencies, to maximise awareness of said matters in public opinion, nationally and at community level. 90% of the Office's funding comes from voluntary contributions from governments.

These are the main themes that UNODC deals with: Alternative Development, anti-corruption, Criminal Justice, Prison Reform and Crime Prevention, Drug Prevention, -Treatment and Care, HIV and AIDS, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Money Laundering, Organized Crime, Terrorism Prevention. The World Drug Report is a yearly publication that presents a comprehensive assessment of the international drug problem, with detailed information on the illicit drug situation, it provides estimates and information on trends in the production and use of opium/heroin, coca/cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Report, based on data and estimates collected or prepared by Governments, UNODC and other international institutions, attempts to identify trends in the evolution of global illicit drug markets. Through the World Drug Report, UNODC aims to enhance Member States' understanding of global illicit drug trends and increase their awareness of the need for the more systematic collection and reporting of data relating to illicit drugs.

United Nations Conventions and their related Protocols underpin all the operational work of UNODC. The Convention is a binding instrument that entered into force on 29 September 2003, through which States parties commit to taking a series of measures against transnational organized crime. States that ratify the convention has the duty of creation of domestic offences to combat the problem, the adoption of new, sweeping frameworks for mutual legal assistance, law enforcement cooperation, technical assistance and training; the convention signifies an important stage in dealing with transnational crime by recognizing the seriousness of the problem that the crime poses, gaining understanding from the member states of the importance of a cooperative measure. The convention is complemented by three different protocols: the Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children; the Protocol to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons Women and Children aims to provide a convergence in the states' domestic offences in the investigation and the persecution process.

Another objective of the protocol is to protect the victims of trafficking in persons with full respect. The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land and Air is concerned with the aggravating problem of organized crime groups for smuggling persons; the protocol aims to combat and prevent transnational smuggling as well as to promote cooperative measures for enhancing protective measures for victims. The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition was adopted to prevent and provide a cooperative measure for illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. By adopting the protocol, the member states commit to adopt domestic criminal offences for illegal manufacturing, providing governmental licensing ammunition, keeping track of the ammunition. In its resolution 55/61, the General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was desirable.

The text of the Convention was negotiated during seven sessions held between 21 January 2002 and 1 October 2003. The Convention was adopted by the G

6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase

In enzymology, a 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the following chemical reaction: 7,8-Dihydroneopterin triphosphate ⇌ 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin + triphosphate This reaction is the second step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP, used as a cofactor in the synthesis of aromatic amino acid monooxygenases and nitric oxide synthase PTPS converts 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin through the loss of the triphosphate group, a stereospecific reduction of the double bond between the top right nitrogen and carbon in the ring on the triphosphate on the right, the oxidation of the hydroxyl groups located on the first and second carbons of the side chain, an internal base-catalyzed hydrogen transfer. ] 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase can be found in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus of cells according to immunohistochemical studies conducted. It has been found that in higher species 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase can undergo post-translational modification.

This enzyme participates in tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, to be specific, those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on phosphates; the systematic name of this enzyme class is 6--7,8-dihydropterin triphosphate-lyase. Other names in common use include 2-amino-4-oxo-6--7,8-, dihydroxypteridine triphosphate lyase. 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is a hexamer with D3 symmetry, dimensions 60 × 60 × 60 A ̊. It is composed of identical subunits formed from a dimer of trimers. A 12-stranded antiparallel b-barrel is formed by the trimer of dimers and creates a pore within PTPS, with a 6 to 12 A ̊ diameter; the trimers are connected by contact between the β-sheets of monomers, which are perpendicular to each other, separated by less than 4 Angstroms, connected in three locations residues 20–24, 48–51, 89–91. One enzymatic active site is located where the three monomers come together in each subunit of the hexamer. Three histidine residues: His23, His48 and His50 create a transition metal binding site where Zn binds and is the cause of enzymatic activity in the center of the pore.

Above the Zn ion are GluA133 and CysA42, which are catalytically important because they are close to the metal but do not bind to it. The lack of binding implies; this enzyme 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is encoded by the PTS gene. A mutation in the 6-PTS gene may be the cause of a hereditary dystonic disorder. There have been four mutations of the 6-PTS gene found; the mutations include two homozygous mutations, R25Q and I114V, two compound heterozygous mutations, R16C and K120stop. The deficiency is only associated with the recessive gene being passed on from parent to child. A lack of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is the most common cause of a deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin. Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency leads to hyperphenylalaninemia and the inability to make neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. PTPS deficiency has been shown to lead to severe mental retardation, delayed motor development, seizures. Low levels of tetrahydrobiopterin production, opposed to near complete lack of tetrahydrobiopterin may cause fluctuations in the symptoms experienced throughout the day


The qaṣīda is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poetry translated as ode, passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion. The word qasidah is still used in its original birthplace, in all Arab countries. Well known qasā'id include the Seven Mu'allaqat and Qasida Burda by Imam al-Busiri and Ibn Arabi's classic collection "The Interpreter of Desires"; the classic form of qasida maintains a single elaborate metre throughout the poem, every line rhymes on the same sound. It runs from fifteen to eighty lines, sometimes more than a hundred; the genre originates in Arabic poetry and was adopted by Persian poets, where it developed to be sometimes longer than a hundred lines. Arabic qaṣīda means "intention" and the genre found use as a petition to a patron. A qaṣīda has a single presiding subject, logically concluded, it is a panegyric, written in praise of a king or a nobleman, a genre known as madīḥ, meaning "praise". In his ninth-century "Book of Poetry and Poets" the Arabian writer Ibn Qutaybah describes the qasida as being constituted of three parts: the nasīb: a nostalgic opening in which the poet reflects on what has passed.

A common theme is the pursuit by the poet of the caravan of his beloved: by the time he reaches their camp-site they have moved on. The raḥīl or travel section: a release or disengagement achieved by the poet describing his transition from the nostalgia of the nasīb to contemplating the harshness of the land and life away from the tribe; the message of the poem, which can take several forms: praise of the tribe or a ruler, satire about other tribes or some moral maxim. While many poets have intentionally or unintentionally deviated from this plan it is recognisable in many. From the Abbasid period onwards, two-part qaṣīda forms containing just a nasīb and madīḥ have been dominant. Qasidas were introduced to Dhaka, the rest of Bengal, during the Mughal era by Persians. Subahdar of Bengal, Islam Khan Chisti's naval fleet is said to have sung them after arriving in Jessore in 1604. In 1949, Hakim Habibur Rahman spoke of the recent revival of qasidas since that period in his book, Dhaka Panchas Baras Pahle.

The qasidas were promoted by nawabs and sardars across the region, popular during the Islamic month of Ramadan. An old tradition of Old Dhaka is during the time of sehri, groups of people would sing qasidas to wake up the Muslims in the neighbourhood. In Indonesia, qasida refers to Islamic music. After the 10th century Iranians used it for other purposes. For example, Nasir Khusraw used it extensively for philosophical and ethical purposes, while Avicenna used it to express philosophical ideas, it may be a spring autumn poem. The opening is description of a natural event: the seasons, a natural landscape or an imaginary sweetheart. In the takhallos poets address themselves by their pen-name; the last section is the main purpose of the poet in writing the poem. Persian exponents include. From the 14th century CE Persian poets became more interested in ghazal and the qasida declined; the ghazal developed from the first part of qasida. Mystic poets and sufis used the ghazal for mystical purposes. Qasida in Urdu poetry is panegyric, sometimes a satire, sometimes dealing with an important event.

As a rule it follows the same system of rhyme. A large number of religious qasā'id has been written in Arabic by the Sufi Shaykh Amadou Bamba Mbacke from Senegal, West Africa, his qasā'id are poetically exploring the Qur'an and other learned texts, praising Allah and the prophet, are considered – both in Senegal as well as in Morocco and other West African countries – as advanced and beautiful poetry. The qasā'id of the Shaykh are today still sung and recited by both Mourides belonging to the Sufi Tariqa Mouridiyya, as well as by members of other Sufi Tariqas in Senegal and throughout West Africa the Tijaniyya; the original poetry works of Shaykh Amadou Bamba Mbacke are preserved in a large library in the holy city Touba, founded by the Shaykh, built by his talibés and considered to be the Capital of Mourides. Panegyric, a ancient Greek and Roman equivalent form of poetry Islam Sufi poetry Urdu poetry Qaṣīdat-ul-Burda Qawwali Sufism The Kasidah, a 19th-century pseudotranslation Qasida Poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa: Vol. 1 Classical Traditions and Modern Meanings, eds Stefan Sperl, C.

Shackle, BRILL, 1996 Qasida Poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa: Vol. 2 Eulogy's Bounty, Meaning's Abundance, eds Stefan Sperl, C. Shackle, BRILL, 1996 Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples p12-13 Wikipedia on Amadou Bamba and his poetry Books about Shaykh Amadou Bamba Urdu poetic forms qasida

Terrace garden

In gardening, a terrace is an element where a raised flat paved or gravelled section overlooks a prospect. A raised terrace keeps a house dry and provides a transition between the hardscape and the softscape. PersiaSince a level site is regarded as a requisite for comfort and repose, the terrace as a raised viewing platform made an early appearance in the ancient Persian gardening tradition, where the enclosed orchard, or paradise, was to be viewed from a ceremonial tent; such a terrace had its origins in the far older agricultural practice of terracing a sloping site: see Terrace. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon must have been built on an artificial mountain with stepped terraces, like those on a ziggurat. Ancient RomeLucullus brought back to Rome first-hand experience of Persian gardening in the hilly sites of Asia Minor. At Praeneste during the early Imperial period, the sanctuary of Fortuna was enlarged and elaborated, the natural slope being shaped into a series of terraces linked by stairs.

The imperial villas at Capri were built to take advantage of varied terraces. At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the villa gardens of Julius Caesar's father-in-law fell away in a series of terraces, giving pleasant and varied views of the Bay of Naples. Only some of them have been excavated. At Villa of Livia part of Livia Drusilla's dowry brought to the Julio-Claudian dynasty, rooms in the cryptoporticus beneath terracing were frescoed with trees in bloom and fruit. Italian RenaissanceDuring the Italian Renaissance, the formalized, civilizing imprint of human control over wild nature expressed in terracing, combined with stairs and water features, drew villa patrons and garden designers to escarpments that surveyed a handsome prospect. At the influential Cortile del Belvedere at the Vatican Palace, perfected under a series of popes from the earliest 16th century, the backdrop within the enclosed court was a raised terrace; the view in this case was from the Stanze of Raphael on an upper floor of the Palace.

English landscape gardenEven in the most naturalistic landscape gardens of Capability Brown, a raised gravelled or paved terrace along the garden front offered a dry walk in damp weather and a transition between the hard materials of the architecture and the rolling greensward beyond. Contemporary terrace gardens, in addition to being in the garden and landscape occur in urban areas and are terrace architecture elements that extend out from an apartment or residence at any floor level other than ground level, they are discussed in conjunction with roof gardens, although they are not always true roof gardens, instead being balconies and decks. These outdoor spaces can become lush gardens through the use of container gardening, automated drip irrigation and low-flow irrigation systems, outdoor furnishings. Patio Balcony Terrace

Fearless (Francis Dunnery album)

Fearless is the second album from British musician Francis Dunnery, released in 1994. This release saw Dunnery move toward a pop direction, in what is his most straightforwardly commercial work, it at various points throughout the album, incorporates elements of rock, blues and Eastern music. The album yielded three singles; these singles had varying degrees of success, saw him making many appearances on television including the Australian Music Awards. A promotional video was made for. "American Life in the Summertime" "Homegrown" "Fade Away" "Climbing up the Love Tree" "What's He Gonna Say" "Feel Like Kissing You Again" "King of the Blues" "Everyone's a Star" "Couldn't Find a Reason" "New Vibration" "Good Life"

Abrar Hussain (filmmaker)

Abrar Hussain is a British filmmaker, writer and director. He was studied at Kingston University. Hussain began his production career in 2007 by writing, producing and presenting the Model Mosque show on the Islam Channel; the research for the show consisted of dispatching questionnaires to over 1,000 mosques, followed by telephone interviews, site visits. In an interview with The Guardian newspaper Hussain said "There is so much disparity between mosque standards, the show is a way for mosques to see the positive work, being done"; the show attracted some criticism from conservative Muslims because of its reality TV format, with some critics comparing it to The X-Factor. Hussain stated that the aim of the show was to show the positive side of mosques, not to criticise them. In an interview with the BBC, Islam Channel CEO Mohammed Ali Harrath said, "We believe in name-and-fame, not name-and-shame. Participating mosques were located geographically all over the country, the competition was won by East London Mosque.

Hussain presented the final of Model Mosque at the Global Peace and Unity event in 2007, in-front of a live audience of 30,000 people. Judges on the Model Mosque show included Iqbal Saccranie. Model Mosque was positively received by the mainstream media, with BBC One, The Guardian and ABC News Australia, reporting positively on the show. Hussain produced and directed a 2nd show for the Islam Channel titled "Faith Off"; this was a game show format where contestants from different religious backgrounds would compete for prizes. The Guardian newspaper called it "Britain's first interfaith game show”; the show was hosted by actor Jeff Mirza. Hussain stated on the Reuters news channel that he was trying to show that there was "harmony amongst the different faith groups"; the format of the show included a multiple choice current affairs segment, in addition to a home or away round, when contestants could answer questions on their own faith, or the opposing team's for further points. One of the Jewish contestants on the show, 42-year-old Danny Judelson, said: "A game show is an original idea, to say the least...

I thought it was interesting that the channel were taking the opportunity to educate their audience. There's a serious purpose behind it." The show was well received by interfaith groups, Ethan Cole of the Christian Post wrote, "Faith Off draws contestants with religious backgrounds from Buddhism, Judaism, Hinduism and Sikhism, has them compete for cash prizes by answering questions on both general and religious knowledge.” Hussain said of the show in an interview with The Guardian "We’re living in a multi-faith, multi-cultural society, so it's about transferring the basic blocks of knowledge. It’s about learning the similarities between religions, instead of focusing on the differences." In 2011 Hussain wrote and directed "The Pakistan Floods", a TV documentary made in response to the lack of support from western governments to the humanitarian crisis in Pakistan. The film was commissioned by Press TV and broadcast in the UK in 2011. Between the years 2010 and 2014, Hussain produced a number of international documentaries for a host of UK charities such as ActionAid International and Islamic Relief.

Hussain travelled to over 30 countries during this period including Lebanon, Egypt, Pakistan and Indonesia. He produced the film for the 25th anniversary of Muslim Aid, as well as the film for the 50th anniversary of UKIM, he produced a film in Mali for Islamic Relief with renowned scholar Imam Zaid Shakur. In 2008 Hussain was an official media partner for the Islam Expo, an event heralded for its ability to encourage dialogue between Muslims and non-Muslims. In June 2015 Hussain re-located to Saudi Arabia to film an untitled project about the Haram in Makkah. After spending over a year in research and pre-production the film went into production in October 2016. Further filming was carried out in the Haram in February 2017, the film One Day in the Haram is slated for release in September 2017. One Day in the Haram is the story of the Haram in Makkah, it is structured around the 5 daily Islamic prayers. In an interview with Arab News Hussain said "he wanted to show how the Haram is run, how organized its departments are, how its workers take their jobs".

^ I Credited as cinematographer