United States Army Airborne School

The United States Army Airborne School – known as Jump School – conducts the basic paratrooper training for the United States armed forces. It is operated by the 1st Battalion, 507th Infantry, United States Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia; the Airborne School conducts the Basic Airborne Course, open to troops of both genders from all branches of the United States Department of Defense, Reserve Officer Training Corps, allied military personnel. All students must volunteer to attend the course. In 1940, the War Department approved the formation of a test platoon of Airborne Infantry under the direction and control of the Army's Infantry Board. A test platoon of volunteers was organized from Fort Benning's 29th Infantry Regiment, the 2nd Infantry Division was directed to conduct tests to develop reference data and operational procedures for air-transported troops. First Lieutenant William T. Ryder volunteered and was made the test platoon's platoon leader, Lieutenant James A. Bassett was designated assistant platoon leader, forty-eight enlisted men were selected from a pool of 200 volunteers.

The platoon moved into tents near Lawson Army Airfield, an abandoned hangar was obtained for training and parachute packing. Lieutenant Colonel William C. Lee, a staff officer for the Chief of Infantry, recommended that the test platoon be moved to the Safe Parachute Company at Hightstown, NJ and train using parachute drop towers from the 1939 New York World's Fair. Eighteen days after forming, the platoon was moved to New Jersey and trained for one week on the 250-foot free towers, which proved to be effective – drops from the tower added realism otherwise impossible to duplicate outside of an airplane drop, proved to the troopers that their parachutes would function safely. Impressed, the Army erected them on what is now Eubanks Field at Fort Benning. Two more were added, today three of the original four towers are still in use. Parachute landing training was conducted by the volunteers jumping from PT platforms and from the back of moving trucks to allow the trainees to experience the shock of landing.

Less than forty-five days after it was formed, members of the test platoon made their first jump from a Douglas B-18 Bolo bomber over Lawson Field on 16 August 1940. Lieutenant Ryder and Private William N. King became the first officer and enlisted man to make an official jump as paratroopers in the United States Army. On 29 August, the platoon made the first platoon mass jump held in the United States. Members of the original test platoon formed the battalion cadre of the 501st Parachute Battalion, the first parachute combat unit; the second, the 502nd Parachute Infantry Battalion, was activated on 1 July 1941. As more airborne units were activated, a centralized training facility was organized at Fort Benning on 15 May 1942. Over time, the U. S. Army Parachute School has been known by a variety of names: The Airborne School Airborne Army Aviation Section, The Infantry School Airborne Department, The Infantry School Airborne-Air Mobility Department Airborne Department Airborne-Air Mobility Department Airborne Department HHC, 4th Student Battalion, The School Brigade HHC, 1st Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, The School Brigade HHC, 1st Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, attached to HQ, 11th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment and Ranger Training Brigade The former 4th Student Battalion, The School Brigade provided command and control of Airborne School students from the 1960s until October 1985.

During its existence, it was organized with a Battalion Headquarters and up to nine numbered companies, designated the 41st to 49th Student Companies. In the 1960s and 1970s, each Airborne Class included students from two different companies. By January 1982, the battalion was organized with an HHC, the 41st to 45th Student Companies, with each Student Company providing command and control for one complete Airborne Class. In October 1985, the assets of the 4th Student Battalion were used to reactivate the 1st Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, as part of the implementation of the U. S. Army Regimental System; the 1st Bn, 507th PIR was organized with six companies: Headquarters and Headquarters Company, to provide administrative support and conduct the Pathfinder and Jumpmaster Courses. Company D has since been inactivated; the first week of the Basic Airborne Course is dedicated to teaching prospective troopers how to land properly to minimize the potential for injury and general familiarization with the T-10D and T-11 parachute.

The T-10D is a round-shaped parachute, the T-11 is a square-shaped parachute both using static line extraction with a descent rate of 18–23 ft/sec and 16–20 ft/sec dependent on the weight and equipment outfitting of the individual jumper. Prospective troopers are taught how to wear the parachute harness and how to use the special training gear. During Ground Week, prospective troopers will spend the majority of time learning and perfecting their Parachute Landing Fall and proper exit technique from the aircraft. To practice the PLFs, soldiers will jump from platforms of various heights into sand or pebble pits, simulating the final stage of parachute landing; this maneuver teaches a soldier to transfer the energ

Snellius (crater)

Snellius is a lunar impact crater located near the southeast limb of the Moon. The rim of Snellius is worn and eroded, with overlapping craterlets; the floor is somewhat uneven. The western rim marks the start of one of the longest valleys on the Moon, it continues nearly 500 kilometers to the northwest. Its origin is most associated with the formation of the lunar mare. To the northeast is the large crater Petavius. South of Snellius is the crater Stevinus. Just to the northwest is Snellius A, a crater with a notable ray system that overlaps the southwest reaches of Mare Fecunditatis to the north, it is named after Dutch astronomer and physicist, Willebrord Snellius. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Snellius

Streptomyces ambofaciens

Streptomyces ambofaciens is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces, isolated from soil from France. Streptomyces ambofaciens produces ambobactin, foromacidin A, foromacidin B, foromacidin C, 18-deoxospiramicin I, 17-methylenespiramycin I and congocidin. List of Streptomyces species Aigle, B. "Genome mining of Streptomyces ambofaciens". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 41: 251–63. Doi:10.1007/s10295-013-1379-y. PMID 24258629. Pernodet, J. L.. Journal of General Microbiology. 139: 1003–11. Doi:10.1099/00221287-139-5-1003. PMID 7687646. Epp, Janet K.. L. B.. R.. "Production of a hybrid macrolide antibiotic in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces lividans by introduction of a cloned carbomycin biosynthetic gene from Streptomyces thermotolerans". Gene. 85: 293–301. Doi:10.1016/0378-111990421-6. PMID 2628170. Laureti, L.. "Identification of a bioactive 51-membered macrolide complex by activation of a silent polyketide synthase in Streptomyces ambofaciens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

108: 6258–63. Doi:10.1073/pnas.1019077108. PMC 3076887. PMID 21444795. Hristova, N.. "An Investigation on Polymorphism in Streptomyces AmbofaciensATCC 15154". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 22: 575–577. Doi:10.1080/13102818.2008.10817515. Potrykus, Hinnen, Hütter, Shillito. Protoplasts 1983: Lecture Proceedings. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-0348-6776-4. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Q. Ashton Acton. Macrolides: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 978-1-4649-2883-3. A. Munack. Computer Applications in Biotechnology. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4832-9690-6. Antonio Méndez-Vilas. Industrial and Environmental Applications of Microorganisms: Current Status and Trends. Wageningen Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-8686-795-0. Type strain of Streptomyces ambofaciens at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase