Robert Strange McNamara was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, he played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War. McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis, he was born in San Francisco, graduated from UC Berkeley and Harvard Business School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. After the war, Henry Ford II hired McNamara and a group of other Army Air Force veterans to work for Ford Motor Company; these "Whiz Kids" helped reform Ford with modern planning and management control systems. After serving as Ford's president, McNamara accepted appointment as Secretary of Defense. McNamara became a close adviser to Kennedy and advocated the use of a blockade during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy and McNamara instituted a Cold War defense strategy of flexible response, which anticipated the need for military responses short of massive retaliation.
McNamara consolidated intelligence and logistics functions of the Pentagon into two centralized agencies: the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Defense Supply Agency. During the Kennedy administration, McNamara presided over a build-up of US soldiers in South Vietnam. After the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, the number of US soldiers in Vietnam escalated dramatically. McNamara and other US policymakers feared that the fall of South Vietnam to a Communist regime would lead to the fall of other governments in the region. In October 1966, he launched Project 100,000, the lowering of army IQ standards which allowed 354,000 additional men to be inducted despite all being incapable of functioning in any high stress situation or dangerous environment. McNamara grew skeptical of the efficacy of committing US soldiers to Vietnam. In 1968, McNamara resigned as Secretary of Defense to become President of the World Bank, he remains the longest serving Secretary of Defense. He served as President of the World Bank until 1981, shifting the focus of the World Bank towards poverty reduction.
After retiring, he served as a trustee of several organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the Brookings Institution. Robert McNamara was born in California, his father was Robert James McNamara, sales manager of a wholesale shoe company, his mother was Clara Nell McNamara. His father's family was Irish and, in about 1850, following the Great Irish Famine, had emigrated to the U. S. first to Massachusetts and to California. He graduated from Piedmont High School in Piedmont in 1933, where he was president of the Rigma Lions boys club and earned the rank of Eagle Scout. McNamara attended the University of California and graduated in 1937 with a B. A. in economics with minors in mathematics and philosophy. He was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa his sophomore year, earned a varsity letter in crew. McNamara before commissioning into the Army Air Force, was a Cadet in the Golden Bear Battalion at U. C. Berkeley |McNamara was a member of the UC Berkeley's Order of the Golden Bear, a fellowship of students and leading faculty members formed to promote leadership within the student body.
He attended Harvard Business School, where he earned an M. B. A. in 1939. Thereafter, McNamara worked a year for the accounting firm Price Waterhouse in San Francisco, he returned to Harvard in August 1940 to teach accounting in the Business School and became the institution's highest paid and youngest assistant professor at that time. Following his involvement there in a program to teach analytical approaches used in business to officers of the United States Army Air Forces, he entered the USAAF as a captain in early 1943, serving most of World War II with its Office of Statistical Control. One of his major responsibilities was the analysis of U. S. bombers' efficiency and effectiveness the B-29 forces commanded by Major General Curtis LeMay in India and the Mariana Islands. McNamara established a statistical control unit for the XX Bomber Command and devised schedules for B-29s doubling as transports for carrying fuel and cargo over The Hump, he left active duty in 1946 with a Legion of Merit.
In 1946, Tex Thornton, a colonel under whom McNamara had served, put together a group of former officers from the Office of Statistical Control to go into business together. Thornton had seen an article in Life magazine portraying Ford as being in dire need of reform. Henry Ford II, himself a World War II veteran from the Navy, hired the entire group of 10, including McNamara; the "Whiz Kids", as they came to be known, helped the money-losing company reform its chaotic administration through modern planning and management control systems. The origins of the phrase "The Whiz Kids" can be explained; because of their youth, combined with asking lots of questions, Ford employees and disparagingly, referred to them as the "Quiz Kids". The Quiz Kids rebranded themselves as the "Whiz Kids". Starting as manager of planning and financial analysis, McNamara advanced through a series of top-level management positions, he was a force behind the Ford Falcon sedan, introduced in the fall of 1959—a small and inexpensive-to-produce counter to the large, expensive vehicles prominent in the late 1950s.
McNamara placed a high emphasis on safety: the Lifeguard options package introduced the seat belt and a dished steering wheel, whic
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Army Staff Senior Warrant Officer
The Army Staff Senior Warrant Officer provides the Chief of Staff of the United States Army with subject matter expertise on warrant officer training and development, to include proper balance of training and professional experience for warrant officers. Additionally, the ARSTAF SWO communicates with commanders and warrant officers throughout the United States Army to ensure their concerns and recommendations are considered in decisions that will impact the future of the warrant officer corps; the post was announced by CSA, GEN Raymond T. Odierno on March 14, 2014, wherein CW5 David Williams was established as the first ARSTAF SWO; the ARSTAF SWO is the first, only posting for warrant officers to the head of all five branches of the United States armed forces. Sergeant Major of the Army Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Pentomic refers to a structure for infantry and Airborne divisions adopted by the U. S. Army in 1957 in response to the perceived threat posed by tactical nuclear weapons use on the battlefield. "Pentomic Division" was "a public relations term designed to combine the concept of five subordinate units with the idea of a division that could function on an atomic or nonatomic battlefield." The addition of mechanization to army forces led to rapid changes in doctrine. During World War I the defensive firepower of infantry forces and their associated artillery made manoeuvrability impossible without overwhelming numbers. Any breakthrough could be countered by reserve forces that moved at the same speed as the attacking forces. With the introduction of the first tanks, much smaller forces could effect a breakthrough, move much more than the defending infantry. Ideally, this would force the defenders to retreat to new lines. By the start of World War II, this basic concept had developed into the idea of a "spearhead", a dense formation of mobile forces that would concentrate at a single point, overwhelm them locally, run into the defended rear areas.
This became known as Blitzkrieg after its initial successful employment by the German forces. Nuclear weapons upset this concept. In a nuclear battlefield, the concentration of forces into a spearhead would present a perfect target for the employment of tactical nuclear weapons. A single well-placed weapon could break up the attacking forces before they had time to properly prepare, causing enough casualties to make them ineffective in the defence. In the battles foreseen by planners in the 1950s, traditional infantry and armored units appeared to be vulnerable, it was this weakness that led first to the New Look of 1953, to the "New" New Look of 1955. The especially, aimed to counter any Warsaw Pact action in Europe with the use of nuclear weapons on the battlefield, allowing NATO's superior airpower to destroy the Warsaw Pact's massed armor; as part of this shift in policy, the majority of US military development and funding was sent to the US Air Force and US Navy, the Army was, to a degree, ignored.
In July 1955 General Maxwell D. Taylor became the Chief of Staff of the United States Army and selected General William Westmoreland as his Secretary to the General Staff. Westmoreland recalled that Taylor was told by President Dwight Eisenhower he had to do something to give the Army "charisma". Taylor designed the Pentomic concept with the basic concept being to reduce the time needed to organize an attack, thereby reducing the time available for the enemy to respond with a nuclear strike. To do this, the Pentomic concept organized what would be parts of several different units into a more balanced division, reducing the need for communications between different command structures that would introduce delays. After Taylor designed the Pentomic concept, he promoted Westmoreland to what was the youngest Major General in the US Army to command Taylor's former wartime command, the reactivated 101st Airborne Division; this would be the first unit to be reconfigured in the Pentomic structure. American army officers felt the plan was "ill started, ill fated and short lived" with some thinking it was a scheme of Taylor's to increase the number of active divisions in the army when he had cut their combat manpower.
Westmoreland recalled that the Pentomic structure, with all its flaws was a creature of the Chief of Staff, any officer who valued his career was loath to criticise it. Westmoreland briefed all officers in the division "Our job is not to determine whether it will work-our job is to make it work". Following the end of Westmoreland's command of the 101st in 1960 he recommended the pentomic structure be abolished; when the U. S. Army division was reorganized under the Pentomic structure in 1957, the traditional regimental organization employed by the Army was to be eliminated; this raised questions as to what the new units were to be called, how they were to be numbered, what their relationship to former organizations was to be. Many of the Army's senior officers were determined to perpetuate the historic lineages of the Army, unlike the situation after the Civil War when the Grand Army of the Republic persuaded Congress to forbid the linkage between the Civil War era Union Army Corps and the new Corps organized for the Spanish–American War.
On 24 January 1957 the Secretary of the Army approved the CARS concept, as devised by the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, designed to provide a flexible regimental structure that would permit perpetuation of unit history and tradition in the new tactical organization of divisions, without restricting the organizational trends of the future. Separate brigades were organized with three battle groups; the 2nd Infantry Brigade was organized as follows: Headquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry 2nd Battle Group, 60th Infantry 3rd Battalion, 4th Artillery 1st Battalion, 76th Artillery Troop F, 5th Cavalry Company F, 34th Armor Company G, 34th Armor Brigade Trains 232nd Engineer Company 712th Engineer Company In December 1960, the Army began studying proposals to reorganize again, hastened by newly elected President John F. Kennedy's "Doctrine of Flexible Response"; this led to the ROAD initiative by 1963. The infantry and airborne division structures known as Pentomic divisions are two related organizations known as Reorganization of the Airborne Division and
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
The Chief of Staff of the Army is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army. In a separate capacity, the CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and, thereby, a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, the President of the United States; the CSA is the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U. S. Army unless the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers; the Chief of Staff of the Army is an administrative position based in the Pentagon. While the CSA does not have operational command authority over Army forces proper, the CSA does exercise supervision of army units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Army; the current Chief of Staff of the Army is General Mark A. Milley; the senior leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians, the Secretary of the Army and the Under Secretary of the Army, two military officers, the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army.
The Chief of Staff reports directly to the Secretary of the Army for army matters and assists in the Secretary's external affairs functions, including presenting and enforcing army policies and projections. The CSA directs the Inspector General of the Army to perform inspections and investigations as required. In addition, the CSA presides over the Army Staff and represents army capabilities, policy and programs in Joint fora. Under delegation of authority made by the Secretary of the Army, the CSA designates army personnel and army resources to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands; the CSA performs all other functions enumerated in 10 U. S. C. § 3033 under the authority and control of the Secretary of the Army, or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. Like the other service counterparts, the CSA has no operational command authority over army forces, dating back to the passage of the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958.
The CSA is served by a number of Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Army, such as G-1, Personnel. The CSA base pay is $21,147.30 per month plus Personal Money Allowance of $333.33, basic allowance for subsistence of $253.38, basic allowance for housing from $50.70–1923.30. The Chief of Staff of the Army must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the CSA is appointed as a four-star general; the Chief of Staff of the Army has an official residence, Quarters 1 at Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall, Virginia. The Chief of Staff holds. Prior to 1903, the senior military officer in the army was the Commanding General, who reported to the Secretary of War. From 1864 to 1865, Major General Henry Halleck served as "Chief of Staff of the Army" under the Commanding General, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, thus serving in a different office and not as the senior officer in the army; the first chief of staff moved his headquarters to Fort Myer in 1908. The rank listed is the rank. Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army Army Staff Senior Warrant Officer Sergeant Major of the Army Bell, William Gardner.
"Appendix B: Chronological List of Senior Officers of the United States Army". Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer. United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 0-16-072376-0. CMH Pub 70-14. Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005:Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 0-16-072376-0. CMH Pub 70–14. Watson, Mark Skinner. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations. United States Army in World War II. Washington D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. - full text The short film Big Picture: Top Soldier is available for free download at the Internet Archive
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Torrijos–Carter Treaties are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, which superseded the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U. S. had exercised since 1903. The treaties are named after the two signatories, U. S. President Jimmy Carter and the Commander of Panama's General Omar Torrijos; this first treaty is titled The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal and is known as the "Neutrality Treaty". Under this treaty, the U. S. retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its continued neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty is titled The Panama Canal Treaty, provided that as from 12:00 on December 31, 1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become responsible for its defense. Panamanian efforts to renegotiate the original Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty had been ongoing since it was first signed in November 1903, a few weeks after Panama obtained its independence from Colombia.
However, activity to renegotiate or abrogate the treaty increased after the Suez Crisis, events in 1964 precipitated a complete breakdown in relations between the U. S. and Panama. On January 9 of that year, Panamanian students entered the canal zone to fly the Panamanian flag next to the American flag, as per a 1963 agreement to defuse tension between the two countries. Panamanians watching the event began rioting after the students raising the Panamanian flag were jeered and harassed by American school officials and their parents. During the scuffle, somehow the Panamanian flag was torn. Widespread rioting ensued, during which about 500 were injured. Most of the casualties were caused by fire from U. S. troops, called in to protect Canal Zone property, including private residences of Canal Zone employees. January 9 is a National Holiday in Panama, known as Martyrs' Day; the next day, January 10, Panama broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and on January 19, President of Panama Roberto Chiari declared that Panama would not re-establish diplomatic ties with the United States until the U.
S. agreed to begin negotiations on a new treaty. The first steps in that direction were taken shortly thereafter on April 3, 1964 when both countries agreed to an immediate resumption of diplomatic relations and the United States agreed to adopt procedures for the "elimination of the causes of conflict between the two countries". A few weeks Robert B. Anderson, President Lyndon Johnson's special representative, flew to Panama to pave the way for future talks. Negotiations over the next years resulted in a treaty in 1967, but it failed to be ratified in Panama. Negotiations were completed by August 10 of that year. On the American side the negotiators were Sol Linowitz. Senator Dennis DeConcini sponsored a critical amendment to the Panama Canal Treaty that allowed the Senate to come to a consensus on giving control of the Canal to Panama. A few days before final agreement on the treaties was reached, President Jimmy Carter had sent a telegram to all members of Congress informing them of the status of the negotiations and asking them to withhold judgment on the treaty until they had an opportunity to study it.
Senator Strom Thurmond responded to Carter's appeal by stating in a speech that day, "The canal is ours, we bought and we paid for it and we should keep it." Both treaties were subsequently ratified in Panama by a two-thirds vote in a referendum held on October 23, 1977. To allow for popular discussion of the treaties and in response to claims made by opponents of the treaty in the U. S. that Panama was incapable of democratically ratifying them, restrictions on the press and on political parties were lifted several weeks prior to the vote. On the day of the vote, 96% of Panama's eligible voters went to the polls, the highest voter turnout in Panama up to that time; the neutrality treaty was of major concern among voters on the political left, was one reason why the treaties failed to obtain greater popular support. The United States Senate advised and consented to ratification of the first treaty on March 16, 1978 and to the second treaty on April 18 by identical 68 to 32 margins. On both votes, 52 Democrats and 16 Republicans voted in favor of advising and consenting to ratification, while 10 Democrats and 22 Republicans voted against.
The treaties were the source of vehement controversy in the United States among conservatives led by Ronald Reagan, Strom Thurmond and Jesse Helms, who regarded them as the surrender of a strategic American asset to what they characterized as a hostile government. The attack was mobilized by numerous groups the American Conservative Union, the Conservative Caucus, the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress, Citizens for the Republic, the American Security Council, the Young Republicans, the National Conservative Political Action Committee, the Council for National Defense, Young Americans for Freedom, the Council for Inter-American Security, the Campus Republican Action Organization. In the year preceding the final transfer of canal assets there was an effort in the United States Congress, notably House Joint Resolution 77 introduced by Helen Chenoweth-Hage, to d