Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. The number of associate justices is eight, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution grants plenary power to the president to nominate, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint justices to the Supreme Court. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution grants life tenure to associate justices, all other federal judges, which ends only when a justice dies, resigns, or is removed from office by impeachment; each Supreme Court justice has a single vote in deciding. However, the Chief Justice -- when in the majority -- decides the court's opinion. Otherwise, the senior justice in the majority assigns the writing of a decision. Furthermore, the chief justice leads the discussion of the case among the justices; the chief justice has certain administrative responsibilities that the other justices do not and is paid more.
Associate justices have seniority by order of appointment, although the chief justice is always considered to be the most senior. If two justices are appointed on the same day, the older is designated the senior justice of the two; the senior associate justice is Clarence Thomas. By tradition, when the justices are in conference deliberating the outcome of cases before the Supreme Court, the justices state their views in order of seniority; the senior associate justice is tasked with carrying out the chief justices's duties when he is unable to, or if that office is vacant. Associate justices were styled "Mr. Justice" in court opinions and other writings; the title was shortened to "Justice" in 1980, a year before Sandra Day O'Connor became the first female justice. There are eight associate justices on the Supreme Court; the justices, ordered by seniority, are: An associate justice who leaves the Supreme Court after attaining the age and meeting the service requirements prescribed by federal statute may retire rather than resign.
After retirement, they keep their title, by custom may keep a set of chambers in the Supreme Court building, employ law clerks. The names of retired associate justices continue to appear alongside those of the active justices in the bound volumes of Supreme Court decisions. Federal statute provides that retired Supreme Court justices may serve—if designated and assigned by the chief justice—on panels of the U. S. courts of appeals, or on the U. S. district courts. Retired justices are not, authorized to take part in the consideration or decision of any cases before the Supreme Court. When, after his retirement, William O. Douglas attempted to take a more active role than was customary, maintaining that it was his prerogative to do so because of his senior status, he was rebuffed by Chief Justice Warren Burger and admonished by the whole Court. There are four living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006. Both O'Connor and Souter serve on panels of the Courts of Appeals of various circuits.
Stevens and Kennedy have not performed any judicial duties. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 102 persons have served as an associate justice: Associate Justice Historic Supreme Court Decisions – by Justice, Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School Supreme Court of the United States
Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Barack Obama in May 2009 and confirmed that August. She has the distinction of being Latina Justice. Sotomayor was born in New York City, to Puerto Rican-born parents, her father died when she was nine, she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and received her J. D. from Yale Law School in 1979, where she was an editor at the Yale Law Journal. She worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for four-and-a-half years before entering private practice in 1984, she played an active role on the boards of directors for the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the State of New York Mortgage Agency, the New York City Campaign Finance Board. Sotomayor was nominated to the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W. Bush in 1991. In 1997, she was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the U.
S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, her nomination was slowed by the Republican majority in the United States Senate, but she was confirmed in 1998. On the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3,000 cases and wrote about 380 opinions. Sotomayor has taught at the New York University School of Columbia Law School. In May 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sotomayor to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice David Souter, her nomination was confirmed by the Senate in August 2009 by a vote of 68–31. While on the court, Sotomayor has supported the informal liberal bloc of justices when they divide along the perceived ideological lines. During her tenure on the Supreme Court, Sotomayor has been identified with concern for the rights of defendants, calls for reform of the criminal justice system, making impassioned dissents on issues of race and ethnic identity, including Schuette v. BAMN, Utah v. Strieff, Trump v. Hawaii. Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx.
Her father was Juan Sotomayor, from the area of Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, her mother was Celina Báez, an orphan from the neighborhood of Santa Rosa in Lajas, a still rural area on Puerto Rico's southwest coast. The two left Puerto Rico separately and married during World War II after Celina served in the Women's Army Corps. Juan Sotomayor had a third-grade education, did not speak English, worked as a tool and die worker. Sonia's younger brother, Juan Sotomayor became a physician and university professor in the Syracuse, New York, area. Sotomayor was raised a Catholic and grew up in Puerto Rican communities in the South Bronx and East Bronx; the family lived in a South Bronx tenement before moving in 1957 to the well-maintained and ethnically mixed, working-class Bronxdale Houses housing project in Soundview. Her relative proximity to Yankee Stadium led to her becoming a lifelong fan of the New York Yankees; the extended family got together and visited Puerto Rico during summers. Sonia grew up with an alcoholic father and a mother, distant.
Sonia was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age seven, began taking daily insulin injections. Her father died of heart problems at age 42. After this, she became fluent in English. Sotomayor has said that she was first inspired by the strong-willed Nancy Drew book character, after her diabetes diagnosis led doctors to suggest a different career from detective, she was inspired to go into a legal career and become a judge by watching the Perry Mason television series, she reflected in 1998: "I was going to college and I was going to become an attorney, I knew that when I was ten. Ten. That's no jest."Celina Sotomayor put great stress on the value of education. Despite the distance between the two, which became greater after her father's death and, not reconciled until decades Sotomayor has credited her mother with being her "life inspiration". For grammar school, Sotomayor attended Blessed Sacrament School in Soundview, where she was valedictorian and had a near-perfect attendance record. Although underage, Sotomayor worked at a hospital.
Sotomayor passed the entrance tests for and attended Cardinal Spellman High School in the Bronx. At Cardinal Spellman, Sotomayor was elected to the student government, she graduated as valedictorian in 1972. Meanwhile, the Bronxdale Houses had fallen victim to increasing heroin use and the emergence of the Black Spades gang. In 1970, the family found refuge by moving to Co-op City in the Northeast Bronx. Sotomayor entered Princeton University on a full scholarship, by her own description gaining admission in part due to her achievements in high school and in part because affirmative action made up for her standardized test scores not being comparable to those of other applicants, she would say that there are cultural biases built into such testing and praise affirmative action for fulfilling "its purpose: to create the conditions whereby students from disadvantaged backgrounds could be brought to the starting line of a race many were unaware was ev
Augustus Noble Hand
Augustus Noble Hand was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. His most notable rulings restricted the reach of obscenity statutes in the areas of literature and contraceptives, he was the older first cousin of famed judge Learned Hand, who served on both courts with his cousin during most of Augustus Hand's tenure. Born in Elizabethtown, New York, Hand received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Harvard University in 1890, earned a Bachelor of Laws from Harvard Law School in 1894, he established a private practice in New York City, which he maintained until 1914. Hand was nominated by President Woodrow Wilson on September 28, 1914, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Judge George Chandler Holt, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 30, 1914, received his commission the same day.
His service terminated on June 1927, due to his elevation to the Second Circuit. Hand received a recess appointment from President Calvin Coolidge on May 19, 1927, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated by Judge Charles Merrill Hough, he was nominated to the same position by President Coolidge on December 6, 1927. He was confirmed by the Senate on January 18, 1928, received his commission the same day, he assumed senior status on June 30, 1953. His service terminated on October 1954, due to his death in Middlebury, Vermont. One of Hand's best-known decisions was rendered in the case of United States v. One Package, 86 F.2d 737, in which he ruled that contraceptives, when imported by a licensed physician, were not immoral or obscene devices banned under the Comstock Law provisions incorporated into the Tariff Act of 1930. Hand wrote that "we are satisfied that this statute, as well as all the acts we have referred to, embraced only such articles as Congress would have denounced as immoral if it had understood all the conditions under which they were to be used.
Its design, in our opinion, was not to prevent the importation, sale, or carriage by mail of things which might intelligently be employed by conscientious and competent physicians for the purpose of saving life or promoting the well being of their patients." The same year, Hand further limited the Tariff Act's restrictions in United States v. One Book Entitled Ulysses by James Joyce, 72 F.2d 705, which ruled that the novel Ulysses, by James Joyce, was not obscene and therefore could not be banned from import into the United States The opinion was significant in its urging that any test of obscenity could not rely on mere isolated passages but instead had to consider the work as a whole, a test the Supreme Court endorsed. These principles, filtered through a long line of cases influenced the United States Supreme Court's case law on obscenity standards. Hand's opinion displayed a historical perspective of the harm of overzealous censorship:Art cannot advance under compulsion to traditional forms, nothing in such a field is more stifling to progress than limitation of the right to experiment with a new technique.
The foolish judgments of Lord Eldon about one hundred years ago, proscribing the works of Byron and Southey, the finding by the jury under a charge by Lord Denman that the publication of Shelley's "Queen Mab" was an indictable offense are a warning to all who have to determine the limits of the field within which authors may exercise themselves. We think that Ulysses is a book of originality and sincerity of treatment and that it has not the effect of promoting lust. Accordingly it does not fall within the statute though it justly may offend many. Hand's cousin, Judge Learned Hand, joined in Augustus Hand's opinion. In 1946, Hand was temporarily assigned to a three-judge panel of the New York Southern District Court for the U. S. government's antitrust case against the eight largest movie distributors. The court's per curiam decree in United States v. Paramount Pictures, 70 F. Supp. 53 altered the motion picture industry in the United States, by forbidding the distributors from colluding with movie theaters in such anti-competitive licensing practices as price-fixing.
"Hand, Augustus Noble - Federal Judicial Center". Www.fjc.gov. Gunther, Gerald. Learned Hand: The man and the judge. With a foreword by Lewis F. Powell, Jr. New York, NY: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-58807-0. LCCN 93022868. LCC KF373. H29 G76 1994. Marcia Nelson, The Remarkable Hands: An Affectionate Portrait Marvin Schick, Learned Hand's Court
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U. S. states. The state capital is the least populous state capital in the United States; the most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory, now Vermont and was claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont.
The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. A group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War; the Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were sovereign states, given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants and Catholics make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion.
Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total. The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture; the state's climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product, it has been ranked 42nd as a state in. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Democratic governors. Voters have chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; the origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but comes from the French Les Monts Verts, meaning "the Green Mountains".
Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Mont Verd may have inspired Young. Another source points out the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason; the Green Mountains form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state, it is the only state. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is smaller than Haiti, it is the only landlocked state in New England, it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long, its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border; the width averages 60.5 miles. The state's geographic center is three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Canada. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state. Areas in Vermont a
Rutland (city), Vermont
The city of Rutland is the seat of Rutland County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 16,495, it is located 65 miles north of the Massachusetts state line and 20 miles east of the New York state line. Rutland is the third largest city in the state of Vermont after South Burlington, it is surrounded by the town of Rutland, a separate municipality. The downtown area of the city is listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places, it began on Otter Creek in the early 19th century as a small hamlet called Mill Village in Rutland, the surrounding town named by Governor Benning Wentworth in 1761 after John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland. In the early 19th century, small high-quality marble deposits were discovered in Rutland, in the 1830s a large deposit of nearly solid marble was found in what is now West Rutland. By the 1840s, small firms had begun excavations, but marble quarries proved profitable only after the railroad arrived in 1851.
At the same time, the famous quarries of Carrara in Tuscany, grew unworkable because of their extreme depth, allowing Rutland to become one of the world's leading marble producers. A large number of Italians with experience in the industry immigrated and brought their families to Rutland; this fueled enough growth and investment that in 1886 the center of town incorporated as Rutland village. Most of the town was split off as West Rutland and Proctor, which contained the bulk of the marble quarries. Rutland City was incorporated as Vermont's third city on November 18, 1892; the new city's first mayor was John A. Mead, who served only one term in 1893. In 1894, the nation's first polio outbreak was identified in the Rutland area. 132 people from the Rutland area were affected. Seven died. 110 others suffered some paralysis for life. 55 were from the city itself. In 1903, a Rutland City ordinance restricting the carrying of firearms led to the Vermont Supreme Court's decision in State v. Rosenthal, thereby establishing protection for the carrying of firearms without permit or license, what has become known as "Vermont Carry".
Nonetheless, Rutland had a similar ordinance in place as late as 1998, at which point it was challenged and removed. The closing of the marble quarries in the area in the 1980s and 1990s led to a loss of jobs in the area. Rutland is located at 43°36′32″N 72°58′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.67 square miles, of which 7.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.52%, is water. Rutland is drained by Moon Brook, Tenney Brook, East Creek and Mussey Brook; the city of Rutland has a humid continental climate with long and snowy winters and warm, moist summers. The all-time record high is 102 °F or 38.9 °C, set in 2008. The all-time record low temperature is −43 °F or −41.7 °C, set in 1994. On average, the wettest month is July, February is the driest. Rutland is the 3rd largest city in Vermont, not located on, or near, either of the state's two major Interstate highways, it is, signed on I-91 at exit 6 northbound in Rockingham and appears on auxiliary signs at exit 10 southbound near White River Junction.
The city is signed on I-89 at exit 13 southbound in South Burlington, exit 3 southbound in Royalton, exit 1 northbound in Quechee. In addition, the city appears on auxiliary guide signs on the Adirondack Northway before Exits 17 and 20. U. S. Route 4 and U. S. Route 7 intersect and overlap each other in Rutland along Main Street between the Diamond Run Mall and Woodstock Avenue and are the two main routes into the city. U. S. 7 connects Rutland with Manchester and Bennington to the south, with Middlebury and Burlington to the north. To the east, U. S. 4 travels through Killington and White River Junction on its way toward New Hampshire. To the west, U. S. 4 has been rebuilt as a 4-lane freeway to the New York state line, a distance of just over 18 miles. It is the only limited-access freeway to serve Rutland; the former route of U. S. 4, which runs parallel to the freeway portion, is now signed as U. S. Route 4 Business and Vermont Route 4A. Rutland's railroad station is the terminal station for Amtrak's Ethan Allen Express, which provides daily 5.5 hour service to and from New York City.
The state and Amtrak have undertaken an extension of the Ethan Allen Express from Rutland to Burlington, the state's largest city. Track improvements and tunnel construction have begun; the project creates a regional rail corridor connecting Albany, Saratoga Springs and Burlington and their combined metro populations of around 1.25 million inhabitants. And this would provide the first direct passenger rail connection from downtown Burlington to New York City since 1953 the Rutland Railroad ended service, would begin in 2018. Rutland is home to "The Bus", run by Marble Valley Regional Transit District, a local bus system costing $0.50 per person per ride, $1–2 for out-of-town commuter and connector buses, with other expenses covered by taxpayers. Five local routes serve the city, along with other commuter routes serving the nearby towns of Fair Haven, Manchester and Proctor. 2 winter tourist geared buses go to and from Okemo Mountain in Ludlow and Killington Ski Resort. Both of these buses run year round.
"The Bus" was free prior to 2007, when the 50 cents fare was added to control the added gas expenses. MVRTD is housed in the downtown Marble Valley Regional Transit Center. Premier Coach's Ver
Henry Jacob Friendly was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Born in Elmira, New York, Friendly received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Harvard University in 1923, he received a Bachelor of Laws from Harvard Law School in 1927. On June 23, 1927, the Harvard Crimson reported that Friendly was the first Harvard Law graduate to receive a degree summa cum laude. Felix Frankfurter, as a professor at Harvard Law School, sent his student Friendly to work as a clerk for Justice Louis Brandeis of the United States Supreme Court, where he served from 1927 to 1928, he was in private practice of law in New York City, New York from 1928 to 1959. He was a founding partner of Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP, where his law partners included George W. Ball and Melvin Steen, he was vice president and general counsel of Pan American World Airways in New York City from 1946 to 1959. Friendly was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on March 10, 1959, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated by Judge Harold Medina.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 9, 1959, received his commission on September 10, 1959. He served as Chief Judge and as a member of the Judicial Conference of the United States from 1971 to 1973, he assumed senior status on April 15, 1974. He was a Judge of the Special Railroad Court from 1974 to 1986, serving as Presiding Judge from 1974 to 1986, his service was terminated on March 1986, due to his death. Friendly took his own life at age 82 on March 11, 1986, in his Park Avenue apartment in New York City. Police said they found three notes in the apartment, one addressed to his resident maid and two unaddressed notes. In all three notes, the judge talked about his distress at his wife's death, his declining health and his failing eyesight, according to a police spokesman, his wife, the former Sophie S. Stern, had died a year and four days earlier, they had been married for 55 years. In a ceremony following Friendly's death, then-Chief Justice of the United States Warren E.
Burger said, "In my 30 years on the bench, I have never known a judge more qualified to sit on the Supreme Court." At the same ceremony, Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall called Friendly "a man of the law." In a letter to the editor of The New York Times following Friendly's obituary, 2nd Circuit Judge Jon O. Newman called Friendly "quite the pre-eminent appellate judge of his era" who "authored the definitive opinions for the nation in each area of the law that he had occasion to consider." In a statement after Friendly's death, Judge Wilfred Feinberg, the 2nd Circuit's chief judge at the time, called Friendly "one of the greatest Federal judges in the history of the Federal bench." United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit Judge Richard A. Posner described Friendly as "the most distinguished judge in this country during his years on the bench." Harvard Law School has a professorship named after Friendly. Paul C. Weiler, a Canadian constitutional law scholar, held it from 1993 to 2006.
The professorship is held by Carol S. Steiker, a specialist in criminal justice policy and capital punishment; the Federal Bar Council awarded Friendly a Certificate of Distinguished Judicial Service posthumously in 1986. The American Law Institute has an award named in memory of Friendly and endowed by his former law clerks. Friendly's wife of 55 years died a year before his suicide, he was survived by two daughters. David P. Currie, Edward H. Levi Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago Law School Peter B. Edelman, professor of law and co-director, joint degree in law and public policy, Georgetown Law Center Stephen R. Barnett, Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt Professor of Law, Boalt Hall, University of California, Berkeley Pierre N. Leval, judge, U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Michael Boudin, chief judge, U. S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit Robert M. Berger, partner Mayer Brown & Platt, lecturer in law University of Chicago Law School, adjunct professor of Law Northwestern University Law School and John Marshall School of Law Bruce A. Ackerman, Sterling Professor of Law and Political Science, Yale Law School Arthur Raymond Randolph, judge, U.
S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Walter Hellerstein, Francis Shackleford Distinguished Professor of Taxation Law, University of Georgia School of Law Martin Glenn, Judge, U. S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York Lawrence B. Pedowitz, Wachtell, Rosen & Katz Frederick T. Davis, litigation department, Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, Paris William Curtis Bryson, judge, U. S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit James R. Smoot and professor of law, Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, The University of Memphis Philip Bobbitt, Thomas M. Macioce Professor of Law, Columbia Law School Ruth Wedgwood, Edward B. Burling Professor of International Law and Diplomacy & Director of the International Law and Organization Program, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University. Garland, chief judge, U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Mary I. Coombs, professor of law, University of Miami School of Law John Roberts, Chief Justice of the United States Mar
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea