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United States House Select Committee on Assassinations

The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1963 and 1968. The HSCA completed its investigation in 1978 and issued its final report the following year, concluding that Kennedy was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. In addition to acoustic analysis of a police channel dictabelt recording, the HSCA commissioned numerous other scientific studies of assassination-related evidence that corroborate the Warren Commission's controversial findings; the HSCA found that although the Commission and the different agencies and departments examining Kennedy's assassination performed in good faith and were thorough in their investigation of Lee Harvey Oswald, they performed with "varying degrees of competency" and the search for possible conspiracy was inadequate. The HSCA determined, based on available evidence, that the probable conspiracy did not involve the governments of Cuba or the Soviet Union.

The committee stated that the conspiracy did not involve any organized crime group, anti-Castro group, nor the FBI, CIA, or Secret Service. The committee found that it could not exclude the possibility that individual members of the national syndicate of organized crime or anti-Castro Cubans were involved in a probable conspiracy to assassinate president Kennedy. Although some members of the committee would state their personal belief that one of those groups were involved in the assassination with Representative Floyd Fithian believing that the Kennedy assassination was orchestrated by members of organized crime. In a Justice Department memo to the House Judiciary Committee in 1988, the Assistant Attorney General formally reviewed the recommendations of the HSCA report and reported a conclusion of active investigations. In light of investigative reports from the FBI's Technical Services Division and the National Academy of Science Committee determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department concluded "that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy".

Several forces contributed to the formation of the HSCA. With the growing body of assassination conspiracy material, public trust in the findings of the Warren Commission report was declining; the Hart-Schweiker and Church Committee hearings had revealed CIA ties to other assassinations and assassination attempts. There was significant public interest after a video segment of the Zapruder film was first shown on TV in March 1975, after having been stored by Life magazine out of view for twelve years. In September 1976, the United States House of Representatives voted 280-65 to establish the Select Committee on Assassinations in order to investigate the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr; the committee was both divided among itself. The first chairman, Thomas N. Downing of Virginia retired in January 1977 and was replaced by Henry B. Gonzalez on February 2, 1977. Gonzalez and Chief Counsel Richard A. Sprague had irreconcilable disagreements over control of the committee and investigative techniques, ending with Gonzalez's resignation.

Sprague resigned, in part to increase the chances of Congress voting to reconstitute the HSCA for the new two-year congressional term. Sprague's like-minded deputy Robert K. Tanenbaum resigned shortly thereafter. Louis Stokes replaced Gonzalez as chairman and G. Robert Blakey was appointed as Chief Counsel and Staff Director to replace Sprague. Thomas N. Downing, First Chairman Henry B. Gonzalez, Second Chairman Louis Stokes, Third Chairman L. Richardson Preyer, Walter E. Fauntroy, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke, Christopher Dodd, Harold Ford, Sr. Floyd Fithian, Robert W. Edgar, Samuel L. Devine, Stewart McKinney, Charles Thone, Harold S. Sawyer, The HSCA commissioned a number of expert scientific studies to re-investigate the physical evidence of the JFK assassination. In comparison to witness testimony and government documents, the committee felt that such investigations would benefit from the scientific advances of the fifteen years since the Warren Commission. Several lines of inquiry were followed to both reaffirm the single shooter/single-bullet theory as well as to disprove specific conspiracy theory allegations.

The HSCA concluded that these scientific studies of assassination-related evidence do "not preclude the possibility of two gunmen firing at the President." Forensic analysis confirmed that the mostly-intact stretcher bullet, bullet fragments from the presidential limo and the three cartridge casings from the sniper's nest were all fired from Oswald's rifle to the exclusion of all others. A technique using Neutron activation analysis, a form of what has become known as comparative bullet-lead analysis, was used to analyse the bullet lead from the JFK assassination, it revealed that it was likely that only two lead bullets were the source of all the following pieces of evidence: the mostly-intact stretcher bullet, fragments found in the presidential limousine's front seat and rug, fragments recovered from JFK's brain autopsy and fragments recovered from Governor Connally's wrist. Whether CBLA data can be used to exclude the possibility that there were fragments from more than two bullets in the wounds and the car has been the subject of controversy.

Additionally, the location of the shooter was determined using traj

Smuggling organization

Smuggling is a behavior that has occurred since there were laws or a moral code that tax or forbid access to a specific person or object. At the core of any smuggling organization is the economic relationship between demand. From the organization's point of view, the issues are what the consumer wants, how much the consumer is willing to pay the smuggler or smuggling organization to obtain it; the Developmental Smuggling Model is a unified model in that it describes phases of smugglers and organizations. Smugglers are reported to fall within one of three different phases. Organizations in which there is smuggling occurring fall within one of three different phases. Phase II is subdivided into three types of corporations. Phase I smugglers are smuggling contraband to meet their own needs although they might smuggle enough to cover their expenses by selling some of the contraband. Mules and those who meet law enforcement "smuggler profiles" fall within this cluster of individuals. Individuals are enticed to carry contraband by more experienced smugglers because the professional smuggler wishes to test the security through which the mule must travel or to create a diversion when the novice smuggler is caught.

Once the contraband is placed, the individual or family is referred to as the virgin. The use of a "virgin smuggler" allows the professional smuggler to check his or her assessment of the security and to make sure that the contraband was not detected because "the virgin smuggler" could not control his or her emotions or behavior or because of the way the contraband was packaged, or because a bribe was not effective; the use of a "virgin smuggler" allows the professional smuggler not to be identified. Phase I smugglers is the group most caught by the police and government agencies; these agencies focus their security and enforcement efforts on arresting individuals within this group. In May 2005 the MITRE Corporation released a press announcement reporting that they had created a computer simulation program capable of modeling the complex adaptive behaviors of smugglers; the Modeling Complex Adaptive Behavior Project was headed by Daniel Venese and sponsored by MITRE's Center for Enterprise Modernization.

The program is capable of generating a steady stream of novel smuggling techniques so that strategies can be crafted to combat them. Once an agency produces these strategies, it can feed them into the simulation to test how smugglers may adapt their methods in response. Information regarding The Modeling Complex Adaptive Behavior Project can be found in The MITRE Digest. Phase II smugglers are divided into two subtypes of individuals. Subtype 1 is a group of individuals who have a shared value system; the members of Subtype 1 refer to each other as friends. Subtype 2 individuals belong to a group who have a shared value system but may not know each other as well. Subtype 2 may be a subgroup of coworkers or members of a group such as a gang or a more peaceful groups; when street gangs venture into smuggling they are a Phase II smuggling organization. The money the gangs make from smuggling is spent on supporting their criminal lifestyle; the members of Subtype 2 may have applied for a specific jobs such as bag handlers or inspectors within an industry because it allows them to be in a position to engage in crimes such as smuggling.

Phase II organizations fall into three different type of structures: Type 1 organizations are formed for the sole purpose of smuggling. Type 1 businesses are small, with only a few employees; the individuals have limited experience smuggling, although they are to have wanted to engage in smuggling for some time. The Type 1 businesses have yet to make a substantial profit from smuggling and have only limited contacts with individuals who can secure the contraband; the Type 2 organization is a legitimate business, which turned to smuggling to cover its operational expenses. The Type 3 of organization is large and the smugglers belong to either the management or the rank and file who exploit the smuggling opportunities inherent in the business. Type 3 smuggling organizations include the airline, shipping and land transportation industries; the Phase II smugglers is the group. Phase III smugglers and organizations are formed for the sole purpose of smuggling. There are several factors that distinguish Phase III smugglers and organization from a Phase II smuggler and organization.

The Phase III individual or business smuggles with sophistication. In general, the individuals in Phase III are raised in an environment where smuggling is encouraged and considered an acceptable behavior; the individual is raised with a family history of smuggling. Phase III smugglers are experienced at smuggling; the Phase III smuggling corporation is divided into formal departments such as counter intelligence, money laundering, others. An example is when the smugglers purchase a trucking corporation that ships products such as fruits and vegetables that must be moved from location to location before an expiration date. Due to spoilage risks, the smuggling corporation can protest delays due to screening for contraband at entry ports; the smuggling corporation can select, based on their assessment of the risk of being caught, which shipments will contain the contraband. The smuggling organization invests in other businesses

The North and the South; or, Slavery and Its Contrasts

The North and the South. L. G. Smith, both of which were released in 1852; the North and the South was one of several examples of the pro-slavery plantation literature genre that emerged from the Southern United States in response to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, criticised in the South as inaccurately depicting the workings of slavery and the attitudes of plantation owners towards their slaves. Rush's novel departs from this aspect, instead claiming that the sympathies expressed for slaves in the South is better directed at the "white slaves of poverty" of the North. A similar angle had been taken in the earlier anti-Tom novel The Parlor; this change in attitude would put The North and the South on a similar line to the works of Charles Dickens in England his 1838 work Nicholas Nickleby, the 1844 novel Martin Chuzzlewit, which featured criticisms of class society in the United States. The story centres on the wealthy and prosperous Harley family, consisting of: Frank and their nine children.

After a series of bad investments results in bankruptcy, the Harleys are forced into destitution, which in turn leads to Frank's untimely death from excessive drinking. Gazella continues life as a seamstress in order to provide for her children, two of which have since left home to live on a plantation in Mississippi and are now regaining their wealth; as a working-class woman, Gazella suffers all forms of abuse from those who had once been her equals. The North wanted the slaves to be equal; the South wanted slavery for the need in money for crops. The North and South was first published in its entirety in hardback by Crissy & Markley in 1852; the North and the South at the University of Virginia

Paul Ignatius

Paul Robert Ignatius is an American government official who served as Secretary of the Navy between 1967 and 1969 and was the Assistant Secretary of Defense during the Lyndon Johnson Administration. Ignatius was born in 1920 in Glendale, the son of Armenian parents who migrated to the United States and Hovsep "Joseph" B. Ignatius. Ignatius is a trustee of the George C. Marshall Foundation and member of the Federal City Council and the Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs, he has served as cofounder and chairman of the board of trustees for Logistics Management Institute. He founded Inc. a Boston management consulting and research firm. Ignatius received his bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California and his MBA degree from Harvard Business School, he served as a commissioned lieutenant in the U. S. Navy in World War II, principally as an aviation ordnance officer aboard escort aircraft carrier USS Manila Bay in the Pacific, he has two sons. David Ignatius is a columnist for The Washington Post, a novelist.

Adi Ignatius is editor-in-chief of Harvard Business Review. On May 23, 2013, the Navy announced that an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, USS Paul Ignatius would be named for him, she was commissioned at Port Everglades, Florida on July 27, 2019

People's Commissariat for Education

The People's Commissariat for Education was the Soviet agency charged with the administration of public education and most other issues related to culture. In 1946, it was transformed into the Ministry of Education, its first head was Anatoly Lunacharsky. However he described Krupskaya as the "soul of Narkompros". Mikhail Pokrovsky and Evgraf Litkens played important roles. Lunacharsky protected most of the avant-garde artists such as Vladimir Mayakovsky, Kazimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin and Vsevolod Meyerhold. Despite his efforts, the official policy after Joseph Stalin put him in disgrace. Narkompros had seventeen sections, in addition to the main ones related to general education, e.g. Likbez, a section for liquidation of illiteracy, "Profobr", a section for professional education, Glavlit, a section for literature and publishing, "Glavrepertkom", a commission for approval of performers' repertoires. Department of the Mobilisation of Scientific Forces, to which the Russian Academy of Sciences reported to after 1918.

A Theatre Department which published Vestnik Teatra Vneshkol'nyi Otdel, the adult Education Department run by KrupskayaSome of these evolved into separate entities, others discontinued. Pavel Lebedev-Polianskii, as chair of the organizing bureau for the national Proletkult argued that Narkompros, as a state organ, had responsibilities for the whole of society, whereas Proletkult asserted its autonomy as an organisation set up for workers. However, there was concern with "parallelism" - the situation which arose when similar work was carried out in parallel by different organisations. In early 1918 Narkompros gave Proletkult a budget of over 9,200,000 rubles, whereas the entire Adult Education Division received 32,500,000 rubles; the Izo-Narkompros, or the section of visual arts created on 29 January 1918. It consisted of two parts: the collegium and the section proper; the first collegium was headed by Vladimir Tatlin and included Kasimir Malevich, I. Mashkov, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Olga Rozanova, Alexander Rodchenko, Wassily Kandinsky.

It was subdivided into a number of subsections. Lunacharsky directed some of the great experiments in public arts after the Revolution such as the agit-trains and agit-boats, that circulated over all Russia spreading Revolution and revolutionary arts, he gave support to Constructivism's theatrical experiments and the initiatives such as the ROSTA Windows, revolutionary posters designed and written by Mayakovsky and others. Izo-Narkompros published Iskusstvo kommuny of which 19 issues appeared between 7 December 1918 and April 1919. Lenin saw film as the most important medium for educating the masses in the ways and successes of communism; as a consequence Lenin issued the "Directives on the Film Business" on 17 January 1922, which instructed the Narkompros to systemise the film business and numbering all films shown in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, extracting rent from all owned cinemas and subject them to censorship. Foreign Literature Committee Ministry of Education Academic Centre The Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1917-1964

Taconic Mountains

The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range are a and range of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State and adjacent New England from northwest Connecticut to western Massachusetts, north to central western Vermont. A physiographic region of the larger New England province, the range includes notable summits, including its high point, 3,840 feet Mount Equinox In Vermont, 3,489 feet Mount Greylock, the highest point in Massachusetts; the Taconics contain several hundred miles of trails, including sections of the 2,175-mile Appalachian Trail, over sixty designated areas of land protected by federal, state and municipal, government agencies and non-profit organizations spanning their four state range. Taconic, a Native American name, was once transliterated as the Taghkanic or Taughannock, meaning "in the trees" and used as the name of a Lenape chieftain. Taghkanic is still used in parts of eastern New York, as in the name of Taghkanic, New York, a small town in the region, for both features within and outside the Taconic Mountains region.

The Taconic Mountains begin in northeast Dutchess County, New York. They extend through western Berkshire County and the adjacent counties in New York along the border of New York and Vermont to the town of Brandon, after which they lose prominence and dwindle into scattered hills and isolated peaks which continue north toward Burlington, Vermont. To the south, they fade into the interior Hudson Highlands range in New York. From the west, a 12-mile wide region of foothills in New York State east of the Hudson River Valley rises to the crest of the Taconic Mountains along the state's eastern border. To the east, the Taconic Mountains fall off abruptly, ending in the valleys of the Housatonic River, the upper Hoosic River, the greater Valley of Vermont; the Berkshires and the Green Mountains rise to the east of the Taconics. Near their northern terminus they approach the eastern foothills of the Adirondack Mountains in Washington County, New York. In Massachusetts and Connecticut the geologically distinct Taconic Mountains are incorrectly grouped as part of the Berkshires, while in Vermont they are mis-grouped as part of the Green Mountains.

Among the highest peaks of the Taconic Mountains are Mount Equinox 3,816 feet, located in Manchester, the range’s high point, Mount Greylock 3,491 feet, the highest point in Massachusetts, Mount Frissell 2,454 feet, the highest point in Connecticut. The Taconic Mountains lie within the New England-Acadian forests ecoregion; the South Taconic Range Because the Taconic Mountains are geologically related and contiguous with the interior Hudson Highlands well east of the Hudson River Valley, the southern boundary of the Taconics is difficult to define. Some notable South Taconic peaks include Mount Frissell, the south slope of which contains the highest point in Connecticut at 2,379 feet. Bash Bish Falls, reputedly Massachusetts' highest waterfall, is located in the South Taconic Range; the Appalachian Trail traverses the eastern escarpment of the range. Central Segment and Upper Hoosic River Valley Region North of Catamount Ski Area, the higher hills shift west and become somewhat less prominent.

North of White Hill the Green River cuts through the range. Beyond this, notable summits include Bald Mountain, 1,768 feet, Harvey Mountain, 2,057 feet, part of the newly created Harvey Mountain State Forest (expanded in 2006 in New York and the site of extensive heath barrens. Several miles to the east of Harvey Mountain is Yokun Ridge, a well defined 9-mile long ridge extending from the Massachusetts Turnpike to the southerly neighborhoods of Pittsfield at elevations ranging between 1,500 and 2,000 feet; the ridge contains an area designated The Stockbridge-Yokun Ridge Reserve by the U. S. Forest Service and thus eligible for certain conservation easements. At Pittsfield, the crest shifts west once again to hills contained within Pittsfield State Forest: Balance Rock Park and Bates Memorial State Park, where heights include Holy Mount 1,968 feet, once the location of religious rituals practiced by a former Shaker community and Berry Hill 2,200 feet, notable for its extensive stands of wild azalea.

North of Jiminy Peak 2,392 feet, the valley of Kinderhook Creek cuts through the hills. Here the westernmost ridgeline is dominated by Misery Mountain and Berlin Mountain 2,818 feet and extending into Pownal, Vermont. Between these is the long ridge of 2,621 feet Brodie Mountain; the area hosts an extensive network of smaller trails. Southern Vermont North of the Massachusetts border, the profile of the Taconic Range is cut and eroded by the Hoosic River as it turns west and south toward its confluence with the Hudson River, by its tributary rivers in the vicinity of Bennington, Vermont. Mount Ant