SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

United States Merchant Marine

The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U. S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels. Both the civilian mariners and the merchant vessels are managed by a combination of the government and private sectors, engage in commerce or transportation of goods and services in and out of the navigable waters of the United States; the Merchant Marine transports cargo and passengers during peacetime. Merchant Marine officers may be commissioned as military officers by the Department of Defense; this is achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the United States Navy Reserve. Merchant mariners move cargo and passengers between nations and within the United States, operate and maintain deep-sea merchant ships, towboats, dredges, excursion vessels, charter boats and other waterborne craft on the oceans, the Great Lakes, canals and other waterways; as of October 1, 2018, the United States merchant fleet had 181 owned, self-propelled vessels of 1,000 gross register tons and above that carry cargo from port to port.

Nearly 800 American-owned ships are flagged in other nations. The federal government maintains fleets of merchant ships via organizations such as Military Sealift Command and the National Defense Reserve Fleet, managed by the United States Maritime Administration. In 2004, the federal government employed 5% of all American water transportation workers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, various laws fundamentally changed the course of American merchant shipping; these laws put an end to common practices such as flogging and shanghaiing, increased shipboard safety and living standards. The United States Merchant Marine is governed by more than 25 international conventions to promote safety and prevent pollution. P. L. 95–202, approved November 23, 1977, granted veteran status to Women Airforce Service Pilots and "any person in any other situated group" with jurisdiction for determination given to the Secretary of Defense who delegated that determination to the Secretary of the Air Force. Although the Merchant Marine suffered a per capita casualty rate greater than those of the U.

S. Armed Forces, merchant mariners who served in World War II were denied such veterans recognition until 1988 when a federal court ordered it; the Court held that "the Secretary of the Air Force abused its discretion in denying active military service recognition to American merchant seamen who participated in World War II." Captains and pilots supervise ship operations on domestic waterways and the high seas. A captain is in overall command of a vessel, supervises the work of other officers and crew. A captain has the ability to take the conn from a pilot at any time he feels the need. On smaller vessels the captain may be a regular watch-stander, similar to a mate, directly controlling the vessel's position. Captains and department heads ensure that proper procedures and safety practices are followed, ensure that machinery is in good working order, oversee the loading and discharging of cargo and passengers. Captains directly communicate with the company or command, are overall responsible for cargo, various logs, ship's documents, efforts at controlling pollution and passengers carried.

Mates direct a ship's routine operation for the captain during work shifts, which are called watches. Mates stand watch for specified periods in three duty sections, with four hours on watch and eight hours off; when on a navigational watch, mates direct a bridge team by conning, directing courses through the helmsman and speed through the lee helmsman. When more than one mate is necessary aboard a ship, they are designated chief mate or first mate, second mate and third mate. In addition to watch standers, mates directly supervise the ship's crew, are assigned other tasks; the chief mate is in charge of cargo and the deck crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates and the third mate as the safety officer. They monitor and direct deck crew operations, such as directing line handlers during moorings, anchorings, monitor cargo operations and supervise crew members engaged in maintenance and the vessel's upkeep. Harbor pilots guide ships in and out of confined waterways, such as harbors, where a familiarity with local conditions is of prime importance.

Harbor pilots are independent contractors who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port, may pilot many ships in a single day. Engine officers, or engineers, operate and repair engines, generators and other machinery. Merchant marine vessels have four engine officers: a chief engineer and a first and third assistant engineer. On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the safe operation of engines and other machinery. However, most modern ships sailing today utilize unmanned machinery space automation technology, Assistant Engineers are dayworkers. At night and during meals and breaks, the engine room is unmanned and machinery alarms are answered by the Duty Engineer. Marine oilers and more experienced qualified members of the engine department, or QMEDs, maintain the vessel in proper running order in the engine spaces below decks, under the direction of the ship's engine officers; these workers lubricate gears, shafts and other moving parts of engines and motors.

Bethune, Colorado

The Town of Bethune is a Statutory Town in Kit Carson County, United States. The town population was 237 at the 2010 United States Census, it has access with Interstate 70 and U. S. Highway 24. Bethune is located at 39°18′16″N 102°25′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.2 square miles, all of it land. According to the most recent Census Bureau demographics available, released in December 2018, Bethune has a population of 227, making it the 5th largest town or city in population out of 10 total in the area; the city with the highest population in the area is Burlington, with a population of 5,468. Burlington is the county seat of Kit Carson County. From the census of 2000, there were 225 people, 74 households, 58 families residing in Bethune; the population density was 1,476.8 people per square mile. There were 81 housing units at an average density of 531.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 73.78% White, 0.89% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 23.56% from other races, 1.33% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.11% of the population. There were 74 households out of which 48.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.50. In the town, the population was spread out with 35.6% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,958, the median income for a family was $30,833. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,994. About 21.9% of families and 27.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.8% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over.

Notable individuals who were born in or have lived in Bethune include: Denver Pyle, actor Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Genealogy & History of the German-Russian Settlement north of Bethune

King Neptune (album)

King Neptune is a live album by American saxophonist Dexter Gordon recorded at the Jazzhus Montmartre in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1964 by Danmarks Radio and released on the SteepleChase label in 1979. AllMusic critic Scott Yanow stated "All of the releases in this valuable Dexter in Radioland series are recommended". All compositions by Dexter Gordon except. Introduction by Dexter Gordon – 1:21 "King Neptune" – 12:23 "Satin Doll" – 12:29 "Body and Soul" – 10:05 "I Want to Blow Now" – 14:39 Dexter Gordon – tenor saxophone, vocals Tete Montoliupiano Benny Nielsenbass Alex Rieldrums