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United States Patent and Trademark Office

The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the U. S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification; the USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates on fees collected by its users, not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide"; the USPTO is based in Alexandria, after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington, Virginia. The offices under Patents and the Chief Information Officer that remained just outside the southern end of Crystal City completed moving to Randolph Square, a brand-new building in Shirlington Village, on April 27, 2009; the current Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO is Andrei Iancu.

He began his role as Director on February 8, 2018. Iancu was nominated by President Trump in August 2017, unanimously confirmed by the U. S. Senate. Prior to joining the USPTO, he was the Managing Partner at Irell & Manella LLP, where his practice focused on intellectual property litigation; the USPTO cooperates with the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office as one of the Trilateral Patent Offices. The USPTO is a Receiving Office, an International Searching Authority and an International Preliminary Examination Authority for international patent applications filed in accordance with the Patent Cooperation Treaty; the USPTO maintains a permanent, interdisciplinary historical record of all U. S. patent applications in order to fulfill objectives outlined in the United States Constitution. The legal basis for the United States patent system is Article 1, Section 8, wherein the powers of Congress are defined, it states, in part: The Congress shall have Power... To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

The PTO's mission is to promote "industrial and technological progress in the United States and strengthen the national economy" by: Administering the laws relating to patents and trademarks. The USPTO is headquartered at the Alexandria Campus, consisting of 11 buildings in a city-like development surrounded by ground floor retail and high rise residential buildings between the Metro stations of King Street station and Eisenhower Avenue station where the actual Alexandria Campus is located between Duke Street to Eisenhower Avenue, between John Carlyle Street to Elizabeth Lane in Alexandria, Virginia. An additional building in Arlington, was opened in 2009; the USPTO was expected by 2014 to open its first satellite offices in Detroit, Dallas and Silicon Valley to reduce backlog and reflect regional industrial strengths. The first satellite office opened in Detroit on July 13, 2012. In 2013, due to the budget sequestration, the satellite office for Silicon Valley, home to one of the nation's top patent-producing cities, was put on hold.

However and infrastructure updates continued after the sequestration, the Silicon Valley location opened in the San Jose City Hall in 2015. As of September 30, 2009, the end of the U. S. government's fiscal year, the PTO had 9,716 employees, nearly all of whom are based at its five-building headquarters complex in Alexandria. Of those, 6,242 were patent examiners and 388 were trademark examining attorneys. While the agency has noticeably grown in recent years, the rate of growth was far slower in fiscal 2009 than in the recent past. Patent examiners make up the bulk of the employees at USPTO, they hold degrees in various scientific disciplines, but do not hold law degrees. Unlike patent examiners, trademark examiners must be licensed attorneys. All examiners work under a strict, "count"-based production system. For every application, "counts" are earned by composing and mailing a first office action on the merits, upon disposal of an application; the Commissioner for Patents oversees three main bodies, headed by former Deputy Commissioner for Patent Operations Peggy Focarino, the Deputy Commissioner for Patent Examination Policy Andrew Hirshfeld as Acting Deputy, the Commissioner for Patent Resources and Planning, vacant.

The Patent Operations of the office is divided into nine different technology centers that deal with various arts. Prior to 2012, decisions of patent examiners may be appealed to the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences, an administrative law body of the USPTO. Decisions of the BPAI could further be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or a civil suit may be brought against the Commissioner of Patents in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia; the United States Supreme Court may decide on a patent case. Under the America Invents Act

History of Russia (1855–92)

In 1855, Alexander II began his reign as Tsar of Russia and presided over a period of political and social reform, notably the emancipation of serfs in 1861 and the lifting of censorship. His successor Alexander III pursued a policy of repression and restricted public expenditure, but continued land and labour reforms; this was a period of population growth and significant industrialization, though Russia remained a rural country. Political movements of the time included the Populists and Marxists. A revolutionary organization called People's Will assassinated Alexander II. Another current of thought was embodied in the Slavophiles, who opposed modernization and Westernization. Russia continued to expand its empire, occupying the Caucasus and Samarkand. In foreign affairs, the period began with the conclusion of the Crimean War. Russian policy brought it into conflict with other European powers, in particular Austria-Hungary, as it sought to extend influence over the European portions of the receding Ottoman Empire and regain naval access to the Black Sea.

This culminated in a successful war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–1878, followed by the Treaty of San Stefano and Congress of Berlin in 1878 by which an independent Bulgaria came into being and by acquisition of former Ottoman territories in the South Caucasus. Russia joined Germany and Austria-Hungary in the League of the Three Emperors, but friction continued with both partners over Bulgaria and the alliance with Germany came to an end in 1890. Russia's population growth rate from 1850 to 1910 was the fastest of all the major powers except for the United States. Between 1850 and 1900, Russia's population doubled, but it remained chiefly rural well into the twentieth century; the proclamation law of 1861 freed the peasants from dependence on the landowners and granted them all the land worked by the peasants for their own use. Agriculture remained in the hands of peasants, who together constituted about four-fifths of the rural population, former landowners. By the end of 19th century, Russia was exporter of cereals in the world.

Owing to the development of agriculture, Russia assumed a more important position in the world trade. Industrial growth was significant, although unsteady, in absolute terms it was not extensive. Russia's industrial regions included Moscow, the central regions of European Russia, St. Petersburg, the Baltic cities, Russian Poland, some areas along the lower Don and Dnepr rivers, the southern Ural Mountains. By 1890 Russia had about 32,000 kilometers of railroads and 1.4 million factory workers, most of whom worked in the textile industry. Between 1860 and 1890, annual coal production had grown about 1,200 percent to over 6.8 million tons, iron and steel production had more than doubled to 2 million tons per year. The state budget had more than doubled and debt expenditures had quadrupled, constituting 28 percent of official expenditures in 1891. Tsar Alexander II, who succeeded Nicholas I in 1855, was a man of a liberal disposition, who saw no alternative but to implement change in the aftermath of the Disastrous performance of the Army, the economy and the government during Crimean War.

Alexander initiated substantial reforms in education, the government, the judiciary, the military. In 1861 he proclaimed the emancipation of 20 million held serfs. Local commissions effected emancipation by giving freedom to the serfs; the land allotted to the peasants was bought from the owners with the State's assistance. The government issued bonds to the landowners for this purpose and collected redemption payments from the peasants at the rate of 5% of the total cost yearly; the government had envisioned that the 50,000 former landlords who possessed estates of more than 1.1 km² would thrive without serfs and would continue to provide loyal political and administrative leadership in the countryside. The government had expected that peasants would produce sufficient crops for their own consumption and for export sales, thereby helping to finance most of the government's expenses and foreign debt. Reforms of local government followed emancipation. In 1864 most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and district elected self-government, which were made up of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, prisons, food supply, other concerns.

In 1870 elected city councils, or duma, were formed. Dominated by property owners and constrained by provincial governors and the police, the zemstva and duma raised taxes and levied labor to support their activities. In 1864 Alexander II implemented the great judicial reform. In major towns, it established courts with juries. In general, the judicial system functioned but the government lacked the finances and cultural influence to extend the court system to the villages, where traditional peasant justice continued to operate with minimal interference from provincial officials; the Russian judicial system was modelled after contemporary German law. Each case had to be decided on its merits and not on precedents; this approach remained in place since. Other major reforms took place in the cultural spheres. Censorship, which had stifled opinion under Nicholas, was relaxed, public opinion found a voice; this facilitated the government's effort to eradicate corruption, red tape and inefficiency. Universities had gained autonomy.

The Government encouraged education: it was during Alexander's reign that the education of the peasant masses started on a vast scale. The central government attempted to act through the zemstva to establish uniform

Khrenovina sauce

Khrenovina sauce is a spicy horseradish sauce served with a main course, popular in Siberia. It is prepared by homogenizing fresh ingredients in a grinder: tomatoes, horseradish and salt. Ground black pepper, ground paprika, sweet bell pepper and sugar may be added; this spicy horseradish sauce is sometimes called in Russian'khrenoder','gorloder','P. Kh. Ch.','cobra','flame','chemerges','vyrviglaz' and'Fantômas'. It may be served with traditional Russian meat dishes, including pelmeni; the sauce can be kept in a refrigerator for a long time without preservatives if stored in a sealed jar. Increasing the amount of horseradish and garlic used extends the length of time for which it can be stored. Adjika Chrain List of Russian dishes Wasabi See "coyc.ru" for more about spicy horseradish sauce. Cook at Home