National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Alex Michael Azar II is an American politician, pharmaceutical lobbyist and former drug company executive, the current United States Secretary of Health and Human Services. Azar was nominated by President Donald Trump on November 13, 2017 and confirmed by the United States Senate on January 24, 2018, he was the United States Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services under George W. Bush from 2005 to 2007. From 2012 to 2017, Azar was President of the U. S. division of Eli Lilly and Company, a major pharmaceutical drug company, was a member of the board of directors of the Biotechnology Innovation Organization, a pharmaceutical lobby. Azar was born on June 17, 1967, in Johnstown, the son of Lynda and Alex Azar, his father is of Lebanese descent. He attended Parkside High School in Salisbury, from 1981 to 1985, he received a B. A. degree summa cum laude with highest honors in government and economics from Dartmouth College in 1988, where he was a member of the Kappa Kappa Kappa fraternity. He earned a J.
D. degree at the Yale Law School in 1991, where he served as a member of the executive committee of the Yale Law Journal. His father named Alex Azar, is a retired doctor of ophthalmology and teacher at Johns Hopkins Hospital, his grandfather emigrated from Lebanon in the early 20th century. After law school, from 1991 to 1992, Azar served as a law clerk for Judge Alex Kozinski of the United States Court of Appeals for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Azar was fired after six weeks, was replaced in Kozinski's chambers by Brett Kavanaugh. Azar subsequently clerked for the remainder of the term for Judge J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. From 1992 to 1993, he served as a law clerk for Associate Justice Antonin Scalia of the Supreme Court of the United States. From 1994 to 1996, he served as an Associate Independent Counsel for Kenneth W. Starr in the United States Office of the Independent Counsel, where he worked on the first two years of the investigation into the Whitewater controversy.
At the time of Azar's appointment, he was working as an associate in Starr's law firm. Between 1996 and 2001, Azar worked for Wiley Rein, a Washington, D. C. law firm, where he achieved partner status. On August 3, 2001, Azar was confirmed to be the General Counsel of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Azar played an important role in responding to the 2001 anthrax attacks, making sure there was a vaccine ready for smallpox, dealing with outbreaks of SARS and influenza. On July 22, 2005, Azar was confirmed as the United States Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, he was twice confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate. Working under Secretary Mike Leavitt, Azar supervised all operations of HHS with an annual budget of over $1 trillion. Azar led the development and approval of all HHS regulations, led U. S. government efforts to encourage worldwide pharmaceutical and medical device innovation, was in charge of the HHS response to an initiative implemented by President George W. Bush to improve government performance.
Azar resigned in January 2007. In June 2007, Azar was hired by Eli Lilly and Company chief executive officer Sidney Taurel to be the company's top lobbyist and spokesman as its Senior Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Communications. Azar left the position after Barack Obama was elected as the company wanted a member of the Democratic Party to have the position. In April 2009, Azar became Vice President of Lilly's U. S. Managed Healthcare Services organization and its Puerto Rico affiliate. In 2009, the company paid $1.415 billion to settle criminal charges regarding its promotion of antipsychotic drug Zyprexa for off-label uses between 1999 and 2005. Effective January 1, 2012, Azar became President of Lilly USA, LLC, the largest division of Eli Lilly and Company, was responsible for the company's entire operations in the United States. Prices for drugs rose under Azar's leadership. In connection with the position, Azar served on the board of directors of the Biotechnology Innovation Organization, a pharmaceutical lobby.
In January 2017, Azar resigned from Eli Lilly. He resigned from the board of directors of the Biotechnology Innovation Organization. On November 13, 2017, President Trump announced via Twitter that he would nominate Azar to be the next United States Secretary of Health and Human Services. Azar was confirmed on January 24, 2018, with a vote of 55–43, he was sworn in by Vice President Pence on January 29, 2018. Azar has been a critic of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and predicted in 2017 that "There will be a piece of legislation passes this year, called the repeal of Obamacare. I don't know what's going to be in the substance of it, but there will be a piece of legislation that says that." Regarding the ACA, Azar said that the Department of Health and Human Services has latitude to "make it work a little better."Azar opposes abortion rights. In a written response to Senator Patty Murray regarding future HHS policy, he said that, "The mission of HHS is to enhance the health and well-being of all Americans, this includes the unborn.”According to The New York Times, Azar differed with his predecessor Tom Price in terms of their approach to regulations.
Writing in May 2018, The Times said, "in a sharp break from his predecessor — and from most Trump cabinet secretaries — he seems to be relishing the chance to write new regulations, rather than just crossing out Obama-era ones." Azar lives in Indianapolis with two children. Azar served for two years on the board of HMS Holdings, he is on the board of
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Hubert H. Humphrey Building
The Hubert H. Humphrey Building is a low-rise Brutalist office building located in Washington, D. C. in the United States. Known as the South Portal Building, the Hubert H. Humphrey Building was dedicated on November 1, 1977, it became the headquarters of the United States Department of Health and Welfare. After the department's education component was given to the newly created United States Department of Education in 1979, the newly named United States Department of Health and Human Services continued to occupy the structure; the Hubert H. Humphrey Building is located at 200 Independence Avenue SW in Washington, D. C, it is named for Hubert H. Humphrey serving as U. S. Senator from Minnesota, Vice President of the United States. Planning for the structure began about 1965; the building was designed by architect Marcel Breuer, in association with his design partner Herbert Beckhard and the architectural firm of Nolen-Swinburne and Associates. In the Brutalist style, it was one of the last buildings Breuer designed before his retirement.
The Interstate-395 tunnel and a major sewer line are situated beneath the structure. The building is designed to act like a bridge over the sewer and tunnel, balancing on a few strategically placed columns. A grid of steel trusses extend outward from these columns, which are clustered toward the interior of the building; the exterior and interior walls and the floors hang from these trusses. The second through sixth floors of the building are clad in precast concrete panels finished with a thin granite veneer, each of which contains two large windows; the ground floor is contained by a glass curtain wall, contains a lobby, exhibition space, an auditorium. The first floor is open space, broken up by the main support columns and three building "cores" which contain elevators and other essential infrastructure; the interior walls were prefabricated to contain electrical wiring, HVAC, plumbing, other essential infrastructure. Due to the prefabricated nature of the interior, the cost of the building was reduced from $40 million to just $30 million.
Dining facilities occupy the penthouse level of the building. There is a balcony around the penthouse, but it is unused; the lobby is paved with travertine, held two tapestries designed by Breuer. Due to objections from the Architect of the Capitol, the Hubert H. Humphrey Building is set back about 135 feet from Independence Avenue SW so that it will not hide or compete with the view of the Rayburn House Office Building up the hill to the east; this creates a large plaza in front of the building. Because plants and trees could not be grown on the plaza due to the deleterious effects their roots would have on the tunnel below, Breuer paved the plaza with concrete and included granite-lined depressions and small granite pyramids as decorative effects. In 1974, Congress passed legislation authorizing a major piece of public art to be placed at the south entrance to the Humphrey Building. In 1977, James Rosati's Heroic Shore Points I, a cubic aluminum piece painted bright red, was dedicated and emplaced.
Construction on the building began in early May 1972. Congress threatened to take over the building and use it for office space for the United States House of Representatives, but instead opted to raze a block of restored 19th century homes on New Jersey Avenue SW. In April 1977, as the Humphrey Building neared completion, one of the welds connecting the hanging interior walls to the roof truss cracked; the roof sagged 19 inches, 200 workers were evacuated from the fifth and seventh floors. The beam was rewelded into place, it was dedicated on November 1, 1977. The concrete work on the structure was poor in some places, with poor joints. Softball-sized chunks came loose from the concrete work; the building was called the South Portal Building, as it served as a sort of gate or portal to the United States Capitol complex. But this was changed, it was named for Hubert H. Humphrey serving as U. S. Senator from Minnesota, Vice President of the United States, it was the first time a federal building had been named for a living person, although at that time it was publicly known that Humphrey was terminally ill with cancer, Humphrey died on January 13, 1978, just seventy-five days after the building was dedicated on November 1, 1977.
As of 2012, all of HHS's managerial and supervisory offices are contained in the building, but none of its operating divisions. In April 2014, the General Services Administration said it would spend $6.74 million to renovate the Humphrey Building into open workspace. This would allow the Office of the Chief Information Officer to move into the structure. Hill and Hill, Gerald N. Encyclopedia of Federal Agencies and Commissions. New York: Facts on File, 2004. Miller, Jonathan. Compassionate Community: Ten Values to Unite America. New York: St Martin's Press, 2007. Moore, Arthur Cotton; the Powers of Preservation: New Life for Urban Historic Places. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Thalacker, Donald W; the Place of Art in the World of Architecture. New York: Chelsea House, 1980
Tom Price (American politician)
Thomas Edmunds Price is an American physician and politician who served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services in the administration of Donald Trump from February to September 2017, and, the U. S. Representative for Georgia's 6th congressional district, encompassing the northern suburbs of Atlanta, from 2005 to 2017. While in Congress, Price chaired the House Committee on the Budget, Republican Study Committee and Republican Policy Committee. On September 29, 2017, he resigned as head of HHS following criticism of his use of private charters and military aircraft for travel. In July 2018, the HHS inspector general urged the HHS to recoup at least $341,000 from Price for wasteful expenditures. Price was born in Lansing and grew up in Dearborn, where he attended Adams Jr. High and Dearborn High School. Price's father and grandfather were both doctors; as a child, Price accompanied his grandfather on house calls in Toledo, Ohio. Until Price was the age of six, his father worked a dairy farm in Michigan.
Price received his B. A. and M. D. degrees from the University of Michigan. He completed a residency in orthopedic surgery at Emory University in Atlanta, settled in the suburb of Roswell, Georgia. Price began private practice in 1984 and returned to Emory as an assistant professor of orthopedic surgery in 2002, he was the director of the orthopedic clinic at Atlanta's Grady Memorial Hospital, where he first met his wife Betty, who worked there as anesthesiologist. Price is a former member of the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, a politically conservative non-profit association founded in 1943 to "fight socialized medicine and to fight the government takeover of medicine." The AAPS opposes mandatory vaccination. Price is a member of the American Medical Association. Before entering the state senate, Price was a politically active member of the Republican Party and traveled with the Medical Association of Georgia in the early 1990s to oppose the Clinton health care plan of 1993. Price first ran for office, after receiving a phone call from state senator Sallie Newbill in 1995.
Newbill, who represented Georgia's 56th senate district, was planning to retire and asked Price if he was interested in succeeding her. Price accepted the offer and defeated Democrat Ellen Milholland in the election, 71–29%. In a 1998 rematch, he won re-election to a second term by defeating Milholland by a margin of 75–25%. In 2000 and 2002, he won re-election to a fourth term unopposed. Price has cited discontent with government regulations of the health care industry as his primary reason for becoming involved in politics. During his tenure as state senator, Price served on the committees for Appropriations, Economic Development and Tourism, Ethics and Human Services and Labor, Reapportionment and Redistricting, Rules. Price was elected minority whip of the Georgia state senate on November 6, 1998, he held this position until November 14, 2002, when Republicans took control of the state senate, Price was elected majority leader – the first Republican to hold this position in Georgia. He was replaced as majority leader by Bill Stephens on June 17, 2003.
2004 In late April 2003, Price formally announced his candidacy for Georgia's 6th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. The seat was being vacated by Republican Johnny Isakson, who had decided to pursue an opening in the U. S. Senate. Bob Barr, a former U. S. Congressman, was considered an early frontrunner in the race to replace Isakson, but Barr withdrew his candidacy for personal reasons, shortly before Price entered the race. Price went onto run against two fellow state senators, Chuck Clay and Robert Lamutt, as well as two state representatives, Roger Hines and Mark Burkhalter. Taking part in the race was John McCallum, a former aide to U. S. House Speaker Newt Gingrich. At the time, Georgia's 6th Congressional district included parts of Fulton and Cobb counties; the district lines had been drawn so as to favor Republicans - The Atlanta Journal-Constitution called the district a "honey pot" for the party and suggested that whoever won that year's primary would retain the seat "into the next decade".
Isakson had won the previous election with eighty percent of the vote, no Democrat entered the race to replace him. Following Barr's withdrawal from the race, Lamutt, a millionaire venture capitalist who self-financed much of his own campaign, was considered to be the new frontrunner. Clay had served as Republican minority leader in the state legislature, several years before Price became the party's majority leader. Price's residence in Fulton County was seen as a disadvantage, because the 6th district had been represented by Cobb County residents since 1991. All of Price's opponents on the final ballot lived in Cobb. Price considered relocating, in order to improve his chances in the race, but he decided against this. Despite this handicap, Price had out-raised his opponents by late July, although he was overtaken by Clay, he reclaimed his top position in the 6th district race within a few months. In February 2004, it was reported that Clay and Price were the two highest-funded candidates in that year's Congressional races, nationwide.
Federal election law put a limit of $2,000 on individual contributions to the campaigns, but Lamutt activated a clause that raised this limit to $6,000 for his opponents, when he loaned $600,000 to his own campaign
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa