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United States fifty-dollar bill

The United States fifty-dollar bill is a denomination of United States currency. The 18th U. S. President, Ulysses S. Grant, is featured on the obverse, while the U. S. Capitol is featured on the reverse. All current-issue $50 bills are Federal Reserve Notes; as of December 2013, the average life of a $50 bill in circulation is 8.5 years, or 102 months, before it is replaced due to wear. 6% of all notes printed in 2009 were $50 bills. They are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in brown straps. 1861: Three-year $50 Interest Bearing Notes were issued that paid a cent of interest per day, thus 7.3% annually — the so-called seven-thirties. These notes were not designed to circulate and were payable to the original purchaser of the dollar bill; the obverse of the note featured a bald eagle. 1862: The first circulating $50 bill was issued. 1863: Both one and two-year Interest Bearing Notes were issued that paid 5% interest. The one-year Interest Bearing Notes featured a vignette of Alexander Hamilton to the left and an allegorical figure representing loyalty to the right.

The two-year notes featured allegorical figures of justice. 1864: Compound Interest Treasury Notes were issued, intended to circulate for three years and paying 6% interest compounded semi-annually. The obverse is similar to the Series of 1863 one-year Interest Bearing Note. 1865: Three-year Interest Bearing Notes were issued again with a different bald eagle and border design on the obverse. 1869: A new $50 United States Note was issued with a portrait of Henry Clay on the right and an allegorical figure holding a laurel branch on the left of the obverse. 1870: $50 National Gold Bank Notes were issued for payment in gold coin by 2 national gold banks. The obverse featured vignettes of George Washington crossing the Delaware River and at Valley Forge. S. gold coins. 1874: Another new $50 United States Note was issued with a portrait of Benjamin Franklin on the left and allegorical figure of Lady Liberty on the right of the obverse. 1878: The first $50 silver certificate was issued with a portrait of Edward Everett.

The reverse was printed in black ink. 1880: The Series of 1878 Silver Certificate was revised. 1882: The first $50 gold certificate with a portrait of Silas Wright was issued. The reverse was featured a bald eagle perched atop an American flag. 1891: The obverse of the $50 Silver Certificate was revised and the reverse was changed. 1891: The $50 Treasury or "Coin Note" was issued and given for government purchases of silver bullion from the silver mining industry. The note featured a portrait of William H. Seward. 1913: A new $50 gold certificate with a portrait of Ulysses Grant was issued. The style of the area below Grant's portrait was used on small-sized notes. 1914: The first $50 Federal Reserve Note was issued with a portrait of Ulysses Grant on the obverse and an allegorical figure of Panama between a merchant and battle ship on the reverse. 1918: Federal Reserve Bank Notes were issued by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; the obverse was similar to the 1914 Federal Reserve Notes, except for large wording in the middle of the bill and a portrait with no border on the left side of the bill.

The note could only be redeemed there. 1929: Under the Series of 1928, all U. S. currency was changed to its current size. All variations of the $50 bill would carry the same portrait of Ulysses S. Grant, same border design on the obverse, the same reverse with a vignette of the U. S. Capitol showing the east front; the $50 bill was issued as a Federal Reserve Note with a green seal and serial numbers and as a gold certificate with a golden seal and serial numbers. 1933: As an emergency response to the Great Depression, additional money was pumped into the American economy through Federal Reserve Bank Notes issued under Series of 1929. This was the only small-sized $50 bill; the serial numbers and seal on it were brown. 1934: The redeemable in gold clause was removed from Federal Reserve Notes due to the U. S. withdrawing from the gold standard. 1950: Many minor aspects on the obverse of the $50 Federal Reserve Note were changed. Most noticeably, the treasury seal, gray word FIFTY, the Federal Reserve Seal were made smaller.

1966: WILL PAY TO THE BEARER ON DEMAND was removed from the obverse and IN GOD WE TRUST was added to the reverse of the $50 Federal Reserve Note beginning with Series 1963A. The obligation was shortened to its current wording, THIS NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER FOR ALL DEBTS PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 1969: The $50 bill began using the new treasury seal with wording in English instead of Latin. 1991: The first new-age anti-counterfeiting measures were introduced under Series 1990 with microscopic printing around Grant's portrait and a plastic security strip on the left side of the bill. Though the bills read Series 1990, the first bills were printed in November 1991. October 27, 1997: The first major redesign of the $50 note since 1929 was implemented as Series 1996 to further deter counterfeiters. Included were an enlarged and off-center portrait, an enlarged and updated view of the U. S. Capitol now showing the west front on the reverse, a security thread which glows yellow under ultraviolet light, a numeric 50 which shifts color from black to green when tilted, a watermark of Grant.

For those with vision limitations, a large dark 50 was added to the bottom left corner of the r

Guy Dollman

Captain John Guy Dollman BA, FLS, known as Guy Dollman, was a British zoologist and taxonomist. Dollman's tree mouse and Dollman's vlei rat are named after him. Elder son of the artist John Charles Dollman, Guy Dollman was born on 4 September 1886 and attended St Paul's School, winning a scholarship to study at St John's College Cambridge. In February 1907, while still a student, he was employed by the Department of Zoology at the British Museum, where he spent most of his working life as Assistant Keeper of Mammals. In 1912, on an expedition to Vietnam, he named the Tonkin snub-nosed langur, he joined the British Army in 1915, obtained a commission in the 19th London Regiment. He did not see active service abroad during World War I, he returned to the museum in 1919. He was a member of the panel of advisers to the British delegation to the 1933 International Conference for the Preservation of the Flora and Fauna of Africa, said to have been "the high point of institutionalised global nature protection before the Second World War", according to his obituary in The Times, Dollman "had a decisive voice on the animal species to be scheduled for total or partial protection".

He wrote extensively with Walter Rothschild. He was an accomplished artist, exhibiting pictures at the Royal Academy, illustrated many of his own scientific writings. Dollman died on 21 March 1942, aged 65. Dollman is the binomial authority for the following: In 1912, Dollman classified Elephantulus rufescens dundasi, a subspecies of the rufous elephant shrew. A History of British Mammals. X: Eighth series 1912, Pages: 130--131, A new Snub-nosed Monkey. Burlace. Proc. Zool. Soc. London Game animals of the Empire ASIN: B001855K8S Mammals collected by Lord Cranbrook and Captain F. Kingdon Ward in Upper Burma. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London New mammals from Dutch New Guinea. Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 353,13-16. On mammals collected in Dutch New Guinea by Mr. F. Shaw Mayer in 1930. Rothschild, Lord Walter & Dollman, G. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 211–219.. Rowland Ward's Records of Big Game edited by J. B. Burlace, Guy Dollman. African Antelopes.

CXLI. Journal of the Royal African Society. 36: 148-149 Obituary, the Times, 24 March 1942

Zero page (CP/M)

The Zero Page is a data structure used in CP/M systems for programs to communicate with the operating system. In 8-bit CP/M versions it is located in the first 256 bytes of memory, hence its name; the equivalent structure in DOS is the Program Segment Prefix, a 256-byte structure, however, is by default located at offset 0 in the program's load segment preceding a loaded program. In 8-bit CP/M, it has the following structure: In CP/M-86, the structure is: Zero page Page boundary relocation "Tim Olmstead Memorial CP/M library". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-20. - in particular: "CP/M 3 Programmers' Manual". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-20. "CP/M-86 System Guide". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-20. "CP/M Internals". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-20. - In-depth description of CP/M zero page functions