United States one-dollar bill

The United States one-dollar bill since 1876 has been the lowest value denomination of United States paper currency. An image of the first U. S. President, George Washington, based on the Athenaeum Portrait, a 1796 painting by Gilbert Stuart, is featured on the obverse, the Great Seal of the United States is featured on the reverse; the one-dollar bill has the oldest overall design of all U. S. currency being produced. The obverse design of the dollar bill seen today debuted in 1963 when it was first issued as a Federal Reserve Note; the inclusion of the motto, "In God We Trust," on all currency was required by law in 1955, first appeared on paper money in 1957. The Federal Reserve says the average life of a $1 bill in circulation is 5.8 years before it is replaced because of wear. 42% of all U. S. currency produced in 2009 were one-dollar bills. As of 2017, there were 12.1 billion one-dollar bills in circulation worldwide 1862: The first one-dollar bill was issued as a Legal Tender Note with a portrait of Salmon P. Chase, the Secretary of the Treasury under President Abraham Lincoln.

1869: The $1 United States Note was redesigned with a portrait of George Washington in the center and a vignette of Christopher Columbus sighting land to the left. The obverse of the note featured overprinting of the word ONE numerous times in small green type and blue tinting of the paper. Although this note is technically a United States Note, TREASURY NOTE appeared on it instead of UNITED STATES NOTE. 1874: The Series of 1869 United States Note was revised. Changes on the obverse included removing the green and blue tinting, adding a red floral design around the word WASHINGTON D. C. and changing the term TREASURY NOTE to UNITED STATES NOTE. The reverse was redesigned; this note was issued as Series of 1875 and 1878. 1880: The red floral design around the words ONE DOLLAR and WASHINGTON D. C. on the United States Note was replaced with a large red seal. Versions had blue serial numbers and a small seal moved to the left side of the note. 1886: The first woman to appear on U. S. currency, Martha Washington, was featured on the $1 silver certificate.

The reverse of the note featured an ornate design that occupied the entire note, excluding the borders. 1890: One-dollar Treasury or "Coin Notes" were issued for government purchases of silver bullion from the silver mining industry. The reverse featured the large word ONE in the center surrounded by an ornate design that occupied the entire note. 1891: The reverse of the Series of 1890 Treasury Note was redesigned because the treasury felt that it was too "busy," which would make it too easy to counterfeit. More open space was incorporated into the new design; the obverse was unchanged. 1896: The famous "Educational Series" Silver Certificate was issued. The entire obverse was covered with artwork of allegorical figures representing "history instructing youth" in front of Washington D. C; the reverse featured portraits of George and Martha Washington surrounded by an ornate design that occupied the entire note. 1899: The $1 Silver Certificate was again redesigned. The obverse featured a vignette of the United States Capitol behind a bald eagle perched on an American flag.

Below that were small portraits of Abraham Lincoln to Ulysses S. Grant to the right. 1917: The obverse of the $1 United States Note was changed with the removal of ornamental frames that surrounded the serial numbers. 1918: The only large-sized, Federal Reserve Note-like $1 bill was issued as a Federal Reserve Bank Note. Each note was an obligation of the issuing Federal Reserve Bank and could only be redeemed at that corresponding bank; the obverse of the note featured a borderless portrait of George Washington to the left and wording in the entire center. The reverse featured a bald eagle in flight clutching an American flag. 1923: Both the one-dollar United States Note and Silver Certificate were redesigned. Both notes featured the same reverse and an identical obverse with the same border design and portrait of George Washington; the only difference between the two notes was the color of ink used for the numeral 1 crossed by the word DOLLAR, Treasury seal, serial numbers along with the wording of the obligations.

These dollar bills were the first and only large-size notes with a standardized design for different types of notes of the same denomination. In 1928, all currency was changed to the size, familiar today; the first one-dollar bills were issued as silver certificates under Series of 1928. The Treasury seal and serial numbers were dark blue; the obverse was nearly identical to the Series of 1923 $1 silver certificate, but the Treasury seal featured spikes around it and a large gray ONE replaced the blue "1 DOLLAR." The reverse, had the same border design as the Series of 1923 $1 bill, but the center featured a large ornate ONE superimposed by ONE DOLLAR. These are known as "Funnybacks" due to the rather odd-looking "ONE" on the reverse; these $1 silver certificates were issued until 1934. In 1933, Series of 1928 $1 United States Notes were issued to supplement the supply of $1 Silver Certificates, its Treasury seal and serial numbers were red and there was different wording on the obverse of the note.

However, a month after their production, it was realized that there would be no real need for t


The Semelidae are a family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the order Cardiida. Members of this family have oval, elongated shells, much flattened; the two valves are connected by an internal ligament in contrast to the related family Tellinidae where the ligament is external. The two separate siphons are long, sometimes several times the length of the shell; these siphons have a characteristic cruciform muscle at their base. Genera of Semelidae include: Abra Lamarck, 1818 Abra aequalis Abra alba Abra californica Kundsen, 1970 Abra lioica Abra longicallis Sacchi, 1836 Abra nitida Abra pacifica Dall, 1915 Abra prismatica Abra profundorum E. A. Smith, 1885 Abra tenuis Abra tepocana Dall, 1915 Argyrodonax Dall, 1911 Cumingia G. B. Sowerby I, 1833 Cumingia californica Conrad, 1837 Cumingia coarctata G. B. Sowerby I, 1833 Cumingia tellinoides Ervilia Turton, 1822 Ervilia bisculpta Gould, 1861 Ervilia castanea Ervilia concentrica Ervilia nitens Ervilia producta Odhner, 1922 Ervilia purpurea Ervilia scaliola Iacra H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856 Leptomya A. Adams, 1864 Leptomya retiara aucklandica Powell Leptomya retiara retiara Leptomyaria Habe, 1960 Lonoa Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 Montrouzieria Souverbie, 1863 Rochefortina Dall, 1924 Scrobicularia Schumacher, 1815 Scrobicularia plana – Peppery furrow shell Semele Schumacher, 1817 Semele bellastriata Semele brambleyae Semele decisa Semele incongrua Carpenter, 1864 Semele proficua Semele pulchra Semele purpurascens Semele rubicola Dall, 1915 Semele rubropicta Dall, 1871 Semele rupicola Dall, 1915 Semele venusta Semelina Dall, 1900 Semelina nuculoides †Septeuilia Cossmann, 1913 Souleyetia Récluz, 1869 Theora H. Adams and A. Adams, 1856 Theora lubrica Gould, 1861 Theora mesopotamica Annandale 1918 Thyellisca H. E. Vokes, 1956 Powell A. W. B.

New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1*

Union Jack Club

The Union Jack Club is an Armed Forces Club in central London for enlisted members and veterans of the British Armed Services and their families. Located near London Waterloo railway station, the club has over 260 rooms for accommodation,restaurant, small library and full range of meeting and banqueting rooms; the club's main entrance is in Sandell Street off opposite Waterloo station. Many guest bedrooms on the upper floors have views over London; the idea for the club came from Ethel McCaul, a Royal Red Cross nurse who served in field hospitals during the South African War at the start of the 20th century. She noted that while officers enjoyed membership of various gentlemen's clubs in London, no equivalent existed for enlisted personnel and they therefore used public houses and inns of varying repute; the initial sum of £ 60,000 was raised at various functions. Any donor giving £100 could name a room. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle took the opportunity to endow the "Lady Conan Doyle Room" with his contribution.

Members of the royal family attended a benefit concert at the Royal Albert Hall. George V whilst Prince of Wales laid the club's foundation stone in July 1904, it was opened three years in July 1907, by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. The address of the original Edwardian building was London. Ethel McCaul was adamant that her brave servicemen and their families should have somewhere to stay at no more of a cost than one day’s pay. Waterloo seemed the obvious place as this was the principal railhead leading to the ports and garrisons which served the Empire; the Union Jack Club was to be built as a National Memorial to those who had fallen in the South African War. The Union Jack Club found itself in great demand during both World Wars and its resources were stretched, with the Union Jack Club growing from 208 bedrooms in 1904 to a total of 800 beds in 1939. For many years after the First World War an annual donation was sent anonymously to the Union Jack Club and with each payment came a note with the words “In gratitude for a scrap of comfort”.

The words of this anonymous donor are today commemorated by a marble plaque sited in the Reception Area. These poignant words sum up best the Union Jack Club’s tradition of service to those who serve our country. During the Second World War, the area around Waterloo Station was bombed and the Union Jack Club itself suffered considerable damage which required extensive repair. Added to this, there was an urgent need to modernise its amenities, décor and the way it conducted its business. In 1970, it was therefore decided to construct a new building, with ‘Investment in Industry’ building three tower blocks and, themselves leasing one block for a period of 125 years whilst the two tower blocks would constitute the new Union Jack Club. Demolition work began in 1971 and the Union Jack Club opened for business on its new premises on 16 October 1975. Since its opening in 1907, the Union Jack Club has seen over 21 million people stay at the Club. There are a number of points of historical interest throughout the Union Jack Club, such as the Victoria Cross and George Cross boards, which are the only known commemoration of their kind to all those who have earned the Victoria Cross and George Cross.

Since its inception over 112 years ago, the Union Jack Club remains as popular as ever. Ethel McCaul had a vision and foresight and we owe her an eternal debt of gratitude for the Charity she created. Union Jack Club website The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh help celebrate the centenary of the Union Jack Club, 3 December 2004 London SE1 — Queen visits Union Jack Club, 3 December 2004