United States patent law

Under United States law, a patent is a right granted to the inventor of a process, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, new and non-obvious. A patent is the right to exclude others from using a new technology, it is the right to exclude others from making, selling, offering for sale, inducing others to infringe, and/or offering a product specially adapted for practice of the patent. United States patent law is codified in Title 35 of the United States Code, authorized by the U. S. Constitution, in Article One, section 8, clause 8, which states: The Congress shall have power... To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. For U. S. utility patents, this limited-time term of patent is 20 years from the earliest patent application filing date. After the patent term expires, the new technology enters the public domain and is free for anyone to use; some of the most important patent law is found under Title 35 of the United States Code.

The "patentability" of inventions is defined under Sections 100–105. Most notably, section 101 sets out "subject matter". Other patent law is found in a variety of sources, including federal court decisions that have accumulated over more than 200 years; the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office has its own court system, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, that handles appeals of examiners' refusals to grant patents, various other matters pertaining to the USPTO; some Patent Trial and Appeal Board opinions will be considered precedent, will affect future patent applications. "Whoever invents or discovers any new and useful process, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof may obtain a patent therefor, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title." 35 U. S. C. 101. To be patent eligible subject matter, an invention must meet two criteria. First, it must fall within one of the four statutory categories of acceptable subject matter: process, manufacture, or composition of matter.

Second, it must not be directed to subject matter encompassing a judicially recognized exception: laws of nature, physical phenomena, abstract ideas. Section 102 of the patent act defines the "novelty" requirement; the novelty requirement prohibits patenting a technology, available to the public. 35 U. S. C. 102 states: NOVELTY. For a technology to be "anticipated" under 35 U. S. C. 102, the prior art reference must teach every aspect of the claimed invention either explicitly or impliedly. "A claim is anticipated only if each and every element as set forth in the claim is found, either expressly or inherently described, in a single prior art reference." Verdegaal Bros. v. Union Oil Co. of California, 814 F.2d 628, 631. To be patentable, a technology must not only be "new" but "non-obvious." A technology is obvious if a person of "ordinary skill" in the relevant field of technology, as of the filing date of the patent application, would have thought the technology was obvious. Put differently, an invention that would have been obvious to a person of ordinary skill at the time of the invention is not patentable.

35 U. S. C. 103 states: 35 U. S. C. 103 Conditions for patentability. A patent for a claimed invention may not be obtained, notwithstanding that the claimed invention is not identically disclosed as set forth in section 102, if the differences between the claimed invention and the prior art are such that the claimed invention as a whole would have been obvious before the effective filing date of the claimed invention to a person having ordinary skill in the art to which the claimed invention pertains; the non-obviousness requirement does not demand that the prior art be identical to the claimed invention. It is enough. So long as the modification of the prior art would have been obvious to a person of ordinary skill in the art at the time the application was filed, the applied-for technology will be considered obvious and therefore patent-ineligible under 35 U. S. C. §103. Patent applications can be filed at Trademark Office; the application process is somewhat slow and expensive. Estimate $10,000 to $30,000 in filing and legal fees, about 3 years from filing the application to the issue date.

The rules for drafting and filing a patent application are set out in the Manual of Patent Examination Procedure. Since the American Inventors Protection Act, the United States Patent and Trademark Office publishes patent applications 18 months after they are filed; this time limit can be extended for an additional fee. The applicat

Just Us (Roy Haynes album)

Just Us is an album recorded by American drummer Roy Haynes's Trio in 1960 for the New Jazz label. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars stating "Haynes' concise drum solos always hold one's interest, though this tasteful date is far from definitive, the music is enjoyable". "Down Home" - 7:26 "Sweet and Lovely" - 6:56 "As Long as There's Music" - 3:43 "Well Now" - 1:56 "Cymbalism" - 7:00 "Con Alma" - 6:31 "Speak Low" - 7:03 Roy Haynes - drums Richard Wyands - piano Eddie De Haas - bass

Trevor Bowen

Trevor Bowen, is an English actor and screenwriter who has appeared in British television dramas since the mid-1960s. He is the son of Major General W. O. Bowen and was educated at Dulwich College, Winchester Art School and Queens College, Cambridge where he was president of the Marlowe Society and appeared in student productions, he toured with the Royal Shakespeare Company and appeared in repertory theatres. His notable television appearances include, he appeared in the film Darling as Julie Christie's first husband. Bowen has been active as a television screenwriter since the 1970s, writing many episodes for television films and series, most notably Sherlock Holmes and The Inspector Alleyn Mysteries, but including contributions to Bognor, Miss Marple, the television movie version of The Body in the Library, Hornblower Mutiny and Helen West, he has written several novels. Punctuations, London 1971 The Emperor's Falcon, London 1980 The Death of Amy Parris, London 1998 The Black Camel, London 2002 T.

R. Bowen on IMDb