University College London
UCL logo since 2005
|Latin: Collegium Universitatis Londinensis|
London University (1826–1836)|
University College, London (1836–1907)
University of London, University College (1907–1976)
University College London (1977–2005; remains legal name)
|Motto||Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae (Latin)|
Motto in English
|"Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward"|
|Type||Public research university|
|Endowment||£111.4 million (at 31 July 2017)|
£1.304 billion (university); £1.327 billion (consolidated)(2016-17)
|Chancellor||The Princess Royal (as Chancellor of the University of London)|
|Chair of the Council||Dame DeAnne Julius|
|Location||London, United Kingdom|
(as Master of the Rolls ex officio)
UCL (legally University College London)[note 1] is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, and the largest by postgraduate enrolment.
Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, and the first in England to be entirely secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL also makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England[note 2] and the first to admit women.[note 3] In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a royal charter in the same year. It has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology (in 1997), the Royal Free Hospital Medical School (in 1998), the Eastman Dental Institute (in 1999), the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (in 1999), the School of Pharmacy (in 2012) and the Institute of Education (in 2014).
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, and administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2016/17, UCL had around 37,900 students and 14,600 staff (including around 7,100 academic staff and 840 professors) and had a total group income of £1.33 billion, of which £459.8 million was from research grants and contracts.
In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, and second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight. UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. Globally, UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, and from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group, and is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, and the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities.
UCL alumni include the 'Father of the Nation' of each of India, Kenya and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, and one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics. As of 2017, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers.[note 4]
- 1 History
- 2 Campus and locations
- 3 Organisation and administration
- 4 Academics
- 5 Commercial activities
- 6 Student life
- 7 Notable people
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
1826 to 1836 – London University
UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge. London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university.
Despite the commonly held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, and in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful. This suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today commonly regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders, particularly the Scotsmen James Mill (1773–1836) and Henry Brougham (1778–1868).
In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England. In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would later become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital (originally North London Hospital) opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school.
1836 to 1900 – University College, London
In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates.
In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine (with the exception of courses on public health and hygiene). While UCL claims to have been the first university in England to admit women on equal terms to men, from 1878, the University of Bristol also makes this claim, having admitted women from its foundation (as a college) in 1876. Armstrong College, a predecessor institution of Newcastle University, also allowed women to enter from its foundation in 1871, although none actually enrolled until 1881. Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, although after the war ended limitations were placed on their numbers.
1900 to 1976 – University of London, University College
In 1900, the University of London was reconstituted as a federal university with new statutes drawn up under the University of London Act 1898. UCL, along with a number of other colleges in London, became a school of the University of London. While most of the constituent institutions retained their autonomy, UCL was merged into the University in 1907 under the University College London (Transfer) Act 1905 and lost its legal independence.
1900 also saw the decision to appoint a salaried head of the college. The first incumbent was Carey Foster, who served as Principal (as the post was originally titled) from 1900 to 1904. He was succeeded by Gregory Foster (no relation), and in 1906 the title was changed to Provost to avoid confusion with the Principal of the University of London. Gregory Foster remained in post until 1929. In 1906, the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital.
UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including to the Great Hall and the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory. The first UCL student magazine, Pi Magazine, was published for the first time on 21 February 1946. The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated to UCL in 1959.
Although UCL was among the first universities to admit women on the same terms as men, in 1878, the college's senior common room, the Housman Room, remained men-only until 1969. After two unsuccessful attempts, a motion was passed that ended segregation by sex at UCL. This was achieved by Brian Woledge (Fielden Professor of French at UCL from 1939 to 1971) and David Colquhoun, at that time a young lecturer in pharmacology.
1976 to 2005
In 1976, a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although still without the power to award its own degrees. Under this charter the college became formally known as University College London, having previously formally been "University of London, University College" since its incorporation into the University. This name abandoned the comma used in its earlier name of "University College, London".
In 1986, UCL merged with the Institute of Archaeology. In 1988, UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School.
In 1993, a reorganisation of the University of London meant that UCL and other colleges gained direct access to government funding and the right to confer University of London degrees themselves. This led to UCL being regarded as a de facto university in its own right.
In 1994, the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust was established. UCL merged with the College of Speech Sciences and the Institute of Ophthalmology in 1995, the Institute of Child Health and the School of Podiatry in 1996 and the Institute of Neurology in 1997. In 1998, UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999, UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies and the Eastman Dental Institute.
Proposals for a merger between UCL and Imperial College London were announced in 2002. The proposal provoked strong opposition from UCL teaching staff and students and the AUT union, which criticised "the indecent haste and lack of consultation", leading to its abandonment by the UCL Provost Sir Derek Roberts. The blogs that helped to stop the merger are preserved, though some of the links are now broken: see David Colquhoun's blog and the Save UCL blog, which was run by David Conway, a postgraduate student in the department of Hebrew and Jewish studies.
Since 2003, when UCL Professor David Latchman became Master of the neighbouring Birkbeck, he has forged closer relations between these two University of London colleges, and personally maintains departments at both. Joint research centres include the UCL/Birkbeck Institute for Earth and Planetary Sciences, the UCL/Birkbeck/IoE Centre for Educational Neuroscience, the UCL/Birkbeck Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, and the Birkbeck-UCL Centre for Neuroimaging.
2005 to 2010
In 2005, UCL was finally granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers and all UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees. Also in 2005, UCL adopted a new corporate branding under which the name University College London was replaced by the initialism UCL in all external communications. In the same year, a major new £422 million building was opened for University College Hospital on Euston Road, the UCL Ear Institute was established and a new building for the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies was opened.
In 2007, the UCL Cancer Institute was opened in the newly constructed Paul O'Gorman Building. In August 2008, UCL formed UCL Partners, an academic health science centre, with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. In 2008, UCL established the UCL School of Energy & Resources in Adelaide, Australia, the first campus of a British university in the country. The School was based in the historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square and its creation followed negotiations between UCL Vice Provost Michael Worton and South Australian Premier Mike Rann.
In 2009, the Yale UCL Collaborative was established between UCL, UCL Partners, Yale University, Yale School of Medicine and Yale – New Haven Hospital. It is the largest collaboration in the history of either university, and its scope has subsequently been extended to the humanities and social sciences.
2010 to 2015
In June 2011, the mining company BHP Billiton agreed to donate AU$10 million to UCL to fund the establishment of two energy institutes – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.
In November 2011, UCL announced plans for a £500 million investment in its main Bloomsbury campus over 10 years, as well as the establishment of a new 23-acre campus next to the Olympic Park in Stratford in the East End of London. It revised its plans of expansion in East London and in December 2014 announced to build a campus (UCL East) covering 11 acres and provide up to 125,000m2 of space on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. UCL East will be part of plans to transform the Olympic Park into a cultural and innovation hub, where UCL will open its first school of design, a centre of experimental engineering and a museum of the future, along with a living space for students.
The School of Pharmacy, University of London merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences. In May 2012, UCL, Imperial College London and the semiconductor company Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.
In August 2012, UCL received criticism for advertising an unpaid research position; it subsequently withdrew the advert.
UCL and the Institute of Education formed a strategic alliance in October 2012, including co-operation in teaching, research and the development of the London schools system. In February 2014, the two institutions announced their intention to merge, and the merger was completed in December 2014.
In September 2013, a new Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP) was established within the Faculty of Engineering, one of several initiatives within the university to increase and reflect upon the links between research and public sector decision-making.
In October 2013, it was announced that the Translation Studies Unit of Imperial College London would move to UCL, becoming part of the UCL School of European Languages, Culture and Society. In December 2013, it was announced that UCL and the academic publishing company Elsevier would collaborate to establish the UCL Big Data Institute. In January 2015, it was announced that UCL had been selected by the UK government as one of the five founding members of the Alan Turing Institute (together with the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Oxford and Warwick), an institute to be established at the British Library to promote the development and use of advanced mathematics, computer science, algorithms and big data.
2015 to present
In August 2015, the Department of Management Science and Innovation was renamed as the School of Management and plans were announced to greatly expand UCL's activities in the area of business-related teaching and research. The School is currently being moved from the Bloomsbury campus to One Canada Square in Canary Wharf.
UCL established the Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) in 2015 to promote interdisciplinary research in humanities and social sciences. The prestigious annual Orwell Prize for political writing moved to the IAS in 2016.
In June 2016 it was reported in the Times Higher Education that as a result of administrative errors hundreds of students who studied at the UCL Eastman Dental Institute between 2005–6 and 2013–14 had been given the wrong marks, leading to an unknown number of students being attributed with the wrong qualifications and, in some cases, being failed when they should have passed their degrees. A report by UCL’s Academic Committee Review Panel noted that, according to the Institute’s own review findings, senior members of UCL staff had been aware of issues affecting students' results but had not taken action to address them. The Review Panel concluded that there had been an apparent lack of ownership of these matters amongst the Institute’s senior staff.
In December 2016 it was announced that UCL would be the hub institution for a new £250 million national dementia research institute, to be funded with £150 million from the Medical Research Council and £50 million each from Alzheimer's Research UK and the Alzheimer's Society.
In May 2017 it was reported that staff morale was at "an all time low", with 68% of members of the academic board who responded to a survey disagreeing with the statement "UCL is well managed" and 86% with "the teaching facilities are adequate for the number of students". Michael Arthur, the Provost and President, linked the results to the "major change programme" at UCL. He admitted that facilities were under pressure following growth over the past decade, but said that the issues were being addressed through the development of UCL East and rental of other additional space.
In October 2017 UCL's council voted to apply for university status while remaining part of the University of London. UCL's application to become a university is subject to parliament passing a bill to amend the statutes of the University of London, which is, as of July 2018, held up by procedural issues in the House of Commons.
In 2018, UCL opened UCL at Here East, at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, offering courses jointly between the Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment and the Faculty of Engineering Sciences. The campus offers a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees, with the first undergraduate students, on a new Engineering and Architectural Design MEng, starting in September 2018. It was announced in August 2018 that a £215 million contract for construction of the largest building in the UCL East development, Marshgate 1, had been awarded to Mace, with building to begin in 2019 and be completed by 2022.
Campus and locations
UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, in Central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, management, philosophy and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre, the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, the Grant Museum of Zoology and the affiliated University College Hospital. Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Education, the UCL School of Pharmacy, the UCL School of Public Policy and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies.
The area around Queen Square in Bloomsbury, close by to the main campus, is a hub for brain-related research and healthcare, with the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and UCL Institute of Neurology located in the area along with the affiliated National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. The UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and the affiliated Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children are located adjacently, forming a hub for paediatric research and healthcare. The UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute and the affiliated Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital and Eastman Dental Hospital are located nearby in east Bloomsbury along Gray's Inn Road and form a hub for research and healthcare in audiology and dentistry respectively.
Notable UCL buildings in Bloomsbury include the UCL Main Building, including the Octagon, Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins; the Cruciform Building, Gower Street (a red, cross-shaped building previously home to University College Hospital); and the Rockefeller Building, University Street, home to the original University College Hospital Medical School and named after the American oil magnate John D. Rockefeller after support from the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1920s. Due to its position within London and the historical nature of its buildings, including most notably the UCL Main Building and Quad, UCL has been used as a location for a number of film and television productions, including Doctor in the House (1954), Gladiator (2000), The Mummy Returns (2001), The Dark Knight (2008) and Inception (2010).
A number of important institutions are based near to the main campus, including the British Library, the British Medical Association, the British Museum, Cancer Research UK, Gray's Inn, the Medical Research Council, RADA, the Royal Academy of Art, the Royal Institution and the Wellcome Trust. Many University of London schools and institutes are also close by, including Birkbeck, University of London, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Veterinary College, the School of Advanced Study, the School of Oriental and African Studies and the Senate House Library. The nearest London Underground station is Euston Square, with Goodge Street, Russell Square and Warren Street all nearby. The mainline railway stations at Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all within walking distance.
In 2014 it was announced that UCL would be building an additional campus at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, referred to as UCL East, as part of the development of the so-called Olympicopolis site at the southern edge of the park. UCL master planners were appointed in spring 2015, and the first University building was, at that time, estimated to be completed in time for academic year 2019/20.
It was revealed in June 2016 that the UCL East expansion could see the university grow to 60,000 students. The proposed rate of growth was reported to be causing concern, with calls for it to be slowed down to ensure the university could meet financial stability targets.
Outline planning permission for UCL East was submitted in May 2017 by the London Legacy Development Corporation and UCL, and granted in March 2018. Construction of the first phase of buildings is (as of March 2018) expected to begin in 2019 with the first building (Pool Street West) expected to be completed for the start of the 2021 academic year and the second building (Marshgate 1) opening in phases from September 2022. As of March 2018, phase 1 is intended to have 50,000 m2 of space, and to house 4,000 extra students and 260 extra academic staff, while the entire UCL East campus, when completed, is expected to have 180,000 m2 of space, 40% of the size of UCL's central London campus. The outline planning permission is for up to 190,800 m2 of space with up to 160,060 m2 of academic development and research space (including up to 16,000 m2 of commercial research space), up to 50,880 m2 of student accommodation, and up to 4,240 m2 of retail space. According to the planning documents, construction of phase 2 (Pool Street East and Marshfield 2, 3 and 4) is expected to begin in 2030 and be completed by 2034, and the whole project will support 2,337 academic staff and 11,169 students. The campus will include residences for up to 1,800 students. In June 2018, UCL revealed that the UK Government would be providing £100 million of funding for UCL East as part of its £151 million contribution to the £1.1 billion redevelopment of the Olympic Park as a cultural and education district to be known as the East Bank.
From 2018 UCL is offering degree courses at the Olympic Park, based at UCL at Here East at the northern end of the East Bank development.
Elsewhere in Central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (based in Clerkenwell), the Windeyer Institute (based in Fitzrovia), the UCL Institute of Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Science (based in Stanmore), The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other teaching hospitals. The UCL School of Management is located at Level 38, One Canada Square in Canary Wharf, London. The Department of Space and Climate Physics (Mullard Space Science Laboratory) is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, and there is a UCL campus in Doha, Qatar specialised in archaeology, conservation and museum studies (to be transferred to Hamad Bin Khalifa University in 2020 at the end of UCL's contact with the Qatar Foundation). From 2010 to 2015 UCL ran a University Preparatory Certificate course at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan, and had a campus in Adelaide, Australia from 2010 to 2017.
Organisation and administration
Although UCL is a constituent college of the federal University of London, in most ways it is comparable with free-standing, self-governing and independently funded universities, and it awards its own degrees.
UCL's governing body is the Council, which oversees the management and administration of UCL and the conduct of its affairs, subject to the advice of the Academic Board on matters of academic policy, and approves UCL's long-term plans. It delegates authority to the Provost, as chief executive, for the academic, corporate, financial, estate and human resources management of UCL. The Council normally meets six times each year. The Council comprises 20 members, of whom 11 are members external to UCL; seven are UCL academic staff, including the Provost, three UCL professors and three non-professorial staff; and two are UCL students. The Chair is appointed by Council for a term not normally exceeding five years. The Chair is ex officio Chair of the Honorary Degrees and Fellowships Committee, Nominations Committee and Remuneration and Strategy Committee. The current Chair of the Council is Dame DeAnne Julius.
UCL's principal academic and administrative officer is the President and Provost, who is also UCL's designated principal officer for the purposes of the Financial Memorandum with the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The Provost is appointed by Council after consultation with the Academic Board, is responsible to the Council, and works closely with its members, and especially with the Chair of Council. The current and tenth Provost and President of UCL is Michael Arthur, who replaced Sir Malcolm Grant in 2013.
Vice-Provosts are appointed by the Provost, through the Council, to assist and advise the Provost as required. The Vice-Provosts are members of the Provost's Senior Management Team. There are presently six Vice-Provosts (for Education, Enterprise, Health, International, Research, and Operations).
The Deans of UCL's faculties are appointed by Council and, together with the Vice-Provosts and the Director of Finance and Business Affairs, form the members of the Provost's Senior Management Team. The Deans' principal duties include advising the Provost and Vice-Provosts on academic strategy, staffing matters and resources for academic departments within their faculty; overseeing curricula and programme management at faculty level; liaising with Faculty Tutors on undergraduate admissions and student academic matters; overseeing examination matters at faculty level; and co-ordinating faculty views on matters relating to education and information support.
List of Provosts
- Sir Gregory Foster (1906–1929)
- Sir Allen Mawer (1930–1942)
- David Pye (1943–1951)
- Sir Ifor Evans (1951–1966)
- Lord Annan (1966–1978)
- Sir James Lighthill (1979–1989)
- Sir Derek Roberts (1989–1999; 2002–2003)
- Sir Christopher Llewellyn Smith (1999–2002)
- Sir Malcolm Grant (2003–2013)
- Michael Arthur (2013–present)
Faculties and departments
UCL's research and teaching is organised within a network of faculties and academic departments. Faculties and academic departments are formally established by the UCL Council, the governing body of UCL, on the advice of the Academic Board, which is UCL's senior academic authority. UCL is a comprehensive university with teaching and research across the full range of the arts, humanities, social sciences, physical, biological and medical sciences, engineering and the built environment, although it does not currently have a veterinary, music, drama or nursing school. UCL is currently organised into the following 11 constituent faculties:
|Faculty||Academic and research staff
(as at 30 April 2012)
|UCL Faculty of Arts and Humanities||328||2,157||1,075|
|UCL Faculty of Brain Sciences||1,249||722||1,457|
|UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett)||355||570||1,241|
|UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences||667||2,049||1,642|
|UCL Faculty of Laws||137||528||458|
|UCL Faculty of Life Sciences||798||1,183||486|
|UCL Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences||754||2,187||677|
|UCL Faculty of Medical Sciences||1,257||1,773||1,342|
|UCL Faculty of Population Health Sciences||1,092||64||815|
|UCL Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences||621||2,539||1,894|
|UCL Institute of Education||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Total||5,277 (ex. Institute of Education)||13,772 (ex. Institute of Education)||11,087 (ex. Institute of Education)|
To facilitate greater interdisciplinary interaction in research and teaching UCL also has three strategic faculty groupings:
- the UCL School of Life and Medical Sciences (comprising the Faculties of Brain Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences and Population Health Sciences);
- the UCL School of the Built Environment, Engineering and Mathematical and Physical Sciences (comprising the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences and UCL Faculty of Mathematical & Physical Sciences);
- the UCL Faculty of Arts & Humanities, UCL Faculty of Laws, UCL Faculty of Social & Historical Sciences and the UCL School of Slavonic & East European Studies.
In the financial year ended 31 July 2016, UCL had a total income (excluding share of joint ventures) of £1.36 billion (2014/15 – £1.26 billion) and a total expenditure of £1.23 billion (2014/15 – £1.22 billion). Key sources of income included £530.4 million from research grants and contracts (2014/15 – £427.3 million), £421.1 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2014/15 – £364.2 million), £192.1 million from funding body grants (2014/15 – £195.2 million) and £25.1 million from donations and endowments (2014/15 – £20.3 million). During the 2015/16 financial year UCL had a capital expenditure of £146.6 million (2014/15 – £149.3 million). At year end UCL had endowments of £100.9 million (31 July 2015 – £104.1 million) and total net assets of £1.19 billion (31 July 2015 – £1.07 million).[note 5]
In 2014/15, UCL had the third-highest total income of any British university (after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford), and the third-highest income from research grants and contracts (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London). For the 2015/16 academic year, UCL was allocated a total of £171.37 million for teaching and research from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the highest amount allocated to any English university, of which £39.76 million is for teaching and £131.61 million is for research. According to a survey published by the Sutton Trust, UCL had the eighth-largest endowment of any British university in 2012.
UCL launched a 10-year, £300 million fundraising appeal in October 2004, at the time the largest appeal target set by a university in the United Kingdom. UCL launched a new £600 million fundraising campaign in September 2016 titled "It's All Academic – The Campaign for UCL".
In April 2016, UCL signed a £280 million 30-year loan with the European Investment Bank, the largest loan ever borrowed by a UK university and largest ever loan by the EIB to a university. The monies are to be used to fund a £1.25 billion capital expenditure programme in Bloomsbury and Stratford. Some UCL academics oppose the expansion plans.
The UCL academic year is divided into three terms. For most departments except the Medical School, Term One runs from late September to mid December, Term Two from mid January to late March, and Term Three from late April to mid June. Certain departments operate reading weeks in early November and mid February.
Logo, arms and colours
Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo. The present logo was adopted as part of a rebranding exercise in August 2005. Prior to that date, a different logo was used, in which the letters UCL were incorporated into a stylised representation of the Wilkins Building portico.
UCL formerly made some use of a pseudo-heraldic "coat of arms" depicting a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath. A version of this badge (not on a shield) appears to have been used by UCL Union from shortly after its foundation in 1893. However, the arms have never been the subject of an official grant of arms, and depart from several of the rules and conventions of heraldry. They are no longer formally used by the college, although they are still occasionally seen in unofficial contexts, or used in modified form by sports teams and societies. The blazon of the arms might be rendered as: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae. The motto is a quotation from Virgil's Aeneid, and translates into English as "Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward".
UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple and light blue are derived from the arms.
From its foundation the college was deliberately secular; the initial justification for this was that it would enable students of different Christian traditions (specifically Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Protestants) to study alongside each other without conflict. UCL has retained this strict secular position and, unlike most other UK universities, has no specific religious prayer rooms. There has, however, been a Christian chaplaincy since 2005 and there is no restriction on religious groups among students. A "quiet contemplation room" also allows prayer for staff and students of all faiths.
Memberships, affiliations and partnerships
UCL is a founding member of the Russell Group, an association of 24 British research universities established in 1994, and of the G5 lobbying group, which it established in early 2004 with the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics. UCL is regarded as forming part of the ‘golden triangle’, an unofficial term for a set of leading universities located in the southern English cities of Cambridge, London and Oxford including the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London, King's College London and the London School of Economics.
UCL has been a member of the League of European Research Universities since January 2006. It is currently one of five British members (the others being the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh and Oxford and Imperial College London). Other international groupings that UCL is a member of include the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association and the Universities Research Association. UCL has a major collaboration with Yale University, the Yale UCL Collaborative, and has hundreds of other research and teaching partnerships, including around 150 research links and 130 student-exchange partnerships with European universities.
UCL has been a member of the SES engineering and physical sciences research alliance since May 2013, which it formed with the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Southampton and Imperial College London (King's College London subsequently joined in 2016). UCL is a member of the Thomas Young Centre, an alliance of London research groups working on the theory and simulation of materials; the other members are Imperial College London, King's College London and Queen Mary University of London. UCL is one of the five founding members of the Alan Turing Institute, the UK's national institute for data sciences (together with the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Oxford and Warwick). It also operates the London Centre for Nanotechnology, a multidisciplinary research centre in physical and biomedical nanotechnology, in partnership with Imperial College London.
UCL has a close partnership with University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; the Trust's hospitals are teaching sites for the UCL Medical School, UCL and the Trust are joint partners in the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health, and both are members of the UCL Partners academic health science centre. UCL is a founding member of the Francis Crick Institute, a major biomedical research centre in London which is a partnership between Cancer Research UK, Imperial College London, King's College London, the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and UCL. UCL also operates the Bloomsbury Research Institute, a research institute focused on basic to clinical and population studies in bacteriology, parasitology and virology, in partnership with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
UCL offers joint degrees with numerous other universities and institutions, including The Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, Columbia University, the University of Hong Kong, Imperial College London, New York University, Peking University and Yale University.
UCL is the sponsor of the UCL Academy, a secondary school in the London Borough of Camden. The school opened in September 2012 and was the first in the UK to have a university as sole sponsor. UCL also has a strategic partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre.
UCL is a founding member of Knowledge Quarter, a partnership of academic, cultural, research, scientific and media organisations based in the knowledge cluster in the Bloomsbury and King's Cross area of London. Other members of the partnership include the British Library, the British Museum, Google and the Wellcome Trust.
Faculty and staff
In the 2014/15 academic year, UCL had an average of 7,070 academic and research staff, the highest number of any UK university, of whom 5,360 were full-time and 1,710 part-time. UCL has 840 professors, the largest number of any British university. As of August 2016 there were 56 Fellows of the Royal Society, 51 Fellows of the British Academy, 15 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 121 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic and research staff.
UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges", Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing.
In 2014/15, UCL had a total research income of £427.5 million, the third-highest of any British university (after the University of Oxford and Imperial College London). Key sources of research income in that year were BIS research councils (£148.3 million), UK-based charities (£106.5 million), UK central government, local/health authorities and hospitals (£61.5 million), EU government bodies (£45.5 million), and UK industry, commerce and public corporations (£16.2 million). In 2015/16, UCL was awarded a total of £85.8 million in grants by UK research councils, the second-largest amount of any British university (after the University of Oxford), having achieved a 28% success rate. For the period to June 2015, UCL was the fifth-largest recipient of Horizon 2020 EU research funding, and the largest recipient of any university, with €49.93 million of grants received. UCL also had the fifth-largest number of projects funded of any organisation, with 94.
According to a ranking of universities produced by SCImago Research Group, UCL is ranked 12th in the world (and 1st in Europe) in terms of total research output. According to data released in July 2008 by ISI Web of Knowledge, UCL is the 13th most-cited university in the world (and most-cited in Europe). The analysis covered citations from 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008, during which 46,166 UCL research papers attracted 803,566 citations. The report covered citations in 21 subject areas and the results revealed some of UCL's key strengths, including: Clinical Medicine (1st outside North America); Immunology (2nd in Europe); Neuroscience & Behaviour (1st outside North America and 2nd in the world); Pharmacology & Toxicology (1st outside North America and 4th in the world); Psychiatry & Psychology (2nd outside North America); and Social Sciences, General (1st outside North America).
UCL submitted a total of 2,566 staff across 36 units of assessment to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessment, in each case the highest number of any UK university (compared with 1,793 UCL staff submitted to the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2008)). In the REF results 43% of UCL's submitted research was classified as 4* (world-leading), 39% as 3* (internationally excellent), 15% as 2* (recognised internationally) and 2% as 1* (recognised nationally), giving an overall GPA of 3.22 (RAE 2008: 4* – 27%, 3* – 39%, 2* – 27% and 1* – 6%). In rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the REF results, UCL was ranked 1st overall for "research power" and joint 8th for GPA (compared to 4th and 7th respectively in equivalent rankings for the RAE 2008).
UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834, but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874). Clinical medicine is primarily taught at the Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital.
UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. In a bibliometric analysis of biomedical and health research in England for the period 2004–13, UCL was found to have produced by far the highest number of highly cited publications of any institution, with 12,672 (compared to second-placed Oxford University with 9,952). UCL is part of three of the 20 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre, the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, and the NIHR Great Ormond Street Biomedical Research Centre. In the latest round of Department of Health funding for the 5 years from April 2017, the three UCL-affiliated biomedical research centres secured £168.6 million of the £811 million total funding nationwide, the largest amount awarded to any university and significantly higher than second-placed Oxford University (with £126.5 million).
UCL is a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion. UCL is also a member of the Francis Crick Institute based next to St Pancras railway station. It is one of the world's largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists, and the largest of its kind in Europe.
|Offer Rate (%)||62.9||63.0||61.7||56.7||55.6|
|Average Entry Tariff[note 6]||n/a||191||501||505||500|
Admission to UCL is highly selective with an average entry tariff for 2016–17 of 191 UCAS points (approximately equivalent to A*AAB or AAAA at A-level), the 9th highest in the country and 3rd in London. UCL was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions to courses including Economics, European Social and Political Studies, Law, Mathematics, Medicine, Theoretical Physics and Psychology. The university gave offers of admission to 62.9% of its applicants in 2017, and had the 6th lowest offer rate in the Russell Group in 2015. For 2017 entry, the university was one of only a few mainstream universities (along with Cambridge, Imperial College London, LSE, Oxford, St Andrews, and Warwick) to have no courses available in Clearing.
Of UCL's undergraduates, 32.4% are privately educated, the eighth highest proportion amongst mainstream British universities. In the 2016-17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 59:12:30 of UK:EU:non-EU students respectively with a female to male ratio of 58:42.
Undergraduate law applicants are required to take the National Admissions Test for Law and undergraduate medical applicants are required to take the BioMedical Admissions Test. Applicants for European Social and Political Studies are required to take the Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA) should they be selected for an assessment day. Some UCL departments interview undergraduate applicants prior to making an offer of admission.
Undergraduate subjects with the highest applicants to places ratio at UCL in 2015 included Architecture BSc (14:1 ratio), Economics BSc (Econ) (11:1 ratio), Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng (10:1 ratio), English BA (10:1 ratio), Fine Art BA (23:1 ratio), Law LL.B (16:1 ratio) and Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc (30:1 ratio).
UCL runs intensive one-year foundation courses that lead to a variety of degree programmes at UCL and other top UK universities. Called the UCL University Preparatory Certificate, the courses are targeted at international students of high academic potential whose education systems in their own countries usually do not offer qualifications suitable for direct admission. There are two pathways – one in science and engineering called the UPCSE; and one in the humanities called UPCH. The same courses run at the Centre for Preparatory Studies at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan. Students completing this course progress onto undergraduate programmes at Nazarbayev University.
The UCL library system comprises 17 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called Explore. The libraries contain a total of over 2 million books. The largest library is the UCL Main Library, which is located in the UCL Main Building and contains collections relating to the arts and humanities, economics, history, law and public policy. The second largest library is the UCL Science Library, which is located in the DMS Watson Building on Malet Place and contains collections relating to anthropology, engineering, geography, life sciences, management and the mathematical and physical sciences. Other libraries include the UCL Bartlett Library (architecture and town planning), the Cruciform Library (general clinical and medical sciences), the UCL Eastman Dental Institute Library (oral health sciences), the UCL Institute of Archaeology Library (archaeology and egyptology), the UCL Institute of Education's Newsam Library (education and related areas of social science), the UCL Institute of Neurology Rockefeller Medical Library (neurosurgery and neuroscience), the Joint Moorfields Eye Hospital & the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Library (biomedicine, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology and visual science), the UCL Language & Speech Science Library (audiology, communication disorders, linguistics & phonetics, special education, speech & language therapy and voice) and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Library (the economics, geography, history, languages, literature and politics of Eastern Europe).
UCL staff and students have full access to the main libraries of the University of London—the Senate House Library and the libraries of the Institutes of the School of Advanced Study—which are located close to the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury. These libraries contain over 3.7 million books and focus on the arts, humanities and social sciences. The British Library, which contains around 14 million books, is also located close to the main UCL campus and all UCL students and staff can apply for reference access.
Since 2004, UCL Library Services has been collecting the scholarly work of UCL researchers to make it freely available on the internet via an open access repository known as UCL Eprints. The intention is that material curated by UCL Eprints will remain accessible indefinitely.
Museums and collections
UCL's Special Collections contains UCL's collection of historical or culturally significant works. It is one of the foremost university collections of manuscripts, archives and rare books in the UK. It includes collections of medieval manuscripts and early printed books, as well as significant holdings of 18th-century works, and highly important 19th- and 20th-century collections of personal papers, archival material, and literature, covering a vast range of subject areas. Archives include the Latin American archives, the Jewish collections and the George Orwell Archive. Collections are often displayed in a series of glass cabinets in the Cloisters of the UCL Main Building.
UCL's most significant works are housed in the Strong Rooms. The special collection includes first editions of Isaac Newton's Principia, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and James Joyce's Ulysses. The earliest book in the collection is The crafte to lyve well and to dye well, printed in 1505.
UCL is responsible for several museums and collections in a wide range of fields across the arts and sciences, including:
- Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology: one of the leading collections of Egyptian and Sudanese archaeology in the world. Open to the public on a regular basis.
- UCL Art Museum: the art collections date from 1847, when a collection of sculpture models and drawings by the neoclassical artist John Flaxman was presented to UCL. There are over 10,000 pieces dating from the 15th century onwards including drawings by Turner, etchings by Rembrandt, and works by many leading 20th century British artists. The works on paper are displayed in the Strang Print Room, which has limited regular opening times. The other works may be viewed by appointment.
- Flaxman Gallery: a series of plaster casts of full-size details of sculptures by John Flaxman is located inside the Main Library under the central dome of the UCL Main Building.
- Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy: a diverse Natural History collection covering the whole of the animal kingdom. Includes rare dodo and quagga skeletons. A teaching and research collection, it is named after Robert Edmund Grant, UCL's first professor of comparative anatomy and zoology from 1828, now mainly noted for having tutored the undergraduate Charles Robert Darwin at the University of Edinburgh in the 1826–1827 session.
- Geology Collections: founded around 1855. Primarily a teaching resource and may be visited by appointment.
- Institute of Archaeology Collections: items include prehistoric ceramics and stone artefacts from many parts of the world, the Petrie collection of Palestinian artefacts, and Classical Greek and Roman ceramics. Visits by appointment only.
- Ethnography Collections: this collection exemplifying Material Culture holds an enormous variety of objects, textiles and artefacts from all over the world. Visits by appointment only.
- Galton Collection: the scientific instruments, papers and personal memorabilia of Sir Francis Galton. Housed in the department of biology. Visits by appointment only.
- Science Collections: diverse collections primarily accumulated in the course of UCL's own work, including the operating table on which the first anaesthetic was administered. Items may be a viewed by appointment.
Rankings and reputation
| CWTS Leiden|
| The Guardian
| Times / Sunday Times
British Government assessment
|Teaching Excellence Framework||Silver|
In the 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities, UCL is ranked 16th in the world (and 3rd in Europe). In the 2016 subject tables it was ranked 8th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy, joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 10th in Europe) for Engineering, Technology and Computer Sciences, 9th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences, joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 14th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and Mathematics and joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 12th in Europe) for Social Sciences.
In the 2018/19 QS World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 10th in the world (and 5th in Europe). In the 2017/18 faculty rankings it is ranked joint 18th in the world (4th in Europe) for Arts and Humanities, joint 53rd in the world (15th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology, 11th in the world (4th in Europe) for Life Sciences and Medicine, 62nd in the world (18th in Europe) for Natural Sciences, and joint 30th in the world (6th in Europe) for Social Sciences and Management. In the 2017/18 Rankings by Subject, UCL is ranked in 37 subjects, of which 35 are in the world top 100 and 16 are in the world top 20. It is ranked in the world top 10 for ten subjects: Anthropology (10th), Archaeology (3rd), Architecture (2nd), Anatomy & Physiology (joint 4th), Dentistry (6th), Education and Training (1st), Geography (8th), Medicine (9th), Pharmacy & Pharmacology (8th) and Psychology (joint 8th). In the QS Graduate Employability Ranking, UCL is ranked 24th.
In the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 16th in the world (and 5th in Europe). In the 2016/17 subject tables it was ranked 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities, 6th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health, 12th in the world (and 6th in Europe) for Computer Science, joint 38th in the world (and 12th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology, 12th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences, joint 23rd in the world (and 8th in Europe) for Physical Sciences and 14th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Social Sciences. In the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 16th in the world. In the 2015 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, UCL is ranked 48th in the world.
UCL is ranked 16th in the world (2nd in Europe) for number of publications and 26th in the world (6th in Europe) for quality of publications in the 2017 CWTS Leiden Ranking. UCL is ranked 10th in the world (2nd in Europe) in the 2017 National Taiwan University Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities. UCL is ranked 17th in the world (8th in Europe) in the 2017 Round University Ranking. UCL is ranked 5th in the world (2nd in Europe) in the 2016/17 University Ranking by Academic Performance. In the 2018 U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking, UCL is ranked 22nd in the world (4th in Europe).
UCL is consistently one of the top 10 multi-faculty universities in UK university rankings, which place more emphasis on the undergraduate student experience than global rankings, using criteria such as teaching quality and learning resources, entry standards, employment prospects, research quality and dropout rates. In the 2018 Times Higher Education "Table of Tables", which is based on the combined results of the UK’s three main domestic university rankings, UCL is ranked joint 7th. In The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance, UCL was ranked 5th overall in the UK. UCL is one of only eight universities (along with the other members of the G5, Bath, St Andrews and Warwick) to have never been outside the top 15 in one of the three main domestic rankings between 2008-2017. For 2017 entry UCL, along with Cambridge, Imperial College, LSE, Oxford, St Andrews, and Warwick were one of the few mainstream institutions to opt out of Clearing.
In the 2019 Complete University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked in the top 10 in 29 subjects, and is ranked second for Town & Country Planning and Landscape Design and third for Building and Politics among others. In a 2015 Times Higher Education study UCL was chosen as the 8th best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies.
UCL has significant commercial activities and in 2014/15 these generated around £155 million in revenues. UCL's principal commercial activities include UCL Business, UCL Consultants, and catering and accommodation services. UCL also participates in a number of commercial joint ventures, including EuroTempest Ltd and Imanova Ltd.
UCL Business (UCLB) is a technology transfer company which is wholly owned by UCL. It has three main activities: licensing technologies, creating spin-out companies, and project management. UCLB supports spin-out companies in areas including discovery disclosure, commercialisation, business plan development, contractual advice, incubation support, recruitment of management teams and identification of investors. In the area of licensing technoloiges, UCLB provides commercial, legal and administrative advice to help companies broker licensing agreements. UCLB also provides UCL departments and institutes with project management services for single or multi-party collaborative industry projects.
UCLB had a turnover of £8 million in 2014/15 and as at 31 July 2015 had equity holdings in 61 companies.
UCL Consultants (UCLC) is an academic consultancy services company which is wholly owned by UCL. It provides four main service offerings: Academic Consultancy, Testing & Analysis, Expert Witness, and Training & Short Courses. As at 31 July 2015 UCLC had around 1,100 registered consultants.
UCLC had a turnover of £10.1 million in 2014/15.
UCL Press is a university press wholly owned by UCL. It was the first fully open access university press in the UK, and publishes monographs, textbooks and other academic books in a wide range of academic areas which are available to download for free, in addition to a number of journals As of May 2018, UCL Press had had more than 1 million downloads of its open access books.
Imanova is a joint venture company of UCL, Imperial College London, Kings College London and the Medical Research Council which owns and manages the Clinical Imaging Centre located at Imperial College London’s Hammersmith Hospital campus.
In the 2014/15 academic year UCL had a total of 35,615 students, of whom 16,830 were undergraduate and 18,785 were postgraduate. In that year, UCL had the third-largest total number of students of any university in the United Kingdom (after the Open University and the University of Manchester), and the largest number of postgraduate students.
In 2013/14 87% of UCL's students were full-time and 13% part-time, and 54% were female and 46% male. In 2013/14, 12,330 UCL students were from outside the UK (43% of the total number of students in that year), of whom 5,504 were from Asia, 3,679 from the European Union ex. the United Kingdom, 1,195 from North America, 516 from the Middle East, 398 from Africa, 254 from Central and South America, and 166 from Australasia.
As of 31 July 2015, UCL had around 220,000 alumni across 190 countries, of whom around 137,000 were based in the United Kingdom (and approximately 60,000 were based in London). The largest alumni communities outside of the UK are in the United States, Greece and China.
Founded in 1893, the UCL Union is one of the oldest students' unions in England, although postdating the Liverpool Guild of Students which formed a student representative council in 1892. UCL Union operates both as the representative voice for UCL students, and as a provider of a wide range of services. It is democratically controlled through General Meetings and referendums, and is run by elected student officers. The Union has provided a prominent platform for political campaigning of all kinds in recent years. It also supports a range of services, including numerous clubs and societies, sports facilities, an advice service, and a number of bars, cafes and shops. The union is also responsible for the organisation of a number of events, including, amongst others, the college's annual summer ball.
There are currently over 150 clubs and societies under the umbrella of the UCL Union, including: UCL Snowsports (one of the largest sports society at UCL, responsible for organising the annual UCL ski trip), Pi Media (responsible for Pi Magazine and Pi Newspaper, UCL's official student publications); UCL Union Debating Society, UCL's second oldest society (established 1829), UCL Union Film Society, one of the country's oldest film societies with past members including Christopher Nolan; The Cheese Grater (a student magazine containing a mix of news investigations and humorous items); and the University College London Investment Society, one of the largest and most popular career societies at UCL .[better source needed]
UCL Union runs over 50 sports clubs, including UCL Cricket Club (Men's and Women's as well as Medical School clubs), UCL Boat Club (Men's and Women's clubs), UCL Cross Country and Athletics Club and UCL Rugby Club (Men's and Women's as well as Medical School clubs).
UCL clubs compete in inter-university fixtures in the British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) competition in a range of sports, including basketball, cricket, fencing, football, hockey, netball, rugby union and tennis. In the 2014/15 season, UCL finished in 24th position in the final BUCS rankings of 151 participating higher education institutions.
UCL mascot is Phineas Maclino, or Phineas, a wooden tobacconist's sign of a kilted Jacobite Highlander stolen from outside a shop in Tottenham Court Road during the celebrations of the relief of Ladysmith, part of the Second Boer War, in March 1900. This establishment of mascots at both UCL and King's saw the beginning of mascotry, where Phineas would be kidnapped by King's and then this act would be revenged by UCL. In 1922, Phineas was briefly stolen by King's, and later during the 1927 rag the King's mascot 'Reggie the Lion' was captured by UCL students and his body filled with rotten apples. In 1993, the university's centenary year, Phineas was placed in the third floor bar of 25 Gordon Street and the bar named after him.
Rivalry with King's College London
UCL has a long-running, mostly friendly rivalry with King's College London, which has historically been known as "Rags". UCL students have been referred to by students from King's as the "Godless Scum of Gower Street", in reference to a comment made at the founding of King's, which was based on Christian principles. UCL students in turn referred to King's as "Strand Polytechnic".
The King's' mascot, Reggie the Lion, went missing in the 1990s and was recovered after being found dumped in a field. It was restored at the cost of around £15,000 and then placed on display in the students' union. It is in a glass case and filled with concrete to prevent theft, particularly by UCL students who once castrated it. In turn, King's' students are also believed to have once stolen Phineas, a UCL mascot. It is often claimed that King's' students played football with the embalmed head of Jeremy Bentham. Although the head was indeed stolen, the football story is a myth or legend which is unsupported by official UCL documentation about Bentham available next to his display case (his auto-icon) in the UCL cloisters. The head is now kept in the UCL vaults.
Student campaigns at UCL have included: UCLU Free Education Campaign (a campaign for the return of free and non-marketised higher education); the London Living wage Campaign (a campaign for a basic minimum wage for all UCL staff); Disarm UCL (a campaign which successfully persuaded UCL not to invest in defence companies); and Save UCL (this name has been used by two campaigns: one in 2006 which opposed a merger between UCL and Imperial College London in 2006, and a more recent one against education cuts).
As part of the protests against the UK Government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010. The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.
All first-year undergraduate students and overseas first-year postgraduates at UCL are guaranteed university accommodation. The majority of second- and third-year undergraduate students and graduate students find their own accommodation in the private sector; graduate students may apply for accommodation but places are limited.
UCL students are eligible to apply for places in the University of London intercollegiate halls of residence. The halls are: Canterbury Hall, Commonwealth Hall, College Hall, Connaught Hall, Hughes Parry Hall and International Hall near Russell Square in Bloomsbury; Lillian Penson Hall in Paddington; and Nutford House in Marble Arch. Some students are also selected to live in International Students House.
In 2013, a new student accommodation building on Caledonian Road was awarded the Carbuncle Cup and named the country's worst new building by Building Design magazine, with the comment "this is a building that the jury struggled to see as remotely fit for human occupation". Islington Council had originally turned down planning permission for the building, but this had been overturned on appeal.
UCL alumni include Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement), Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), William Stanley Jevons (early pioneer of modern Economics), Jomo Kenyatta ("Father of the Nation" of Kenya), Kwame Nkrumah (founder of Ghana and "Father of African Nationalism") and Charles K. Kao ("Godfather of broadband"). Notable former staff include Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk ("Father of the Nation" of Czechoslovakia"), Peter Higgs (proposer of the Higgs mechanism which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Lucien Freud (artist) and Sir William Ramsay (discoverer of all of the naturally occurring noble gases).
Notable faculty and staff
Notable former UCL faculty and staff include Jocelyn Bell Burnell (co-discoverer of radio pulsars), A. S. Byatt (writer), Ronald Dworkin (legal philosopher and scholar of constitutional law), John Austin (legal philosopher, founder of analytical jurisprudence), Sir A.J. Ayer (philosopher), Sir Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the first thermionic valve, the fundamental building block of electronics), Lucian Freud (painter), Andrew J Goldberg OBE (Chairman of Medical Futures), Peter Higgs (the proposer of the Higgs mechanism, which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Andrew Huxley (physiologist and biophysicist), William Stanley Jevons (economist), Sir Frank Kermode (literary critic), A. E. Housman (classical scholar, and poet), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (first President of Czechoslovakia and "Father of the Nation"), John Stuart Mill (philosopher), Peter Kirstein CBE (computer scientist, significant role in the creation of the Internet), George R. Price (population geneticist), Edward Teller ("Father of the Hydrogen Bomb"), David Kemp (the first scientist to demonstrate the existence of the otoacoustic emissions) and Dadabhai Naoroji (Indian Parsi leader, the first Asian to be elected to UK House of Commons).
Notable UCL alumni include:
- artists including Sir William Coldstream (realist painter), Wyndham Lewis (vorticist painter), Antony Gormley (sculptor), Augustus John (painter, draughtsman and etcher), Gerry Judah (artist and designer), Ben Nicholson (abstract painter), Sir Eduardo Paolozzi (sculptor and artist) and Ibrahim el-Salahi (artist painter and former diplomat);
- authors including Edith Clara Batho, Raymond Briggs, Robert Browning, G. K. Chesterton, David Crystal, Stella Gibbons, Clive Sansom, Sean Thomas, Marie Stopes, Helen MacInnes, Rabindranath Tagore and Demetrius Vikelas (who was also the first President of the International Olympic Committee);
- business-oriented people including Colin Chapman (founder of Lotus Cars), Demis Hassabis (co-founder and CEO of DeepMind), Lord Digby Jones (former Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry), Edwin Waterhouse (founding partner of the professional services firm PwC) and billionaire Farhad Moshiri (Everton F.C part owner).
- medical researchers, specialists & scientists including Archie Cochrane (medic, researcher, and pioneer of evidence-based medicine), Jane Dacre (current President of the Royal College of Physicians), Jeremy Farrar (current Director of the Wellcome Trust), Clare Gerada (previous President of the Royal College of General Practitioners), Joseph Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery) and Clare Marx (current President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England); Marc Tessier-Lavigne (current president of Stanford University).
- engineering scientists including Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), Hans Eysenck (psychologist who created the modern scientific theory of personality), John Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the vacuum tube), Jaroslav Heyrovský (father of the electroanalytical method) and Charles Kuen Kao (pioneer of the use of fibre optics in telecommunications);, Donald Prell (psychologist and Futurologist).
- entertainers, musicians, composers and filmmakers including Ken Adam (designer famous for set designs for the James Bond films), Brett Anderson (lead singer of the band Suede), Justine Frischmann (lead singer of the band Elastica), Ricky Gervais (comedian and actor), Gustav Holst (composer), all of the members of the band Coldplay (Chris Martin, Jonny Buckland, Guy Berryman and Will Champion), Christopher Nolan (director of films including The Dark Knight saga), Franny Armstrong (director), Tim Rice-Oxley and Richard Hughes (members of the band Keane), and Jonathan Ross (television presenter);
- journalists and commentators including A. A. Gill (columnist), three former editors of The Economist, most notably Walter Bagehot, two editors of The Times Literary Supplement, Jonathan Dimbleby (television and radio current affairs presenter), Tom Dyckhoff (architecture critic and TV presenter), former ITN Home Affairs Correspondent Sarah Cullen and Simon Inglis (architectural historian and sports writer);
- politicians including Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement), Jomo Kenyatta (first Prime Minister, first President and "Father of the Nation" of Kenya), Kwame Nkrumah (first Prime Minister, President and "Founder" of Ghana and "Father" of African Nationalism), Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (first Prime Minister and "Father of the Nation" of Mauritius), Chaim Herzog (former President of Israel), Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (first Prime Minister of Nigeria), Itō Hirobumi (first Prime Minister of Japan), Junichiro Koizumi (former Prime Minister of Japan), Wu Tingfang (Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China), and Sir Stafford Cripps (former Chancellor of the Exchequer);
- lawyers including a Lord Chancellor (Lord Herschell); Chief Justices of England (Lord Woolf), Hong Kong (Sir William Meigh Goodman and Sir Yang Ti-liang), the British Supreme Court for China and Japan (Sir Nicholas John Hannen), India (A. S. Anand), Malaysia (Arifin Zakaria), Nigeria (Taslim Olawale Elias), Ghana (Samuel Azu Crabbe), The Straits Settlements (Sir G. Aubrey Goodman) and the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (Rt. Hon. Sir Vincent Floissac); two Masters of the Rolls (Lord Cozens-Hardy and Sir George Jessel); and Attorneys-General of England (Lord Goldsmith and Baroness Scotland), Singapore (Tan Boon Teik and Chao Hick Tin), Hong Kong (Thomas Chisholm Anstey) and Gambia (Hassan Bubacar Jallow);
- sports people including David Gower (former captain of the England cricket team), Patrick Head (co-founder of the Williams Formula One team) and Christine Ohuruogu (Olympic and World 400 metres gold medalist); and
- statisticians including Karl Pearson (founder of the world's first university statistics department at UCL) and Kirstine Smith (credited with the creation of optimal design of experiments).
Heads of state, government and international organisations
- The institution has operated under the name UCL since 2005
- The title of third-oldest university in England is claimed by three institutions: Durham University as the third-oldest officially recognised university (1832) and the third to confer degrees (1837), the University of London as the third university to be granted a Royal Charter (1836), and University College London as it was founded as London University (1826) and was the third-oldest university institution to start teaching (1828). A fourth institution, King's College London, officially claims to be the fourth-oldest university in England; it was the third university institution to receive a Royal Charter (1829) and some claim it as third oldest on that basis. Deciding which is the "third oldest university" depends largely on the definition of university status.
- The University of Bristol also makes this claim, having admitted women from its foundation (as a college) in 1876.
- Universities practice different methods for counting Nobel prize affiliates, from the flattering to the highly conservative. As of March 2016, UCL had an "official count" of 29 Nobel affiliates as students or academics, and a further 11 as honorary graduates or honorary fellows.
- The Institute of Education (IOE) merged with UCL in December 2014. In the year ended 31 July 2013 the IOE had a total income of £71.42 million and total expenditure of £69.97 million. The IOE had total net assets of £105.17 million at 31 July 2013.
- New UCAS points from 2016
- "Address from University College London". Record of the Celebration of the Quatercentenary of the University of Aberdeen. University of Aberdeen. 1907. p. 537.
- "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2017" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "UCL Council". University College London. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "2014/15 Staff by HE provider". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "2016/17 Students by HE provider, level, mode and domicile" (CSV). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "UCL Officers". University College London. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Making an Impact: the UCL style guide" (PDF). UCL. 2005. p. 44.
UCL should always be referred to as 'UCL'. "University College London" can only be used as part of the postal address.
- Johnson Sutherland (29 July 2005). "What's in a name?". The Guardian.
- Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828-2004. London: UCL. pp. 29–32. ISBN 1-84472-025-X.
- "Students defend freedom of expression at University College London". The Secular Society. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- Chris Havergal (18 December 2014). "REF 2014: Is London now dominant?". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "University Research Excellence Framework 2014 – the full rankings". The Guardian. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "The 10 hardest universities to get into". The Telegraph. 2018-06-25. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
- Cite error: The named reference
Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2018 - PP top 10%". CWTS Leiden Ranking 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "QS World University Rankings 2019". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- Cite error: The named reference
THE World University Rankings 2017-18was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "University League Table 2019". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "University league tables 2019". The Guardian. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Cite error: The named reference
The Times and Sunday Times University Guide 2018was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "UCL Partners to become 'biggest AHSC in the world'". Health Service Journal. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- "History". University College London. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Americanized Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. 1890. p. 6100. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Penman, Colin (27 February 2017). "The youth of our middling rich: how egalitarian were UCL's founders? - UCL Lunch Hour Lecture". You tube. UCL Lunch Hour Lectures. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- Morrell, Jack (2005). John Phillips and the Business of Victorian Science. Ashgate Publishing,. p. 87. ISBN 1840142391.
- Harte, Negley (1998). "The owner of share no. 633: Jeremy Bentham and University College London". In Fuller, Catherine. The Old Radical: representations of Jeremy Bentham. London: University College London. pp. 5–8.
- "Bentham and UCL". University College London. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- Monroe, Paul (1915). A Cyclopedia of Education: Volume Two. The Macmillan Company. p. 388. ISBN 1440061505.
- Barry, Peter (2002). Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0719062683.
- Wilson, Stanley (1923). The University of London and its colleges: constituting, the most wonderful aggregation of institutions to be found anywhere in the world. University Tutorial Press. p. 129.
- Huber, Victor Aimé (24 June 2017). "The English Universities: From the German". William Pickering – via Google Books.
- Chilvers, Ian (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press. p. 655. ISBN 0198604769.
- Harte, N.B. (1986). The University of London, 1836–1986: An Illustrated History. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 132. ISBN 0485120526.
- Babel.hathitrust.org Archived 11 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- "History of the University". University of Bristol. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- P. Phillips Bedson (December 1921). "The Jubilee of Armstrong College". Durham University Journal. 22: 347–354.
- Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina (30 July 2014). "Women in Twentieth-Century Britain: Social, Cultural and Political Change". Routledge – via Google Books.
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904: Sir William Ramsay". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Sir William Ramsay: The noble chemist". BBC News. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "University of London, the Historical Record: (1836–1912). University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24.
- Harte and North 2004, pp. 160–61.
- "Foster, Sir Gregory: Papers". UCL.
- "Former Provosts". University College London. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- Merrington, W (1976). University College Hospital and its Medical School: A History. Heinemann. ISBN 0434465003.
- Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. (2009). History of British Space Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0521123380.
- "30 years of the international internet". BBC News. 19 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "UCL marks 30 years of e-networking". Times Higher Education. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- David Colquhoun. "UCL's senior common room and the Boston marathon: emancipation in the 1960s, and now". DC's Improbable Science. 2002.
- "Landmarks". University College London. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Royal Charter granted 17 November 1976". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- MacLeod, Donald (22 October 2002). "The merger and the man". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- Rebecca Smithers; Donald MacLeod (10 December 2005). "College vote brings break-up of university a step nearer". The Guardian.
Over the past 10 years the university has become an increasingly loose federation of independent institutions that are universities in their own right and receive their grants directly from the Higher Education Funding Council for England, although they still hand out degrees on behalf of the central university.
- Healthcare, Kable (25 March 2011). "University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust – NHS hospital trust profile". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "UCL steps up to world class". Times Higher Education. 6 September 1996. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Medicine in the capital". Times Higher Education. 14 February 1997. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Slavonic school to stay put after UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 5 March 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Language school keeps name in UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 30 July 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Director of Jill Dando Institute appointed". Times Higher Education. 5 January 2001. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Richard Alleyne (15 October 2002). "Imperial and UCL discuss merger to be world player". The Daily Telegraph. Missing or empty
- Donald Macleod (18 November 2002). "UCL merger halted to stop "damaging" rows". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- David Colquhoun. "Committee for UCL". DC's Improbable Science. 2002.
- David Conway. "Save UCL". 2002.
- Frood, Arran (27 January 2003). "London's little idea". BBC News. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Nanotech under the microscope". BBC News. 12 June 2003. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Baty, Phil (22 July 2005). "Staff fury at '£600K' rebrand". Times Higher Education Supplement. London.
- "PFInancing new hospitals". The Economist. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "About Us". UCL Partners. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "UCL School of Energy & Resources, Australia, to be established'". University College London. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
- "Brave new territory: University College London to open a branch in". 29 May 2008.
- Home. Yale UCL Collaborative (25 March 2013). Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Research intelligence – Transatlantic affair of the heart takes off in big way". Times Higher Education. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- "Yale joins research alliance". Yale Daily News. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Edwards, Verity (11 June 2011). "BHP signs $10m deal to set up energy research facilities". The Australian. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "UCL has sights set on new East End home". Times Higher Education. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "UCL to open huge tech and engineering campus". Wired. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "London Olympicopolis culture hub plan gets £141m funding". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "School of Pharmacy to merge with UCL". Times Higher Education. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- School of Pharmacy merges with UCL. University College London (1 January 2012). Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "UCL and Imperial partner with Intel to create research institute". Times Higher Education. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Warman, Matt (24 May 2012). "Intel: London to be city of the future". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Gibney, Elizabeth. (3 August 2012) Advert for unpaid UCL research role withdrawn | General. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Bloomsbury institutions enter 'strategic partnership'". Times Higher Education. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "UCL set to merge with Institute of Education". Times Higher Education. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Institute of Education will bring 'healthy dowry' to UCL marriage". Times Higher Education. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "UCL and IoE confirm merger date". Times Higher Education. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "UCL and IoE merger: a marriage of like minds?". Times Higher Education. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Stuart, Nathan (11 March 2013). "Decision time". The Engineer.
- "Imperial translation unit moves to UCL". Times Higher Education. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "Reed Elsevier announces knowledge partnership with University College London". The Independent. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- "Cambridge University announced as partner in new Alan Turing Institute". Cambridge News. 28 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 August 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Five universities named by government to lead Alan Turing Institute". Tech World. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "UCL launches School of Management in the heart of London". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "University College London comes to Canary Wharf". The Wharf. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- Grove, Jack (7 July 2016). "Wrong marks for dentistry students spark investigation". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Academic Committee Review Panel – MSc Restorative Dental Practice" (PDF). University College London. 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "UCL to host £250m national dementia research institute". Financial Times. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- "How Britain plans to lead the global science race to treat dementia". The Guardian. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- Sally Weale (4 May 2017). "UCL staff morale at all-time low because of management, poll finds". The Guardian.
- "Town hall consultations on UCL's Charter and Statutes". UCL. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- John Morgan (18 April 2018). "Bill paves way for London colleges to gain university status". Times Higher Education.
- David Kernohan (26 July 2018). "The strange tale of the University of London Bill". WONKHE. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- "MOVE OF UCL ENGINEERING IN AUSTRALIA TO UNISA MAWSON LAKES CAMPUS". UCL. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "High-tech campus at Here East marks new chapter for The Bartlett and Engineering Sciences at UCL". UCL. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Programmes and short courses". UCL at Here East. UCL. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Engineering and Architectural Design MEng". UCL Undergraduate Prospectus. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Mace wins £215m UCL East campus building". The Construction Index. 31 August 2018.
- "Campus location maps, University College London". University College London. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Nolan's Mind Games". Film London. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- David Matthews (23 June 2016). "UCL floats plan to expand to 60,000 students". Times Higher Education.
- "Mayor of London grants outline planning permission for UCL East". UCL. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Web APAS - Planning Application - Details". London Legacy Development Corporation. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "UCL East Site- Non-Technical Summary". London Legacy Development Corporation. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "UCL East Site- Planning Statement". London Legacy Development Corporation. p. 15. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "£100m secured for UCL East as part of East Bank". UCL. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "London Olympic Park £1.1bn plan unveiled". BBC News. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Cunningham, John (16 April 2009). "Energy boost". Times Higher Education. London. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Sara Sarwar (27 November 2016). "UCL Qatar to leave Education City by 2020". The Daily Q.
- Weronika Strzyżyńska (23 October 2017). "Sheikh It Off: Inside UCL's Decision To Leave Qatar". Cheese Grater Magazine.
- "Welcome to the new frontier – Central Asia". The Independent. London. 9 July 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Helen Warrell (21 May 2015). "University College London eyes global closures over cost concerns". Financial Times.
- "Degree Awarding, University College London". Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "Governance overview". University College London. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "UCL Provost and President". University College London. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "UCL Council White Paper 2011–2021 – A comprehensive university". UCL. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "UCL Faculties". University College London. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "UCL Annual Review 2012". UCL. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- "Times Higher Education university financial health check 2016" (PDF). Times Higher Education. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "Winners and losers in Hefce funding allocations". Times Higher Education. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Oxbridge uplift disguises a drop in the size of average UK endowment". Times Higher Education. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "University launches £300m appeal". BBC News. 5 October 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "University College London bids to raise £600 million in largest ever fundraising drive". Evening Standard. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- "UCL launches £600m philanthropy campaign". University College London. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- "UCL to borrow record £280m to expand". Financial Times. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "UCL agrees £280m European Investment Bank loan for campus developments". University College London. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Subscribe to read". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
- "Term Dates: 2013–2014". University College London. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- "logobig on Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr.com. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828–2004 (3rd ed.). London: UCL Press. p. 154. ISBN 1-84472-068-3.
- Virgil, Storr, Francis, ed., The Aeneid (in Latin)
- "A brief history". University of London. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Queen's gets key to Russell club door". Times Higher Education. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Super elite in secret bid for cash boost". Times Higher Education. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Universities warned they may face price-fixing fines on fees". The Times. 9 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005.: "No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub."
- "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995.: "A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal."
- Kershaw, Alison. "UK universities slip in rankings", The Independent, 4 October 2012: "Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity."
- "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "UCL joins League of European Research Universities". University College London. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "LERU Members". League of European Research Universities. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Malcolm Grant, President & Provost, UCL (March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF). p. 23. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "University College London (UCL)". Fulbright Commission. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Research heavyweights deny 'ganging up'". Times Higher Education. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "About the Thomas Young Centre". Thomas Young Centre. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "Partners". Alan Turing Institute. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- "About". London Centre for Nanotechnology. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "Sports injury institute costing £10m opens in boost to the Olympic legacy". London Evening Standard. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "What we do". University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "About Us". UCL Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "University partners". Francis Crick Institute. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "University partners". Bloomsbury Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "UCL Postgraduate Programmes". The Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Joint LLB/Juris Doctor (JD) with Columbia University, New York". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "UCL Laws launches double degree with The University of Hong Kong". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Centre for Transport Studies". Imperial College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Global EMPA with University College London". New York University. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Peking University and UCL agree joint MBA programme". University College London. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- "Developmental Neuroscience and Psychopathology MRes". University College London. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Academia and the academy: what makes a university open a school?". The Guardian. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "UCL announces partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre". University College London. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Alan Turing Institute for Data Science to be based at British Library". The Guardian. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Key facts and figures". University College London. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "The Grand Challenges". University College London. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "University of Oxford tops grant funding list". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Horizon 2020 champions" (PDF). Nikolaos Floratos. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "SIR World Report 2010 :: Global Ranking" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Research powerhouse: UCL top-cited in UK". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "REF 2014 winners: who performed best?". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- "RAE 2008: The results". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". The Guardian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "Overall ranking of institutions including power market share". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- "UCL Medical School". University College London. 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Bibliometric analysis of highly cited publications of biomedical and health research in England, 2004–2013". RAND Corporate. 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "Biomedical Research Centres". National Institute for Health Research. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "New £816 million investment in health research". Department of Health. 14 September 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Carvel, John (7 August 2008). "NHS hospitals to forge £2bn research link-up with university". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Jha, Alok (19 June 2010). "Plans for largest biomedical research facility in Europe unveiled". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Project Press Release". UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation web site. 21 June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "End of Cycle 2017 Data Resources DR4_001_03 Applications by provider". UCAS. UCAS. 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "Sex, area background and ethnic group: U80 UCL (University College London)". UCAS. UCAS. 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "End of Cycle 2017 Data Resources DR4_001_02 Main scheme acceptances by provider". UCAS. UCAS. 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "University League Tables 2019 (ranked by entry standards)". Complete University Guide. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "The 10 hardest universities to get into". The Telegraph. 2018-06-25. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
- "Undergraduate Prospectus (2015 entry)". University College London. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Which elite universities have the highest offer rates". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Bhardwa, Seeta. "Clearing 2017: Top 10 UK universities with courses available". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Widening participation: UK Performance Indicators 2016/17". hesa.ac.uk. Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Where do HE students study?". hesa.ac.uk. Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Law test gains support". Times Higher Education. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "New test for medics". Times Higher Education. 16 December 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "About TSA UCl". Admissions Testing Service. 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "University College London (University of London) (U80)". UCAS. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Architecture BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Economics BSc (Econ)". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "English BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Fine Art BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Law LL.B". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "UCL Undergraduate Preparatory Certificates".
- "Sites & opening hours". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "eUCLid library catalogue". University College London. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010."Explore library catalogue". University College London. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Review of HEFCE funding for research libraries". Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Libraries". University of London Research Library Services. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Libraries with special UCL arrangements". University College London. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "About UCL Eprints". University College London. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "UCL Eprints repository rankings". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Library Services – Special Collections A-Z Directory". University College London. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 10 February 2005. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Welcome to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "The John Flaxman Collection". University College London. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". Grant.museum.University College London. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "World University Rankings 2019". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
- "The Times and Sunday Times University Good University Guide 2019". Times Newspapers. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Teaching Excellence Framework outcomes". Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Life and Agriculture Sciences – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Natural Sciences and Mathematics – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Social Science – 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "QS World University Rankings 2019". Top Universities. 2018-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-12. Check date values in:
- "Arts and Humanities". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Engineering and Technology". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Life Sciences and Medicine". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Natural Sciences". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Social Sciences and Management". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "UCL (University College London)". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: arts and humanities". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: clinical, pre-clinical and health". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: computer science". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: engineering and technology". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: life sciences". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: physical sciences". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-2017 by subject: social sciences". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "World Reputation Rankings 2017". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "The Global Employability University Ranking 2016". Times Higher Education. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2017". Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "2017 Overall Ranking". National Taiwan University. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Round University Rankings 2016". RUR Rankings Agency. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "2016-2017 WORLD RANKING". University Ranking by Academic Performance. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Best Global Universities - University College London". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "THE 'Table of Tables' 2018: Glasgow makes biggest gains". Times Higher Education. London. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "University ranking based on performance over 10 years" (PDF). The Times. London. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- "Domestic Ranking of British Universisities over a 10-Year Period". The University Buzz.
- "University College London League table performance". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- "The best UK universities chosen by major employers". Times Higher Education. London. 12 November 2015.
- "What we do". UCL Business. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Key facts". UCL Business. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "What we do". UCL Consultants. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "ucl press". UCL Press. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "UCL launches UK's first fully Open Access university press". UCL. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "UCL Press hits one million book downloads milestone", UCL News, UCL, 23 May 2018
- "Higher education student enrolments and qualifications obtained at higher education providers in the United Kingdom 2014/15". HESA. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Student Numbers by Method of Study 2003–04 to 2013–14". University College London. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Student Numbers by Gender 2003–04 to 2013–14". University College London. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Comparison of the Numbers of Students of Overseas Nationality 2008–09 to 2013–14". University College London. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "History of the Guild". Liverpool Guild of Students. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014.
- "UCL Union". University College London Union. 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "UCL Snowsports Club". UCL Union. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "University College London student publications – Home". Pi Media. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- "University College, London: Guild of Graduates Minute Book". UCL Archives. UCL Library Services. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "University College London Investment Society". UCLIS. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "UCLU Sport". University College London Union. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "BUCS Points 2014/15". British Universities and Colleges Sport. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- Boehm, Klaus; Lees-Spalding, Jenny (2006). Student Book 2007. Crimson Publishing. p. 711. ISBN 1844550737.
- "King's Collections : Online Exhibitions : The College mascots: Phineas and Reggie". www.kingscollections.org.
- "Who is Phineas? - UCLU". UCLU.
- "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Archived from the original on 10 August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Auto-Icon". University College London. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Students stage day of protests over tuition fee rises". BBC News. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "University College London granted eviction order". BBC News. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "University College London – Accommodation". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "University of London – Intercollegiate Halls". University of London. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Carbuncle Cup: UCL student block crowned worst building". BBC News. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Facts and Figures". University College London. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "20th Nobel Prize for UCL community". University College London. 8 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Liptak, Adam (14 February 2013). "Ronald Dworkin, Scholar of the Law, Is Dead at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Bentham and UCL". UCL. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "Sir John Ambrose Fleming". UCL Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Lucian Freud, OM". The Telegraph. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "UH professor given commendation for medical innovation in asthma". Retrieved 2017-05-07.
- Butterworth, Jon (7 September 2010). "Peter Higgs, UCL and the Right Honorable William Waldegrave". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (5): 1386–1391. 1978-11-01. doi:10.1121/1.382104. ISSN 0001-4966.
- "Sir William Ramsay: Noble Gas Pioneer—On the 100th Anniversary of His Nobel Prize". Chemeducator.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Tata, Jamshed R. (2005-06-01). "One hundred years of hormones". EMBO Reports. 6 (6): 490–496. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400444. ISSN 1469-221X. PMC 1369102. PMID 15940278.
- "Augustus John". BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Wroe, Nicholas (18 December 2004). "Profile: Raymond Briggs". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Davidson, Max (27 October 2009). "University College London: halls of high distinction". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Lotus fleet turns out for Colin Chapman tribute". The Telegraph. 3 November 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Morgan, Oliver (12 September 2004). "The CBI's megaphone man". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Hunter, Andy (2016-02-28). "Everton's new majority shareholder Farhad Moshiri likely to increase stake". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- "Archie Cochrane: The name behind Cochrane". www.cochrane.org. Cochrane Collaboration. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Obituary: Francis Crick, OM". The Telegraph. 30 July 2004. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Gray, Jeffrey (2009). "Obituary Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916–97)". Nature. 389: 794. doi:10.1038/39755.
- "Charles Kuen Kao receives Nobel Prize". CCTV. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Sutherland, John (13 September 2004). "Hours of Idleness". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Tempest, Matthew (24 February 2011). "I was there at the Inception of Christopher Nolan's film career". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Dowell, Ben (7 June 2010). "Jonathan Dimbleby: BBC's culture of compliance is 'extremely damaging'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "TV architecture critic Tom Dyckhoff to give Cheltenham Civic Society annual lecture". Gloucestershire Echo. 18 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "Played in Britain - Authors - Simon Inglis". www.playedinbritain.co.uk.
- "Jomo Kenyatta: emblematic figure of the Independence Movement". Daily Observer. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Nkrumah's birthday declared a holiday". Modern Ghana. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- Birmingham, David (1998). Kwame Nkrumah : the father of African nationalism (Rev. ed.). Athens: Ohio Univ. Press. ISBN 0821412426.
- "Commemorating the Saint of Mauritius and the Father of the Nation". Mauritius News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- Reisz, Matthew. "The pioneering foreign students who rebuilt Japan". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Reform leader has thoroughly traditional background". USA Today. 11 September 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Curtis, Polly (17 June 2004). "UCL appoints Lord Woolf to ruling council". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Lord Goldsmith: Profile". The Guardian. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "No smarter than an ox?". Times Higher Education. 22 September 2000. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Patrick Head's exit stage left another break with the past as F1 enters 2012". The Telegraph. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Passed/Failed: An education in the life of the Olympic gold medallist Christine Ohuruogu". The Independent. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Department History". UCL Department of Statistical Science. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- Guttorp, P.; Lindgren, G. (2009). "Karl Pearson and the Scandinavian school of statistics" (PDF). International Statistical Review. 77: 64. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2009.00069.x.
- Bellot, H. Hale (1929). University College, London 1826–1926. London: University of London Press.
- Harte, Negley; North, John; Brewis, Georgina (2018). The World of UCL (4th ed.). London: UCL Press. ISBN 978-1-78735-294-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University College London.|
- Official website
- Lists of UCL students who graduated over 80 years ago, 1836–
- UCL military personnel, 1914–1918