University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a G5 public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a member institution of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several museums and collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight. UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2017.
UCL is ranked from eighth to eighteenth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to twenty-second in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the respective "Fathers of the Nation" of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2019, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England to admit women on
American Songs is a 1981 EP by the New York based No Wave music group Material. "Ciquiri" – 6:22 "Detached" – 5:02 "Discourse" (Laswell, Cliff Cultreri, Bill Bacon – 4:05 "Slow Murder" – 3:59 Bill Laswell – bass Michael Beinhorn – synthesizer, vocals Fred Maher – drums, vocals Cliff Cultreri – guitar Bill Bacon – drums Additional personnelRobert Quine – guitar Tracks 1 and 2 recorded March 1 & 2, 1981. Produced by Material with Martin Bisi. Tracks 3 and 4 recorded in March, 1980. Produced by Material with Martin Bisi. American Songs – 1981 – Red Rec. EP 001 American Songs – 1981 – Celluloid, CEL 6596 "Ciquiri"/"Detached" single – 1982 – Red Rec. RS 12012 "Discourse"/"Slow Murder" single – 1980 – Red Rec. 45001 "Discourse"/"Slow Murder" single – 198? – Celluloid, CEL 6219
Darren Brian Salton is a Scottish former under-21 international footballer, whose career was cut short by injuries suffered in a car accident. Darren Salton joined Luton Town as a trainee in 1988, along with a friend from Edinburgh, Paul Telfer. Salton signed professionally in March 1989, made his league debut at Elland Road against Leeds United on 29 February 1992 in the Football League First Division. However, Luton were relegated at the end of that season and were denied a place in the new FA Premier League. Salton became a first-team regular in the early part of the 1992–93 season, starting 15 of Luton's first 17 league games that season, he was capped six times by Scotland under-21, but his promising career came to an abrupt end when he and Telfer were involved in a car crash on 27 November 1992. Although Telfer, the vehicle's driver, suffered only minor injuries, a woman died in the collision and Salton was injured, he announced his retirement during the 1993-94 season. Salton still lives in the Luton area, was manager of Southern League side Hitchin Town from December 2004 until November 2007.