The University of Bologna is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students, it is the oldest university in the world, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe, it is one of the most prestigious Italian universities ranking in the first places of national rankings. It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution located in Bologna, Italy; the university's emblem carries the motto Alma mater studiorum and the date A. D. 1088, it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina, it has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is the Bononia University Press; the date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088. The university was granted a charter by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the founding of the University back to 1088, which would make it the oldest continuously-operating university in the world.
However, the development of the institution at Bologna into a university was a gradual process. Paul Grendler writes that “it is not that enough instruction and organization existed to merit the term university before the 1150s, it might not have happened before the 1180s.”The university arose around mutual aid societies of foreign students called "nations" for protection against city laws which imposed collective punishment on foreigners for the crimes and debts of their countrymen. These students hired scholars from the city's pre-existing lay and ecclesiastical schools to teach them subjects such as liberal arts, notarial law and ars dictaminis; the lectures were given in informal schools called scholae. In time the various universitates scholarium decided to form a larger association, or Studium—thus, the university; the Studium grew to have a strong position of collective bargaining with the city, since by it derived significant revenue through visiting foreign students, who would depart if they were not well treated.
The foreign students in Bologna received greater rights, collective punishment was ended. There was collective bargaining with the scholars who served as professors at the university. By the initiation or threat of a student strike, the students could enforce their demands as to the content of courses and the pay professors would receive. University professors were hired and had their pay determined by an elected council of two representatives from every student "nation" which governed the institution, with the most important decisions requiring a majority vote from all the students to ratify; the professors could be fined if they failed to finish classes on time, or complete course material by the end of the semester. A student committee, the "Denouncers of Professors", reported any misbehavior. Professors themselves were not powerless, forming collegia doctorum in each faculty, securing the rights to set examination fees and degree requirements; the city ended this arrangement, paying professors from tax revenues and making it a chartered public university.
The university is notable for its teaching of canon and civil law. Until modern times, the only degree granted at that university was the doctorate. In 1477, when Pope Sixtus IV issued a papal bull, authorizing the creation of Uppsala University in Sweden, the bull specified that the new university would have the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna - a desirable situation for the Swedish scholars; this included the right of Uppsala to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. Higher education processes are being harmonised across the European Community. Nowadays the university offers 101 different "Laurea" or "Laurea breve" first-level degrees, followed by 108 "Laurea specialistica" or "Laurea magistrale" second-level degrees. However, other 11 courses have maintained preceding rules of "Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico" or "Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico", with only one cycle of study of five years, except for medicine and dentistry which requires six years of courses.
After the "Laurea" one may attain 1st level Master. After second-level degrees are attained, one may proceed to 2nd level Master, specialisation schools, or doctorates of research; the 11 Schools are: School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine School of Economics and Statistics School of Engineering and Architecture School of Foreign Languages and Literature and Translation School of Law School of Arts and Cultural Heritage School of Medicine and Surgery School of Pharmacy and Sport Sciences School of Political Sciences School of Psychology and Education Sciences School of SciencesThe university is stru
Seven Hills of Rome is an Italian-American film released in January 1958 and shot on location in Rome and at the Titanus studios. It was filmed in Technicolor and Technirama, distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, was tenor Mario Lanza's penultimate film. Marc Revere, an American TV singer of Italian heritage, travels to Italy in search of his jet-setting fiancée, Carol Ralston, played by Peggie Castle. Revere moves in with his comical and good hearted cousin Pepe Bonelli, a struggling artist who befriends a beautiful young girl, Raffaella Marini, whom Revere had met on a train, who develops a crush on him. Lanza, after some difficulty, lands a contract to sing in a fine nightclub, but misses his opening night due to unforeseen circumstances during a date with Carol. Mario Lanza as Marc Revere Marisa Allasio as Raffaella Marini Renato Rascel as Pepe Bonelli Anna Maria Saritelli as Extra Peggie Castle as Carol Ralston Clelia Matania as Beatrice Carlo Rizzo as Club Ulpia Director Rossella Como as Anita Guido Celano as Luigi Carlo Giuffré as Franco Cellis Marco Tulli as Romoletto Paddy Crean as Mr. Fante The music was supervised and conducted by George Stoll, included the following songs: "The Seven Hills of Rome" - Music by Victor Young, Lyrics Harold Adamson "Arrivederci Roma" - Renato Rascel "Calypso Italiano" - George Stoll "Vogliamoci tanto bene" - Music Renato Rascel, Lyrics Roger Berthier "Come Dance With Me" - Stan Browsher Imitation Medley "Cielito Lindo" - music by Quirino Mendoza y Cortes "Loveliest Night of the Year" - just a stanza from Lanza's hit songAmong the selections that Lanza sings in this "vocal tour de force" is "Arrivederci Roma", performed in the Piazza Navona with a young street urchin, Luisa Di Meo.
In typical Lanza fashion, the star had encountered the youngster while in Rome and insisted on her appearing in the film. Lanza performs a sequence of imitations of famous singers of the era — Perry Como. Opera selections include "Questa o quella" from Rigoletto; the film was the first of only four films produced by Lester Welch. The screenplay was the last written by Art Cohn, who died two months after the film's release in the same airplane crash that killed famed producer Mike Todd, whose biography Cohn was writing at the time. Cohn partnered with Giorgio Prosperi on the script for the Lanza film, based on a story by Giuseppe Amato; the Italian title, Arrivederci Roma, was meant to be the American title of a film Lanza was scheduled to make in 1960, until he died in Rome in October 1959. The film performed well at the box office. According to MGM records it earned $680,000 in the US and Canada and $1,275,000 in other countries, resulting in a profit of $162,000 for MGM. Seven Hills of Rome was nominated for a Laurel Award from Motion Picture Exhibitor magazine.
Cesari, Armando. Mario Lanza: An American Tragedy Notes accompanying the 1990 video release of the film List of American films of 1957 Seven Hills of Rome on IMDb Seven Hills of Rome at Rotten Tomatoes New York Times review
Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga, known as Commander Gédéon, is a Congolese warlord, notable for leading the Mai-Mai Kata Katanga. Kyungu was detained on 16 May 2006, he was sentenced, in 2009, alongside his wife for crimes against humanity during and after the Second Congo War. Gédéon was sentenced to death. On 7 September 2011 he escaped from a prison in Lubumbashi after members of his militia opened fire on prison guards. Authorities of the Katanga province offered a US$100,000 reward for information leading to his arrest. After his escape from prison, he formed the Mai Mai Kata Katanga. On 11 October 2016, he surrendered himself along with 100 fighters to Congolese authorities in Malambwe in an effort to end to insecurity in the area