The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein-Universität on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777; the University of Bonn offers many undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes; as of August 2018, among its notable alumni and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, Joseph Schumpeter. The University of Bonn has been conferred the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative; the university's forerunner was the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777 by Maximilian Frederick of Königsegg-Rothenfels, the prince-elector of Cologne.
In the spirit of the Enlightenment the new academy was nonsectarian. The academy had schools for theology, law and general studies. In 1784 Emperor Joseph II granted the academy the right to award academic degrees, turning the academy into a university; the academy was closed in 1798 after the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by France during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Rhineland became a part of Prussia in 1815 as a result of the Congress of Vienna. King Frederick William III of Prussia thereafter decreed the establishment of a new university in the new province on 18 October 1818. At this time there was no university in the Rhineland, as all three universities that existed until the end of the 18th century were closed as a result of the French occupation; the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn was one of these three universities. The other two were the Roman Catholic University of Cologne and the Protestant University of Duisburg; the new Rhein University was founded on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III.
It was the sixth Prussian University, founded after the universities in Greifswald, Berlin, Königsberg and Breslau. The new university was shared between the two Christian denominations; this was one of the reasons why Bonn, with its tradition of a nonsectarian university, was chosen over Cologne and Duisburg. Apart from a school of Roman Catholic theology and a school of Protestant theology, the university had schools for medicine and philosophy. 35 professors and eight adjunct professors were teaching in Bonn. The university constitution was adopted in 1827. In the spirit of Wilhelm von Humboldt the constitution emphasized the autonomy of the university and the unity of teaching and research. Similar to the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, the new constitution made the University of Bonn a modern research university. Only one year after the inception of the Rhein University the dramatist August von Kotzebue was murdered by Karl Ludwig Sand, a student at the University of Jena; the Carlsbad Decrees, introduced on 20 September 1819 led to a general crackdown on universities, the dissolution of the Burschenschaften and the introduction of censorship laws.
One victim was the author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, freshly appointed university professor in Bonn, was banned from teaching. Only after the death of Frederick William III in 1840 was he reinstated in his professorship. Another consequence of the Carlsbad Decrees was the refusal by Frederick William III to confer the chain of office, the official seal and an official name to the new university; the Rhein University was thus nameless until 1840, when the new King of Prussia, Frederick William IV gave it the official name Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. Despite these problems, the university attracted famous scholars and students. At the end of the 19th century the university was known as the Prinzenuniversität, as many of the sons of the king of Prussia studied here. In 1900, the university had 68 chairs, 23 adjunct chairs, two honorary professors, 57 Privatdozenten and six lecturers. Since 1896, women were allowed to attend classes as guest auditors at universities in Prussia. In 1908 the University of Bonn became coeducational.
The growth of the university came to a halt with World War I. Financial and economic problems in Germany in the aftermath of the war resulted in reduced government funding for the university; the University of Bonn responded by trying to find industrial sponsors. In 1930 the university adopted a new constitution. For the first time students were allowed to participate in the self-governing university administration. To that effect the student council Astag was founded in the same year. Members of the student council were elected in a secret ballot. After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the Gleichschaltung transformed the university into a Nazi educational institution. According to the Führerprinzip the autonomous and self-governening administration of the university was replaced by a hierarchy of leaders resembling the military, with the university president bei
Larry Rivers was an American artist, musician and occasional actor. Rivers resided and maintained studios in New York City, Long Island, Zihuatanejo, Mexico. Larry Rivers was born in Jewish immigrants from Ukraine. From 1940–1945 he worked as a jazz saxophonist in New York City, changing his name to Larry Rivers in 1940 after being introduced as "Larry Rivers and the Mudcats" at a local pub, he studied at the Juilliard School of Music in 1945–46, along with Miles Davis, with whom he remained friends until Davis's death in 1991. Rivers is considered by many scholars to be the "Godfather" and "Grandfather" of Pop art, because he was one of the first artists to merge non-objective, non-narrative art with narrative and objective abstraction. Rivers took up painting in 1945 and studied at the Hans Hofmann School from 1947–48, he earned a BA in art education from New York University in 1951. He was a pop artist of the New York School, reproducing everyday objects of American popular culture as art, he was one of eleven New York artists featured in the opening exhibition at the Terrain Gallery in 1955.
During the early 1960s Rivers lived in the Hotel Chelsea, notable for its artistic residents such as Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin, Leonard Cohen, Arthur C. Clarke, Dylan Thomas, Sid Vicious and multiple people associated with Andy Warhol's Factory and where he brought several of his French nouveau réalistes friends like Yves Klein who wrote there in April 1961 his Manifeste de l'hôtel Chelsea, Martial Raysse, Jean Tinguely, Niki de Saint-Phalle, Daniel Spoerri or Alain Jacquet, several of whom left, like him, some pieces of art in the lobby of the hotel: for payment of their rooms. In 1965 Rivers had his first comprehensive retrospective in five important American museums, his final work for the exhibition was The History of the Russian Revolution, on extended permanent display at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC. During 1967 he was in London collaborating with the American painter Howard Kanovitz. In 1968, Rivers traveled to Africa for a second time with Pierre Dominique Gaisseau to finish their documentary Africa and I, a part of the groundbreaking NBC series Experiments in Television.
During this trip they narrowly escaped execution as suspected mercenaries. During the 1970s Rivers worked with Diana Molinari and Michel Auder on many video tape projects, including the infamous Tits, worked in neon. Rivers's legs appeared in John Yoko Ono's 1971 film Up Your Legs Forever. Rivers married Augusta Berger in 1945, they had one son, Steven. Rivers adopted Berger's son from a previous relationship and reared both children after the couple divorced, he married Clarice Price in a Welsh school teacher who cared for his two sons. Rivers and Clarice Price had two daughters and Emma. After six years, they separated. Shortly after, he lived and collaborated with Diana Molinari, who featured in many of his works of the 1970s. After that Rivers lived with a Baltimore artist and poet. In the early 1980s, Rivers and East Village figurative painter Daria Deshuk lived together and in 1985 they had a son, Sam Deshuk Rivers. At the time of his death in 2002, poet Jeni Olin was his companion. Rivers maintained a relationship with poet Frank O'Hara in the late 1950s and delivered the eulogy at O'Hara's funeral in 1966.
Washington Crossing the Delaware is a 1953 painting by Rivers. Made of charcoal, oil paint, linen, it is painted on linen and is in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. In 1958 it was damaged by fire, his primary gallery being the Marlborough Gallery in New York City. In 2002 a major retrospective of Rivers' work was held at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. New York University bought correspondences and other documents from the Larry Rivers Foundation to house in their archive. However, his daughters Gwynne and Emma objected to one particular film being displayed, as it depicts them naked as young children; the film's purpose is to be a documentation on their growth through puberty, but it was made without their consent. The matter was addressed in the December 2010 issue of the magazine Vanity Fair, the October 2010 issue of Grazia; the film will never be publicly displayed. Bodley Gallery Baskind, Jewish Artists and the Bible in Twentieth-Century America,Philadelphia, PA, Penn State University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-271-05983-9 Marika Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists, ISBN 0-9677994-0-6.
The Mindbenders were an English beat group from Manchester, England. The backing group for Wayne Fontana, they were one of several acts that were successful in the mid-1960s British Invasion of the US charts, achieving major chart hits with "Game of Love" in 1965 and "A Groovy Kind of Love" in 1966. Wayne Fontana founded the band in June 1963 with Bob Lang, Ric Rothwell, Eric Stewart; the name of the group was inspired by the title of a 1963 UK feature film, starring the British actor Dirk Bogarde, called The Mind Benders. Before that Fontana had a group called Wayne Fontana and the Jets. Wayne Fontana & the Mindbenders released a number of singles before recording "Um Um Um Um Um Um" in 1964, to be their first major hit in Britain and led to a tour with Brenda Lee, they had a No.1 hit in the United States with "Game of Love" in 1965. The band's self-titled album reached No. 18 in the UK. After a tour of America and some more singles that were less successful than "Game of Love", Fontana left the band in the middle of a concert in 1965.
The Mindbenders decided to carry on as a trio: Stewart was the primary lead singer and guitarist, Lang played bass, Rothwell was the drummer. Both Lang and Rothwell sang backing vocals, took the occasional lead vocal on album tracks; the Mindbenders' first single without Fontana was the hit "A Groovy Kind of Love". The song reached No. 2 in the US and No. 2 in the UK in 1966. It sold one million copies globally; the Mindbenders' 1966 album of the same name managed to reach No. 28 in the UK. A second song by Bayer and Wine, "Ashes to Ashes," took the Mindbenders to No. 14 in the UK Singles Chart in the autumn of 1966, after an earlier effort in 1966, "Can't Live With You" had struggled to break the UK Top 30. On 4 July 1966, the Mindbenders began their US tour in Atlanta, Georgia in front of a capacity 25,000 crowd as the support act for James Brown, it would be their only tour of the US as The Mindbenders. Stewart recalled that "we went down quite well" but that shows at the Fillmore West Auditorium on Friday 8 July and Saturday 9 July 1966 were more memorable.
"The liquid light show was great and worked with our act, a lot heavier than on our records."Stewart had become a songwriter, wrote "My New Day and Age" for Family. However, the Mindbenders sought material from outside the band, with only a handful of B-sides and album tracks being written by Stewart; the band's next project was a loose sort of concept album, several months before Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, S. F. Sorrow and Tommy were issued. However, The Mindbenders release With Woman in Mind had no overarching narrative or story, the'concept' being songs written about relationships with women; the album contained "I Want Her, She Wants Me", "Ashes to Ashes", the lascivious "Schoolgirl". The album did not sell well and was not released in the US; the accompanying single, another Bayer/Wine composition, "We'll Talk About It Tomorrow" flopped. The Mindbenders appeared in the 1967 Sidney Poitier movie, To Sir, with Love and were on the soundtrack with the songs "Off and Running" and "It's Getting Harder All the Time".
Shortly thereafter, Rothwell was replaced by Paul Hancox. Graham Gouldman became the band's producer around this time. In 1967, The Mindbenders released their cover version of "The Letter" which fell short at No. 42 in the UK singles chart, whilst The Box Tops original reached the UK Top 10. A couple more flops followed and in March 1968, Lang quit and was replaced by Graham Gouldman. With Gouldman on bass, the band recorded Gouldman's composition "Uncle Joe, the Ice Cream Man" as their final single. On 20 November 1968, The Mindbenders broke up at the final concert of a UK tour with The Who, Arthur Brown and Joe Cocker. Stewart and Gouldman played together in Hotlegs and went on to form 10cc. Lang joined another rock music outfit, Racing Cars. However, Lang did not play with the band for long and did not feature on any of their recordings, they had one hit single, "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?", which reached No. 14 in the UK Singles Chart in 1977. Wayne Fontana – vocals Bob Lang – bass Ric Rothwell – drums Eric Stewart – guitars, vocals Paul Hancox – drums Graham Gouldman – bass Jimmy O'Neil – organ Wayne Fontana and the MindbendersWayne Fontana and the Mindbenders – 1965 The Game of Love – 1965 Eric, Rick and Bob – It's Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders – 1965 The MindbendersThe Mindbenders – June 1966 A Groovy Kind of Love (US Fontana MGF 27554 /
Joost de Lalaing, lord of Montigny and of Santes, was a noble from Hainaut who filled several important posts in service of the Burgundian Dukes. Joost de Lalaing was the eldest son of Simon de Lalaing. In 1468 Charles the Bold appointed him souvereign-bailiff for the County of Flanders. In 1463 he became Admiral of Flanders. In 1476 he was a member of the Duchal Council of Charles the Bold. From 1477 on he was chamberlain at the court of Mary of Burgundy. In 1478 he was made a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece; when Wolfert VI of Borselen could no longer control the situation in the Holland and Zeeland, Joost was appointed stadtholder of these regions. He remained stadtholder until his death in 1483. Joost de Lalaing died during the Hook and Cod wars. Joost de Lalaing married Bonne de Viefville in 1462, they had four children: Charles, 1st count of Lalaing Antoine, lord of Montigny and 1st count of Hoogstraten and Culemborg Antonia, married Philip, lord of Habart Margareta, married Philip le Josne, Louis, lord of Longueval Hans Cools, Mannen met macht, Edellieden en de Moderne Staat in de Bourgondisch-Habsburgse landen.
Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 2001. ISBN 90-6011-625-9
HMS Salmon was a second-batch S-class submarine built during the 1930s for the Royal Navy. Completed in 1935, the boat fought in the Second World War. Salmon is one of twelve boats named in the song "Twelve Little S-Boats". On 4 December 1939, Salmon became the first boat to sink a U-boat during the Second World War when it torpedoed and sank the German U-36 in the North Sea south-west of Kristiansand, Norway; the second batch of S-class submarines were designed as improved and enlarged versions of the earlier boats of the class and were intended to operate in the North and Baltic Seas. The submarines had a length of 208 feet 8 inches overall, a beam of 24 feet 0 inches and a mean draught of 11 feet 10 inches, they displaced 768 long tons on 960 long tons submerged. The S-class submarines had a crew of ratings, they had a diving depth of 300 feet. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 775-brake-horsepower diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 650-horsepower electric motor.
They could reach 13.75 knots on 10 knots underwater. On the surface, the second-batch boats had a range of 6,000 nautical miles at 10 knots and 64 nmi at 2 knots submerged; the S-class boats were armed with six 21-inch torpedo tubes in the bow. They carried six reload torpedoes for a total of a dozen torpedoes, they were armed with a 3-inch deck gun. Ordered on 20 January 1933, Salmon was laid down on 15 June 1933 in Cammell Laird's shipyard in Birkenhead and was launched on 30 April 1934; the boat was completed on 8 March 1935 and received the pennant number 98S. On 4 December 1939, while on patrol in the North Sea, Salmon torpedoed and sank U-36. On 12 December 1939, Salmon sighted the German liner SS Bremen. While challenging Bremen, an escorting Dornier Do. After diving, Salmon's commander, Lieutenant Commander E. O. Bickford, decided not to torpedo the liner because he believed she was not a legal target. Bickford's decision not to fire on Bremen delayed the start of unrestricted submarine warfare in the war.
On 13 December 1939, Salmon sighted a fleet of German warships. She fired a spread of torpedoes. Salmon evaded the fleet's destroyers, she was lost sunk by a mine, on 9 July 1940. There is a report from 2008 that the same survey ship that found the wreck of the sister submarine HMS Shark found the wreck of HMS Salmon nearby in waters off Norway. Akermann, Paul. Encyclopaedia of British Submarines 1901–1955. Penzance, Cornwall: Periscope Publishing. ISBN 1-904381-05-7. Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-962-6. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Harrison, A. N.. "The Development of HM Submarines From Holland No. 1 to Porpoise ". Submariners Association: Barrow in Furness Branch. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015.
Retrieved 19 August 2015. McCartney, Innes. British Submarines 1939–1945. New Vanguard. 129. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 1-84603-007-2. Rohwer, Jürgen. Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2. HMS Salmon at Uboat.net
Madeleine Wing Adler was the first female president of West Chester University in West Chester, Pennsylvania. She received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern University and master's degree and Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Prior to her West Chester University presidency, she held administrative positions at Framingham State College in Massachusetts, The City University of New York, Queens College, the CUNY Central Office. Adler has taught at American University and Pennsylvania State University. Adler has served on numerous boards and committees for civic organizations, including Chester County Fund for Women and Girls, the Chester County Historical Society and the National Endowment for the Arts/American Canvas. In 1998, Chester County named her its citizen of the year and the Philadelphia Business Journal named her a Woman of Distinction in 2002. On May 3, 2007, Adler announced her retirement after serving 15 years at the institution, she is a senior associate at The AASCU-Penson Center for Professional Development, plans will retire to her family's ancestral seaport town of Sandwich, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod.
The Madeleine Wing Adler Theatre which opened in 2008, is the newest performing arts venue on the West Chester University campus and has a capacity of 375. It was named in honor of Madeleine Wing Adler in 2008. Adler is a breast cancer survivor, has received the Pennsylvania Breast Cancer Coalition’s Pink Ribbon Award in 2001