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University of Greifswald

The University of Greifswald is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Founded in 1456, it is one of the oldest universities in Europe, with generations of notable alumni and staff having studied or worked in Greifswald; as the fourth oldest university in present Germany, it was temporarily the oldest university of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Prussia, respectively. Two thirds of the 10,179 students are from outside the state, including foreign students from 90 countries all over the world. Due to the small-town atmosphere, the pronounced architectural presence of the alma mater across town, the young, academic flair in the streets, Greifswald is described as a "university with a town built around it" rather than a town with a university; the University of Greifswald was founded on 17 October 1456 with the approval of the Holy Roman Empire and the Pope. This was possible due to the great commitment of Greifswald's lord mayor, Heinrich Rubenow, to become the university's first rector, with the support of Duke Wartislaw IX of Pomerania and Bishop Henning Iven of the local St Nicolas' Cathedral.

The founding took place in the local cathedral, remodeled by Caspar David Friedrich and his brother and can still be visited today. The founding of the university was made possible by a decree that restricted teaching activity at the University of Rostock. Several professors left Rostock for Greifswald to continue their work there, where Heinrich Rubenow took the chance of establishing his own university; the university consisted of the four traditional divisions: Theology, Philosophy and Law. In the late Middle Ages the University of Greifswald was one of the most important centers of science in the Duchy of Pomerania; the rest of Pomeranian schools - including these in Szczecin and Stargard - did not have the university status in this time. Nowadays in Germany, there are only three older universities by count of the years of existence: the University of Heidelberg, the University of Leipzig, the University of Rostock. International co-operation with other institutions of higher education in northern Europe existed in the earliest years and accelerated by the transnational trading network Hanse.

From 1456 until 1526, 476 Scandinavians were enrolled at Greifswald University and 22 faculty members as well as six rectors came from Scandinavia. This was a high percentage compared to the total number of students at the time. Sources suggest a segregated life of Swedish students in the German university though; the early sixteenth century saw significant co-operation of the university, the Lutheran church, the city and the Duchy of Pomerania. Professors of theology served as pastors in the three cathedrals. Professors of medicine served as personal physicians of the duke. Professors of law were working at the local courts while professors of the faculty of philosophy taught the sons and daughters of the ducal family; the landed nobility funded university-related purposes such as scholarships and student bursaries. The Reformation was introduced at the university in 1539. Johannes Bugenhagen, an alumnus of the university, was an important figure during the German and Scandinavian reformation as well as a good friend of Martin Luther.

After the secularisation of the monastery at Eldena near Greifswald, Duke Philipp I of Pomerania gave all revenue created by the now secularised Amt Eldena to the university. His successor, Duke Ernst Ludwig, began the construction of a college building, which could only be completed after his death. Duke Philipp Julius presented the university a gown, used by the rector on ceremonial occasions up until recently. In 1604, the Greifswald University Library became the first centralised university library in Germany; the university signed a contract with a book printer from Wittenberg, for the amount of 2,000 Gulden. This contract lasted nearly a century due to the disruption caused by the Thirty Years' War. Hence, the university now owns prestigious early prints of authors and printers such as Johannes Gutenberg or Thomas Thorild; the phrase cuius regio, eius religio as applied to the outcome of the Protestant Reformation is attributed to the early seventeenth century jurist Joachim Stephani of the University of Greifswald.

The Duke of Pomerania had not paid the professors. As a solution, he gave the Amt Eldena to the university – a total of 140 square kilometres of land. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 the western part of Pomerania, including Greifswald and its university, became a fief held by Sweden. 1806–1815 it was formally a part of Sweden. Without losing its character as a German university, it was influenced by Swedish educational policies until 1815. During the second half of the eighteenth century Greifswald was a cultural and scientific bridge between Germany and Sweden. More than 1,500 Swedes studied at Greifswald University; the first university course in the English language in Germany was held in Greifswald in the year 1777. The main administrative building – still in use today – was built during the "good old Swedish years" by Andreas Mayer, a mathematician by profession, in the style of North German Baroque; when Swedish Pomerania became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, the University of Greifswald became the oldest university on Prussian territory.

Prussia recognised the potential of science and universities, thus extensive building activity and gr

Extravagance (1930 film)

Extravagance is a 1930 pre-Code American film directed by Phil Rosen and released by Tiffany Pictures. Alice Kendall is the darling of her social set, the sons and daughters of millionaires, although Alice's mother has impoverished herself to provide Alice the luxuries she expects as her right. Mom blows what's left of her fortune to provide the best trousseau that money can buy when Alice marries Fred Garlan, wishes Fred lots of luck. Now, Alice is trying to coax Fred into buying her a new sable coat---all of her friends are sporting them---while Fred is busily trying to borrow enough money to keep his business afloat; the marriage business isn't working as Alice wants. She just doesn't know, but help is lurking just around the corner in the form of a sleaze-ball named Morrell. He's a stock-broker and he is a bachelor and he enjoys the benefits of married life by making available sable coats to little brides who are in dire need of one and whose husbands can't meet their needs. June Collyer as Alice Kendall Lloyd Hughes as Fred Garlan Owen Moore as Jim Hamilton Dorothy Christy as Esther Hamilton Jameson Thomas as Morrell Gwen Lee as Sally Robert Agnew as Billy Nella Walker as Mrs. Kendall Martha Mattox as Guest Arthur Hoyt as Guest Extravagance was released on Region 0 DVD-R by Alpha Video on January 28, 2014.

Extravagance on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie Extravagance is available for free download at the Internet Archive

Michael Davis (director)

Michael Davis is an American film director and screenwriter born in Rockville, Maryland. His films include the campy horror film Monster Man and action film Shoot'Em Up starring Clive Owen, Paul Giamatti, Monica Bellucci; as executive producer ENTV Minute The Lord of the Sands of Time As storyboard artist The Revenge of Al Capone Night Game The Cellar Tremors Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze Encino Man Live Wire Michael Davis on IMDb

99th Ohio Infantry

The 99th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 99th Ohio Infantry was organized at Camp Lima in Allen County and mustered in for three years service on August 26, 1862, under the command of Colonel Albert Longworthy; the regiment was recruited in Allen, Hancock, Putnam and Van Wert counties. The regiment was attached to 23rd Brigade, 5th Division, Army of the Ohio, September 1862. 23rd Brigade, 5th Division, II Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November 1862. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Left Wing, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January 1863. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XXIII Corps, Army of the Ohio, June 1864. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps, to August 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps, to December 1864. The 99th Ohio Infantry ceased to exist on December 31, 1864, when it was consolidated with the 50th Ohio Infantry.

Ordered to Lexington, Ky. August 31, thence moved to Ky.. September 3, thence to Covington, Ky. and to Louisville, Ky. September 17. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1–15. Battle of Perryville, Ky. October 8. March to Nashville, Tenn. October 16-November 7, duty there until December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro, Tenn. December 26–30. Battle of Stones River December 30–31, 1862 and January 1–3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. March to McMinnville, duty there until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19–20. Siege of Chattanooga September 24-November 23. Reopening Tennessee River October 26–29. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23–27. Orchard Knob November 23. Lookout Mountain November 23–24. Missionary Ridge November 25. Pigeon Hills November 26. Ringgold Gap, Taylor's Ridge, November 27. Camp at Shellmound until February, 1864. Demonstration on Dalton, Ga.

February 22–27. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap, Rocky Faced Ridge February 23–25. At Cleveland until May. Atlanta Campaign May 1-September 8. Tunnel Hill May 6–7. Demonstration on Rocky Raced Ridge May 8–11. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8–9. Demonstrations on Dalton May 9–13. Battle of Resaca May 14–15. Near Kingston May 18–19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22–25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11–14. Lost Mountain June 15–17. Muddy Creek June 17. Noyes Creek June 19. Kolb's Farm June 22. Assault on Kennesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2–5. Ruff's Mills July 3–4. Chattahoochie River July 5–17. Decatur July 19. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Utoy Creek August 5–7. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25–30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy's Station September 2–6. Pursuit of Hood into Alabama October 3–26. Nashville Campaign November–December.

Columbia, Duck River, November 24–27. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15–16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17–28; the regiment lost a total of 342 men during service. Colonel Albert Longworthy Colonel Peter T. Swaine Lieutenant Colonel John E. Cummins - commanded at the battles of Perryville, Stones River, Nashville List of Ohio Civil War units Ohio in the Civil War Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Early, Jacob. Letters Home: The Personal Side of the American Civil War, 1992. McCray, Kevin B. A Shouting of Orders: A History of the 99th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 2003. ISBN 1-4010-9761-8 OCLC 54889245 Ohio Roster Commission. Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War on the Rebellion, 1861–1865, Compiled Under the Direction of the Roster Commission, 1886-1895. Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, Soldiers, 1868. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H..

A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Ohio in the Civil War: 99th Ohio Volunteer Infantry by Larry Stevens National flag of the 99th Ohio Infantry

New Hampshire Outing Club

The New Hampshire Outing Club is the oldest and largest student organization at the University of New Hampshire in Durham. Founded in 1911, it has around 600 members; the club's focus has been hiking, which has gone as far to be called "peak bagging" as veteran members seek to summit all 48 4,000-footers in the White Mountains. The club is student-run, decisions for the club are made at weekly business meetings that are open to anyone in the club; the UNH Student Activity Fee covers most of the trips' costs. These funds have increased the club's membership by cutting out-of-pocket costs to students to a fraction of what they had been for much of the club's history; the NHOC offers two to three trips each weekend which include a variety of activities, such as canoeing, rock climbing, caving, skating, zip lining, paint balling, snowshoeing and cross-country skiing, backpacking and mountaineering. The club has led trips out to Utah and Nevada in the summer. Signups for each month's trips occur on the first Tuesday of every month in the Memorial Union Building.

The New Hampshire Outing Club owns two cabins in New Hampshire's White Mountains. Franconia Notch Cabin, or "Franky" as it is colloquially known, was built in the early 1900s, it suffered a propane explosion in 1957, causing the club to rebuild the cabin where it stands today in Franconia Notch State Park. The cabin operates on a special-use permit from the state of New Hampshire. Jackson Cabin is located in the northern fringes of Jackson, New Hampshire, a small resort town on the southern border of the White Mountain National Forest, it is only a few minutes' drive from the Presidential Range, which includes Mount Washington, the highest mountain in the Northeast. The club had rented out the cabins until 2014 when it was decided that this practice was too much of a liability; the club has built a newer post-and-beam construction cabin to replace the older Jackson Cabin. The new cabin was completed in September 2008. University of New Hampshire Outing club New Hampshire Outing Club website University of New Hampshire website

Corvette Stingray (concept car)

The Corvette Stingray Racer is a sports racing car and concept car that debuted in 1959. The car was developed in the styling studios at General Motors as a private project of Bill Mitchell, GM Vice President of styling, who financed the car's development; the design was based on a sketch by designer Pete Brock, was further developed by Larry Shinoda. The car influenced the styling of the second generation Corvette Sting Ray. In 1957 Mitchell attended the Turin Auto Show in Italy. While there he was impressed by a series of automobiles whose body shapes shared a strong horizontal bodyline encircling the car, four bulges or "blips" on the upper body, one above each wheel. Among these cars was the Abarth 750 Streamliner, as well as other Abarths, cars with bodies by Boano and Stanguellini. Influential was the Alfa Romeo Disco Volante several years old by the time of Mitchell's visit. In the mid to late 1950s, Ed Cole, General Manager for Chevrolet, initiated a project called the Q-Chevrolet, a defining feature of, to be a front-mounted engine and a rear-mounted transaxle.

The Corvette development team began working on a Q-Corvette. Mitchell showed pictures of cars seen on his Italian trip to his design team headed by Bob Veryzer to illustrate his goals for the shape of the Q-Corvette; the design was determined by an internal competition, won by a sketch done by Brock. Brock was tasked with developing his sketch into a complete design for a coupe, while designer Chuck Pohlmann was given the same assignment, but for a convertible. Brock's coupe was assigned project number XP-84, while Pohlmann's convertible was XP-96. While both were based on Brock's original sketch, the designs diverged in some details in addition to their different roof lines. Full-size clay models of both were built by modeler John Bird. At this time Larry Shinoda was brought in to refine the design, adding details that would be needed if the car went into production; as the Q-Corvette was being readied to be presented to GM's board of directors, Frederic Donner replaced Harlow Curtice as chairman of GM.

Donner's focus on improving profitability by cutting costs meant the end of expensive engineering projects. When the Q-Chevrolet project was cancelled, the Q-Corvette suffered the same fate; the 1957 Corvette SS racing sports car was created by a team of engineers headed by Zora Arkus-Duntov as part of an official Chevrolet race effort meant to culminate with the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Soon after its race debut at the 12 Hours of Sebring, where it retired after 23 laps, the Automobile Manufacturers Association banned manufacturer-sponsored racing, the SS was relegated to test track duty; the AMA racing ban notwithstanding, Mitchell was interested in building a new racing car, used a Corvette SS chassis as its base. Some references report that he bought the complete Corvette SS development mule for a just US$1. In interviews Shinoda and Mitchell both describe Mitchell buying a spare SS chassis for US$500, he estimated the value of the chassis at US$500,000. Duntov was unsuccessful. Inherited from the Corvette SS were the earlier car's tubular steel space frame chassis, 92 in wheelbase and 51.5 in front and rear track, front short/long arm suspension and rear De Dion tube located by two pairs of trailing arms with coil springs over tubular shocks front and rear and drum brakes mounted outboard in front and inboard in the rear.

The original Stingray engine appears to have been identical to the 283 cu in Chevrolet small-block V8 engine with aluminum cylinder heads, a Duntov profile solid-lifter camshaft, Rochester Ramjet fuel injection developed for the SS, but with an 11.0:1 compression ratio and higher power output. The transmission was a Borg Warner 4-speed T-10 manual in a lightweight aluminum case. In the rear was a Halibrand quick-change differential. Wheels were Halibrand magnesium pieces. Construction of the Stingray racer started in a small space at GM informally called the "Hammer Room", it was moved to a larger space that had once been Harley Earl's private file room. The car is considered the first product of Mitchell's Studio X, a small internal design studio he used for special projects, it introduced what came to be called the "Folded Crease" style that became a hallmark of Mitchell's designs through the 1960s. The body was based on the Q-Corvette XP-96 convertible. Shinoda headed up the effort to revise the shape and fit it to the Corvette SS chassis with its 92 in wheelbase.

The original body was made of 0.125 in fiberglass, with aluminum reinforcing and bonded in aluminum attachment hardware. Initial dry weight is reported to have been 2,154 lb 1,000 lb lighter than a 1960 production car; the car was complete in early 1959. Mitchell wanted to take the car racing, but was told that he would have to do it at his own expense, that the car could not carry any badging that associated it in any way with GM, Chevrolet or the Corvette name; the Stingray made its racing debut on 18 April 1959 at the Marlboro Motor Raceway near Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Engine power was reduced to a more reliable 280 hp. Driven by Dr. Dick Thompson it finished in fourth place overall, first in its class. During the 1959 racing season the front and rear sections were remade in thinner 0.060 in fiberglass, with balsa wood reinforcement. This allowed the panels to flex, it received a third lighter body. These weight reductions resulted in it weighing 2,360 lb wet. On the track the car's body was found to generate excessive aerodynamic lift.