The University of Kansas is a public research university with its main campus in Lawrence and several satellite campuses and educational centers, medical centers, classes across the state of Kansas. Two branch campuses are in the Kansas City metropolitan area on the Kansas side: the university's medical school and hospital in Kansas City, the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, a hospital and research center in the state's capital of Topeka. There are educational and research sites in Garden City, Leavenworth and Topeka, branches of the medical school in Salina and Wichita; the university is a member of the Association of American Universities. Founded March 21, 1865, the university was opened in 1866, under a charter granted by the Kansas State Legislature in 1864 and legislation passed in 1863 under the State Constitution, adopted two years after the 1861 admission of the former Kansas Territory as the 34th state into the Union. Disputes over Kansas' establishment as a free or slaveholding state prior to admission to the union prompted an internal civil war known as "Bleeding Kansas" during the 1850s.
Enrollment at the Lawrence and Edwards campuses was 28,401 students in 2016. The university overall employed 2,814 faculty members in fall 2015. Kansas's athletic teams compete in NCAA Division I sports as the Jayhawks, as members of the Big 12 Conference, they field 16 varsity sports, as well as club-level sports for ice hockey and men's volleyball. On February 20, 1863, Kansas Governor Thomas Carney signed into law a bill creating the state university in Lawrence; the law was conditioned upon a gift from Lawrence of a $15,000 endowment fund and a site for the university, in or near the town, of not less than forty acres of land. If Lawrence failed to meet these conditions, Emporia instead of Lawrence would get the university; the site selected for the university was a hill known as Mount Oread, donated by Charles L. Robinson, Republican governor of the state of Kansas from 1861 to 1863, one of the original settlers of Lawrence, Kansas. Robinson and his wife Sara bestowed the 40-acre site to the State of Kansas in exchange for land elsewhere.
The philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence donated $10,000 of the necessary endowment fund, the citizens of Lawrence raised the remaining money themselves via private donations. On November 2, 1863, Governor Carney announced Lawrence had met the conditions to get the state university, the following year the university was organized; the school's Board of Regents held its first meeting in March 1865, the event that KU dates its founding from. Work on the first college building began that year; the university opened for classes on September 12, 1866, the first class graduated in 1873. According to William L. Burdick, the first degree awarded by the university was a Doctor of Divinity, bestowed upon noted abolitionist preacher Richard Cordley. During World War II, Kansas was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. KU is home to the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, the Beach Center on Disability, Lied Center of Kansas and radio stations KJHK, 90.7 FM, KANU, 91.5 FM.
The university is host to several museums including the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and the Spencer Museum of Art. The libraries of the University include Watson Library, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, the Murphy Art and Architecture Library, Thomas Gorton Music & Dance Library, Anschutz Library. Of athletic note, the university is home to Allen Fieldhouse, heralded as one of the greatest basketball arenas in the world, David Booth Kansas Memorial Stadium, the eighth oldest college football stadium in the country; the University of Kansas is a state-sponsored university with five campuses. KU is a member of the Association of American Universities and it is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. KU features the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, which includes the School of the Arts and the School of Public Affairs & Administration; the university offers more than 345 degree programs.
In 2017 Johnson County accounted for most of instate enrollment. In its 2020 report, U. S. News & World Report ranked KU as tied for 130th place among National Universities and 59th place among public universities; the city management and urban policy program was ranked first in the nation, the special education program second, by U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings. USN&WR ranked several programs in the top 25 among U. S. universities. The University of Kansas School of Architecture and Design, with its main building being Marvin Hall, traces its architectural roots to the creation of the architectural engineering degree program in KU's School of Engineering in 1912; the Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1920. In 1969 the School of Architecture and Urban Design was formed with three programs: architecture, architectural engineering, urban planning. In 2001 architectural engineering merged with environmental engineering; the design programs from the discontinued School of Fine Arts were merged into the school in 2009 forming the School of Architecture and Planning with three departments.
Samuel Langford was an influential English music critic of the early twentieth century. Trained as a pianist, Langford became chief music critic of The Manchester Guardian in 1906, serving in that post until his death; as chief critic, he succeeded Ernest Newman and preceded Neville Cardus. Langford was born to an old Lancashire family in Withington, near Manchester, where his father was a market gardener. By the age of twenty Langford was an accomplished pianist and church organist, was sent to study in Leipzig with Carl Reinecke. Recognising that his short hands were unsuited to virtuoso pianism, Langford returned to Manchester, where he was engaged by The Manchester Guardian as deputy to Ernest Newman, whom he succeeded as chief music critic in 1906; the rest of Langford's career was spent in this post, based in Manchester, although he sometimes travelled to London to hear a new work in which he was interested, he never missed the big music festivals. Manchester was, in the early years of the twentieth century, an important musical city, with Hans Richter and the Hallé Orchestra at its centre.
Neville Cardus said of him: Langford reigned supreme in the music of the North of England.... Everybody knew him. Langford was a great man and a writer on music without parallel; the critic C. A. Lejeune wrote of him, "He was a musical perfectionist and great local character, his hobby was the cultivation of delphiniums... His Lancashire accent was as rich as a fine, fruity Eccles cake, his formal clothes were dark, his aggressive beard was white."As a trained concert pianist Langford retained a special fondness for the music of Chopin, he enjoyed Lieder by Schubert and Wolf, among his other loves were Mozart and Wagner. The Musical Times quoted with approval the comment of an obituarist: In everything he did he was original: in his thought, his speech, his writing. … Even good critics of music are apt at times to descend to the trite and conventional phrase, wearied by the frequent repetition of familiar works, to indulge in repetition themselves. Langford never did this, the reason was that he was never bored by listening to good music.
The music might be familiar to him, but it was never stale. Langford's music sympathies were broad, his colleagues observed, "A Gilbert and Sullivan opera, a newcomer making his first appearance … or an open rehearsal by students would set his musical imagination going … and he would clothe his thoughts about them in phrases so apt and spontaneous that sometimes it gave one a thrill to read them." Newman offended some of Langford's admirers by expressing the view that Langford was not a music critic but rather "an unusually attractive writer whose chief concern happened to be music", but Newman considered that at his best Langford "wrote in a way, without parallel in the criticism of this or any other time". Like his editor, C. P. Scott, Langford encouraged the young Cardus, who succeeded him as chief music critic. One of Cardus's first acts in his new post was to edit a collection of his predecessor's writings, published in 1929. Langford married Leslie Doig in 1913. There was one daughter of the marriage, born in 1918 as Brenda Milner, professor of neuropsychology at the Montreal Neurological Institute.
Langford died after a serious illness at the family home in Withington, aged 65. Brookes, Christopher, his Own Man: The Life of Neville Cardus. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-50940-6. Cardus, Neville. Samuel Langford: Music Criticisms. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 58839875. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Cardus, Neville. Autobiography. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-11286-1. Lejeune, C. A.. Thank You for Having Me. London: Hutchinson. OCLC 868425255
Dress boots are short leather boots worn by men. Built like dress shoes, but with uppers covering the ankle, versions of the boots are used as an alternative to these in bad weather or rough outdoor situation, as a traditional option for day time formalwear; until the end of the Victorian period, men did not wear shoes, preferring only boots during daytime and court slippers when eveningwear was worn. At that time, long riding boots were common and dress boots were for more formal occasions, so patent leather was used, as well as ordinary black calf; these boots became more common for formal evening use, so that by the Edwardian era, patent boots were worn when there would be no dancing. Patent leather use during day dropped, formal morning clothes soon incorporated either shoes or plain calf dress boots. In the evening, the wearing of both boots and court slippers declined as shoes came to dominate, though slippers are still worn with white tie; as the use of riding boots declined with the advent of cars, another use for these short boots developed as tougher alternatives to shoes for harsh weather or terrain, where hobnails would have been worn with sturdier versions of town boots.
Now that shoes are so much more common than boots, formal clothing is worn so infrequently, this is now the most frequent use of dress boots. With formalwear, dress boots are now only worn during the day, are now black Oxford boots of Balmoral cut; the upper is softer, made of canvas or suede. Alternatively, the same Balmoral vamp is used with a button-fastened upper instead of using the more modern system of shoe laces; the tolerance for fit with this kind of boot is less, so they are more expensive, though more traditional, a button-hook on the end of a shoehorn may be needed to do up the buttons. The traditional use of buff for the uppers is rare; the boots sometimes have toe-caps, which can feature a brogued seam, a reference to their original informal use for business. Although constructed to formal boots, casual or informal boots for harsher conditions sacrifice elegance for practicality, using double leather soles, or rubber ones; the uppers are made of the same strong leather as the vamp, tougher materials like cordovan may be used.
Walking boots in this style can have open lacing, broguing is used as on country shoes. The main colour is brown. Boots of this design were issued to the British and US armies in the 19th century: the US Civil War-era Jeff Davis boots had hobnails and the British ammunition boots remained in service until World War II. More boots of this style have seen a revival as part of the Neo-Edwardian fashion popular among British indie kids. Antongiavanni, Nicholas; the Suit: A Machiavellian Approach to Men's Style. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2. Croonborg, Frederick; the Blue Book of Men's Tailoring. New York and Chicago: Croonborg Sartorial Co